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The Roman World Takes
Shape
Section 1
Introduction
0 Rome began as a small city in Italy and became a ruler
of the Mediterranean and beyond
Roman Civilization Arises in
Italy
0 Unifying the Lands of Italy
0 Because of the Geography, Italy was easier to unify
then Greece
0It is not broken up and the mountains are not as strenuous
to cross
0 It has broad fertile lands as well and can support
growing populations
Roman Civilization Arises in
Italy
0 Early People Settle Italy
0 800 BCE
0The Latins settle Italy
0They settles along Tiber River
0 They grew in time to create serval villages and
cities
0Rome was the capital
Roman Civilization Arises in
Italy
0 Early People Settle Italy
0 They shared the Italian peninsula
0Greeks
0Etruscans
0 Lived on Northern Italy and some of central Italy
0 Learned a lot from them
0 Alphabet
0 Engineering techniques to drain marshy land
0 Adopted gods and goddesses
0Carthaginians
Romans Establish a Republic
0 Intro
0 Drove out the Etruscans by 509 BCE
0 Established a republic
0The people chose some of the officials
0Idea was that it would prevent any individual from gaining
too much power
Romans Establish a Republic
0 Structuring the Republic
0 Early Republic
0300 member
0Patricians
0 Members of the land holding upper class
0 Senators nominated two consuls
0Job was to supervise business of government and command
armies
0Can only serve one term
Romans Establish a Republic
0 Structuring the Republic
0 In war
0Senate might choose a dictator (ruler who has complete
control over a government)
0Had rule for only 6 months
0Cincinnatus
0 He was a farmer who became dictator twice to save the romans
Romans Establish a Republic
0 Plebeians Fight for Their Rights
0 Plebeians
0The farmers, merchants, and artisans who made up most of
the population
0Had legal rights as citizens but nothing else
0 Gained the right to elect their own officials
(tribunes)
0They had the power to veto (block) laws that they felt were
harmful
0 Fought to be members of the senate
0 Fought for a written Law
Romans Establish a Republic
0 Romans Leave a lasting Legacy
0 Framers of the US would adopt Roman ideas such
as the senate, the veto, and checks on political
power
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Introduction
0 Family was the basic unit of Roman society
0 The father
0Had absolute power
Characterizing Roman Society
0 The Role of Women changes over Time
0 Women played a larger role in society then it did
with the Greeks
0 Over the centuries, Roman women gained greater
freedom and influence
0Went to public baths
0Dined out
0Went to theater
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Romans Educate Most Children
0 Learned history
0 Politics
0 This was still mostly for the rich
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Roman Mythology and Religion
0 Were polytheists
0Belief of many gods and goddesses
0 Adopted much from the Greeks
0Jupiter
0 Ruled over the sky and other gods
0Juno- Jupiter's wife
0 Was the goddess that protected marriage
0Neptune
0 Was the god of the seas
Characterizing Roman Society
0 The Roman Republic Grows
0 Intro
0By 270 BCE, Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Citizen-Soldiers Make Up the Roman Army
0 Rome's success was based on its skillful diplomacy
and its well trained army
0 Legion- 5,000 men
0This was the basic military unit
0 Originally it was made up of Citizen soldiers
0The citizen fought and had to buy weapons
0The main payment was they shared the spoills of v ictory
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Citizen-Soldiers Make Up the Roman Army
0 There would also be harsh punishment
0If a unit fled from battle, one out of every 10 men would be
put to death
Characterizing Roman Society
0Rome is Just with Concurred lands
0 Generally treated defeated enemies with Justice
0 Concurred lands would have to acknowledge Roman
leadership, pay taxes, supply soldiers for the Roman
army
0In return they would be allowed to keep their customs,
money, and local government
0 Sometimes, Rome would offer partial citizenship to a
conquered people
0 Most conquered lands remained loyal
Characterizing Roman Society
0 Maintaining states
0 To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers
throughout the land
0 Built a network of military roads to link distant
territories
0Trade increased
0Language began to unify
0Cultures began to unify
0Italy began to unite under Roman rule
The Roman Republic Grows
0 Intro
0 By 270 BCE, Rome controlled most of the Italian
peninsula
From Republic to Empire
Section 2
Introduction
0 In a nutshell
0 Rome's vast expansion is what caused the Republic
to crumble
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 Intro
0 The Conquest of the Italian peninsula brought them
into contact with Carthage, a city state on the coast
of Northern Africa
0Ruled over an empire
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 Rome Fights Carthage in the Punic Wars
0 Punic Wars
0There were three
0 The wars lasted from 264 BCE-146 BCE
0 1st Punic War
0Rome Won
0 Took over Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 2nd Punic War
0 218 BCE Hannibal led his army through France, and over
the Alps into Italy
0 It was a surprise!
0The Romans were expecting a southern invasion
0Hannibal won battle after battle for 15 years.
0 Never attacked Rome
0 Rome decided to ignore him and attack Carthage itself
0Hannibal was forced to return home to defend-
0 He was defeated
0 Rome won this costly war
0Took overall the lands outside of Africa
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 3rd Punic War
0 Rome wanted revenge
0Completely destroyed Carthage
0 Survivors were killed or sold into slavery
0 Poured salt over the earth so that nothing would ever grow there again
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 Ruling over the Mediterranean
0 The Romans became the sole masters of the
Mediterranean sea
0It was also called the Roman lake
0 Rome was committed to a policy of imperialism-
establishing control over foreign lands and people
0While it fought the Carthaginians in the West, Romans
confronted the Hellenistic rulers in the east
0 Remember Alexander?
0 One by one, the Hellenized territories (even
Macedonia) fell to Rome
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 The Impact at Home
0 All the conquests and control of busy trade rought
brought incredible riches to Rome
0Generals and traders amassed fortunes
0 Latifundia- Huge farming estates
0These were created by wealthy families
0Needed slaves and forced people captured in war to do it
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0The Impact at Home
0In the last days of the republic around
a third of Italy's people lived in slavery
0Effects of slave labor
0Hurt the small farmers
0Could not compete with the larifundia who made cheap
produce
0They often fled to the cities to look for work
0 Rome was filled with poor and angry people
0 There was rampant corruption
Rome Grows Through
Conquest
0 Making attempts at Reform
0 Two young plebeians named Tiberius and Gaius
Gracchus
0Tiberius
0 Elected a tribune in 133 BC
0 Distribute land to poor farmer
0Gaius
0 Elected a tribune to make even more reform
0 The senate did not like the power they began to
amass
0They and thousands of their followers were killed.
The Roman Republic Declines
0 Intro
0 Rome had a lot of problems that it couldn't solve
0 Since many people had power, people began to fight!
0CIVIL WAR HOMIES!!!!!!
0SLAVE UPRISINGS!!!
0DEATH!!!!!
0BLOOD!!!!
0LOOTING!!!!
The Roman Republic Declines
0 Julius Caesar the Dictator
0 Out of the chaos Julius Caesar rose
0Was an ambitious military commander
0Dominated Roman Politics
0 Pompey
0Was another brilliant General and also dominated Roman
Politics
The Roman Republic Declines
0 Julius Caesar the Dictator
0 Julius Caesar
0In 58 BCE set out with his army on a conquest
0 He took over the land of the Gaul's
0Pompey was nervous about his army and got the senate to
back him
0 Julius Caesar wasn't having it
0 They fought and Pompey was crushed
0Forced the senate to make him dictator
The Roman Republic Declines
0 Julius Caesar the Dictator
0 Julius Caesar
0In 58 BCE set out with his army on a conquest
0 He took over the land of the Gaul's
0Pompey was nervous about his army and got the senate to
back him
0 Julius Caesar wasn't having it
0 They fought and Pompey was crushed
0Forced the senate to make him dictator
The Roman Republic Declines
0 Caesar makes Reforms
0 Between 48 BCE and 44 BCE there were numerous
reforms
0Public works
0 Created jobs for the poor
0Granted citizenship to more people
0Introduced a new calendar
The Roman Republic Declines
0CAESAR KILLED!!!! MORE WAR!!!!
0He was assassinated by senators
0Stabbed to death
0More civil war
0His friends wanted to hunt down his
enemies
0Mark Antony and Octavian
0 They won and then they fought each other with Octavian
being the victor
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0 Intro
0 The Senate gave the triumphant Octavian the title
Augustus
0Means exalted one
0Exercised Absolute Power
0 Augustus ruled until 14 AD
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0 Augustus Builds a Stable Government
0 He laid the foundation for a stable government
0 Left the senate in place
0 Created efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce its
laws
0 Undertook economic reforms
0 Ordered a census (population count) to make taxes more fair
0 Set up a postal service
0 Issued new currency
0 The government would function well for 200 years
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0Emperors Vary
0Not all Augustus' successors were great
0Weak ones
0Caligula and Nero
0 Were considered evil and even insane
0 Nero persecuted Christians
0Good Emperors
0Lasted between 96 CE and 180 CE
0Hadrian
0 Codified Roman law making it the same for all providences
0 Built a wall across Britain to hold back atters from the non-Roman
North
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0 Pax Romana
0 The Pax Romana "Roman Peace"
0It is the 200 year span that began with Agustus and ended
with Marcus Aurelius
0 Achievements
0Roman Legions maintained peace
0Roman fleets chases off pirates
0Much trade
0Knowledge Sharing
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0 The Distraction of Entertainment
0 Circus Maximus
0Rome's largest racecourse
0It was a chariot race
0Many people bet
0 Gladiator matches
0Most popular
0Slaves were taught to fight
0If a gladiator made a poor showing, then sometimes the
crowd wanted them dead
The Age of the Roman Empire
Dawns
0 The Distraction of Entertainment
0 Entertainment was often a successful way to keep
the masses in line
0It distracted them from their problems
The Rise of Christianity
Sec 4
Introduction
0 Remember the pax romana?
0 What is it?
0 A New Religion began to rise
0 Christianity arose in one of the cornors of the
empire
0 By 380-390 CE Christianity became the offical
religion of the empire
0 It reshaped the Roman empire
0 After the fall of Rome, The Christian faith became the
leader of the world for over 1,000 years
The Early Empire has Diverse
Religions
0 Rome Tolerates Diversity
0 Mystery Religions
0These were religions with that had secret rituals and only a
few followed
0Some would devote themselves to a specific god or goddess
0 As long as citizens of the empire showed loyalty by
honoring Roman gods and acknowledging the
divine spirit of the empire, the people were allowed
to believe what they wanted
The Early Empire has Diverse
Religions
0 Divisions in Judea
0 In 63 BCE Rome had firm control of Jerusalem
0They allowed them to practice their monotheism
0 Some Jews conformed to Roman ideas, however,
there were others who rejected
0These people were called zelots
0 Many were looking for a messiah- the annointed
king osent by God
0They thought he would lead their people
The Early Empire has Diverse
Religions
0 Jewish Rebellions
0 66 AD Jews rebelled
0They were crushed in 4 years
0 Jews rebelled again later
0Romans burned down the city and destroyed the temple
Jesus Proclaims his Teaching
0 Intro
0 The rise of Christianity began among followers of a
certain person named Jesus
0He was Jewish
0 The life of Jesus is told in the New Testament of the
Christian Bible
0Mathew
0Mark
0Luke
0John
Jesus Proclaims his Teaching
0Jesus Begins Preaching
0Jesus was born around 4 BCE
0According to the Gospels (Matthew, Mark,
Luke, and John) here are some instances of
Jesus' life
0Jesus was born to a woman named Mary
0Jesus worshiped 1 God and followed
Jewish law
0Jesus would teach amongst huge crowds
0He used Parables- short stories with simple moral ideas
0He performed miracles
Jesus Proclaims his Teaching
0Jesus teaches new beliefs
0Jesus did teach about following Jewish law,
he also taught new ideas as well
0Radical ideas
0Jesus called himself The Son of God
0He claimed that his mission was to bring spiritual
salvation and eternal life to anyone who believed
in him
Jesus Proclaims his Teaching
0 Jesus teaches new beliefs
0 Other ideas
0Emphasized God's love
0Taught the need for justice
Jesus Proclaims his Teaching
0 Condemned to Death
0 According to the Gospels
0Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples
0Jesus died by Crucifixion
0Rumors speak that Jesus rose from the dead
0Then he taught that people
0This became one of the central beliefs of Christianity.
The Message of Christianity
Spreads
0 Intro
0 After Jesus' death, the message and life of Jesus was
spread by his disciples
0 They began to preach to the Jewish community
around the known world
0 According to tradition, the Apostle Peter set up
Christianity in Rome
The Message of Christianity
Spreads
0 Paul Spreads Christianity
0 Paul- a Jew from Asia minor, played the most
influential role in spreading Christianity
0He had never met Jesus
0He was actually one of the persecutors
0 He had a vision of Jesus appearing to him and he
converted
0 He traveled all throughout Greece and Asia Minor
discussing difficult teachings and emphasizing
Jesus
The Message of Christianity
Spreads
0 Paul Spreads Christianity
0 He traveled all throughout Greece and Asia Minor
discussing difficult teachings and emphasizing
Jesus sacrificing his life for the love of humanity
0 He wrote letters and it became a part of the New
Testament
Christians are Oppressed
0 Rome's religious tolerance was not extended to
Christians
0 They believed that they were not loyal because they
refused to offer sacrifices to the emperor or to
Roman deities
0 There were often rumors of Christians evil practices.
Christians are Oppressed
0 Ways they were persecuted
0 Scapegoated
0 Death
0 Torture
0 They often became martyrs
0 People who suffer or die for their beliefs
The Message Appeals to Many
0 Even though persecution happened, Christianity
spread throughout the world
0 Christianity welcomed all people,
0 Poor
0 Sick
0 Rich
0 The oppressed
The Message Appeals to Many
0 People found equality
0 Persecution even brought new converts
0 Watching someone willing to die for the beliefs is
powerful
Rome Embraces Christianity
0 Christian persecution ended in 313 AD when the
emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan
0 It granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the
Roman empire
0 Emperor Theodosius
0 Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman
empire and repressed the practice of other faiths
The Early Church Develops
0 Joining the Church
0 To join the church a person had to be baptized or
blessed with holy water
0Through this people were believed to be forgiven
0 In early church communities women served as
teachers and administrators
0Later they were barred from any official role in the Church
The Early Church Develops
0 Structuring the Clergy
0 Clergy- a group of people who conduct Christian
services
0Could only be men
0 Diocese- each Christian community and it's clergy
as a group
The Early Church Develops
0 Structuring the Clergy
0 Bishop
0A high Church official responsible for everyone in his
diocese
0Traced their spiritual authority back to the disciples
0 Patriarch
0An honorary title and they exercised authority over other
bishops in their area
The Early Church Develops
0Differences arise with the Church
0There soon was rivalry among patriarchs
0Latin West
0 Bishops of Rome were called popes
0 They began to claim authority over all other bishops
0Greek East
0 This is where 4 of the 5 patriarchs lived
0 Believed that there should be a sharing of power
0Heresy emerged
0Beliefs that are said to be contrary to offical
church teachings
The Early Church Develops
0 Scholars Further Define Christianity
0 Theology
0Its s a Greek work that means "talk or discourse about God"
0 There were numerous scholars in the early Church
0Clement
0Origen
The Long Decline of Rome
Section 5
The Roman Empire Divides
0 Intro
0 After Marcus' Aurelius' death in 180. the Roman
empire entered into turmoil
0 Political Violence Becomes Common
0 It was a common occurrence that Roman emperors
would be overthrown by politicians or generals
who had support from their military
0 In 50 years, there at least 26 Emperors
The Roman Empire Divides
0 Social and Economic Problems arise
0 High taxes to support the army
0Hurt the small business owners and shop keepers
0 Poor farmers often left their land
The Roman Empire Divides
0Emperor Diocletian Shares Power
0284 CE Diocletian
0Wanted to restore power
0He had a huge empire
0Divided it into two parts-
0East
0 Rule by him
0West
0 Ruled by Co-Emperor Maximian
The Roman Empire Divides
0 Emperor Diocletian Shares Power
0 Diocletian tried to stop inflation (Rapid rise of
prices)
0Fixed the prices of certain goods
0 He forced farmers to stay on their land
0 Sons were required to follow their father's
occupations
The Roman Empire Divides
0 Emperor Constantine Makes Further Reforms
0 312 AD Constantine took the throne
0Was a talented General
0 Granted Toleration of Christians
0 Established the new capital at the city of Byzantium
0He renamed it Constantinople
The Roman Empire Divides
0 Improvements proved to be temporary
0 The reforms of Constantine and Diocentine worked
for about 100 years, but it was not able to stop the
long decline
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 Intro
0 Rome has always faced attacks from the German
people from the east of the Rhine
0 When Rome was powerful, t hey were able to hold
them back
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 Migrating Nomads Attack
0 200 CE
0There were numerous wars in Asia that would eventually
overwhelm Rome in the West
0They sent nomadic people, the Huns, migrating from
central Asia toward eastern Europe
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 370 CE
0 Huns went into Europe
0 They were skilled fighters
0 Great horsemen
0 The Huns pushed the Germans further into Roman
territory
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 Rome was hard Pressed
0 Surrendered Britain
0 France
0 Spain
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 Rome is Sacked
0 Roman Army tried to push back. But they kept
loosing
0 Alaric The Visigoth
0Overran Italy and sacked Rome in 410 CE
0 Vandals
0Took over Spain and even parts of North Africa
Invaders Threaten the
Romans
0 ATTILA THE HUN!!
0 In 434 CE he began to lead a savage campaign of
conquest over much of Europe
0Romans believed it was divine punishment for their sins
0 Odoacer the German
0 In 476 CE ousted the emperor in Rome
Many Problems Cause Rome
to Fall
0 Military Attacks
0 There were just so many that Rome could not fight
them all
0 Romans lacked discipline and training because of
the constant loss of soldiers
0 They had to hire mercenaries (foreign soldiers)
Many Problems Cause Rome
to Fall
0 Political Turmoil
0 Government became more oppressive and
authoritarian
0 Frequent Civil Wars
0 Economic Weakness
0 There were numerous economic problems
Many Problems Cause Rome
to Fall
0 Social Decay
0 People were more focused on social plesures then
patriotism
0 In the past
0Politics was geared towards Rome survival
Many Problems Cause Rome
to Fall
0 Did Rome Really fall?
0 Not really
0In The West the city Fell, but the culture survived for a few
centuries
0The Catholic church kept much of the Roman Traditions
alive
0 In the East
0The Eastern Empire was in a Golden Age
0They survived another 1000 years

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Ancient Rome

  • 1.
  • 2. The Roman World Takes Shape Section 1
  • 3.
  • 4. Introduction 0 Rome began as a small city in Italy and became a ruler of the Mediterranean and beyond
  • 5. Roman Civilization Arises in Italy 0 Unifying the Lands of Italy 0 Because of the Geography, Italy was easier to unify then Greece 0It is not broken up and the mountains are not as strenuous to cross 0 It has broad fertile lands as well and can support growing populations
  • 6.
  • 7. Roman Civilization Arises in Italy 0 Early People Settle Italy 0 800 BCE 0The Latins settle Italy 0They settles along Tiber River 0 They grew in time to create serval villages and cities 0Rome was the capital
  • 8.
  • 9. Roman Civilization Arises in Italy 0 Early People Settle Italy 0 They shared the Italian peninsula 0Greeks 0Etruscans 0 Lived on Northern Italy and some of central Italy 0 Learned a lot from them 0 Alphabet 0 Engineering techniques to drain marshy land 0 Adopted gods and goddesses 0Carthaginians
  • 10. Romans Establish a Republic 0 Intro 0 Drove out the Etruscans by 509 BCE 0 Established a republic 0The people chose some of the officials 0Idea was that it would prevent any individual from gaining too much power
  • 11. Romans Establish a Republic 0 Structuring the Republic 0 Early Republic 0300 member 0Patricians 0 Members of the land holding upper class 0 Senators nominated two consuls 0Job was to supervise business of government and command armies 0Can only serve one term
  • 12. Romans Establish a Republic 0 Structuring the Republic 0 In war 0Senate might choose a dictator (ruler who has complete control over a government) 0Had rule for only 6 months 0Cincinnatus 0 He was a farmer who became dictator twice to save the romans
  • 13. Romans Establish a Republic 0 Plebeians Fight for Their Rights 0 Plebeians 0The farmers, merchants, and artisans who made up most of the population 0Had legal rights as citizens but nothing else 0 Gained the right to elect their own officials (tribunes) 0They had the power to veto (block) laws that they felt were harmful 0 Fought to be members of the senate 0 Fought for a written Law
  • 14. Romans Establish a Republic 0 Romans Leave a lasting Legacy 0 Framers of the US would adopt Roman ideas such as the senate, the veto, and checks on political power
  • 15. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Introduction 0 Family was the basic unit of Roman society 0 The father 0Had absolute power
  • 16. Characterizing Roman Society 0 The Role of Women changes over Time 0 Women played a larger role in society then it did with the Greeks 0 Over the centuries, Roman women gained greater freedom and influence 0Went to public baths 0Dined out 0Went to theater
  • 17. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Romans Educate Most Children 0 Learned history 0 Politics 0 This was still mostly for the rich
  • 18. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Roman Mythology and Religion 0 Were polytheists 0Belief of many gods and goddesses 0 Adopted much from the Greeks 0Jupiter 0 Ruled over the sky and other gods 0Juno- Jupiter's wife 0 Was the goddess that protected marriage 0Neptune 0 Was the god of the seas
  • 19. Characterizing Roman Society 0 The Roman Republic Grows 0 Intro 0By 270 BCE, Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula
  • 20.
  • 21. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Citizen-Soldiers Make Up the Roman Army 0 Rome's success was based on its skillful diplomacy and its well trained army 0 Legion- 5,000 men 0This was the basic military unit 0 Originally it was made up of Citizen soldiers 0The citizen fought and had to buy weapons 0The main payment was they shared the spoills of v ictory
  • 22. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Citizen-Soldiers Make Up the Roman Army 0 There would also be harsh punishment 0If a unit fled from battle, one out of every 10 men would be put to death
  • 23. Characterizing Roman Society 0Rome is Just with Concurred lands 0 Generally treated defeated enemies with Justice 0 Concurred lands would have to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, supply soldiers for the Roman army 0In return they would be allowed to keep their customs, money, and local government 0 Sometimes, Rome would offer partial citizenship to a conquered people 0 Most conquered lands remained loyal
  • 24. Characterizing Roman Society 0 Maintaining states 0 To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers throughout the land 0 Built a network of military roads to link distant territories 0Trade increased 0Language began to unify 0Cultures began to unify 0Italy began to unite under Roman rule
  • 25. The Roman Republic Grows 0 Intro 0 By 270 BCE, Rome controlled most of the Italian peninsula
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. From Republic to Empire Section 2
  • 29. Introduction 0 In a nutshell 0 Rome's vast expansion is what caused the Republic to crumble
  • 30.
  • 31. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 Intro 0 The Conquest of the Italian peninsula brought them into contact with Carthage, a city state on the coast of Northern Africa 0Ruled over an empire
  • 32.
  • 33. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 Rome Fights Carthage in the Punic Wars 0 Punic Wars 0There were three 0 The wars lasted from 264 BCE-146 BCE 0 1st Punic War 0Rome Won 0 Took over Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
  • 34.
  • 35. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 2nd Punic War 0 218 BCE Hannibal led his army through France, and over the Alps into Italy 0 It was a surprise! 0The Romans were expecting a southern invasion 0Hannibal won battle after battle for 15 years. 0 Never attacked Rome 0 Rome decided to ignore him and attack Carthage itself 0Hannibal was forced to return home to defend- 0 He was defeated 0 Rome won this costly war 0Took overall the lands outside of Africa
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 3rd Punic War 0 Rome wanted revenge 0Completely destroyed Carthage 0 Survivors were killed or sold into slavery 0 Poured salt over the earth so that nothing would ever grow there again
  • 39. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 Ruling over the Mediterranean 0 The Romans became the sole masters of the Mediterranean sea 0It was also called the Roman lake 0 Rome was committed to a policy of imperialism- establishing control over foreign lands and people 0While it fought the Carthaginians in the West, Romans confronted the Hellenistic rulers in the east 0 Remember Alexander? 0 One by one, the Hellenized territories (even Macedonia) fell to Rome
  • 40.
  • 41. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 The Impact at Home 0 All the conquests and control of busy trade rought brought incredible riches to Rome 0Generals and traders amassed fortunes 0 Latifundia- Huge farming estates 0These were created by wealthy families 0Needed slaves and forced people captured in war to do it
  • 42. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0The Impact at Home 0In the last days of the republic around a third of Italy's people lived in slavery 0Effects of slave labor 0Hurt the small farmers 0Could not compete with the larifundia who made cheap produce 0They often fled to the cities to look for work 0 Rome was filled with poor and angry people 0 There was rampant corruption
  • 43. Rome Grows Through Conquest 0 Making attempts at Reform 0 Two young plebeians named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus 0Tiberius 0 Elected a tribune in 133 BC 0 Distribute land to poor farmer 0Gaius 0 Elected a tribune to make even more reform 0 The senate did not like the power they began to amass 0They and thousands of their followers were killed.
  • 44. The Roman Republic Declines 0 Intro 0 Rome had a lot of problems that it couldn't solve 0 Since many people had power, people began to fight! 0CIVIL WAR HOMIES!!!!!! 0SLAVE UPRISINGS!!! 0DEATH!!!!! 0BLOOD!!!! 0LOOTING!!!!
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. The Roman Republic Declines 0 Julius Caesar the Dictator 0 Out of the chaos Julius Caesar rose 0Was an ambitious military commander 0Dominated Roman Politics 0 Pompey 0Was another brilliant General and also dominated Roman Politics
  • 48. The Roman Republic Declines 0 Julius Caesar the Dictator 0 Julius Caesar 0In 58 BCE set out with his army on a conquest 0 He took over the land of the Gaul's 0Pompey was nervous about his army and got the senate to back him 0 Julius Caesar wasn't having it 0 They fought and Pompey was crushed 0Forced the senate to make him dictator
  • 49.
  • 50. The Roman Republic Declines 0 Julius Caesar the Dictator 0 Julius Caesar 0In 58 BCE set out with his army on a conquest 0 He took over the land of the Gaul's 0Pompey was nervous about his army and got the senate to back him 0 Julius Caesar wasn't having it 0 They fought and Pompey was crushed 0Forced the senate to make him dictator
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. The Roman Republic Declines 0 Caesar makes Reforms 0 Between 48 BCE and 44 BCE there were numerous reforms 0Public works 0 Created jobs for the poor 0Granted citizenship to more people 0Introduced a new calendar
  • 54. The Roman Republic Declines 0CAESAR KILLED!!!! MORE WAR!!!! 0He was assassinated by senators 0Stabbed to death 0More civil war 0His friends wanted to hunt down his enemies 0Mark Antony and Octavian 0 They won and then they fought each other with Octavian being the victor
  • 55.
  • 56. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0 Intro 0 The Senate gave the triumphant Octavian the title Augustus 0Means exalted one 0Exercised Absolute Power 0 Augustus ruled until 14 AD
  • 57.
  • 58. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0 Augustus Builds a Stable Government 0 He laid the foundation for a stable government 0 Left the senate in place 0 Created efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce its laws 0 Undertook economic reforms 0 Ordered a census (population count) to make taxes more fair 0 Set up a postal service 0 Issued new currency 0 The government would function well for 200 years
  • 59. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0Emperors Vary 0Not all Augustus' successors were great 0Weak ones 0Caligula and Nero 0 Were considered evil and even insane 0 Nero persecuted Christians 0Good Emperors 0Lasted between 96 CE and 180 CE 0Hadrian 0 Codified Roman law making it the same for all providences 0 Built a wall across Britain to hold back atters from the non-Roman North
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0 Pax Romana 0 The Pax Romana "Roman Peace" 0It is the 200 year span that began with Agustus and ended with Marcus Aurelius 0 Achievements 0Roman Legions maintained peace 0Roman fleets chases off pirates 0Much trade 0Knowledge Sharing
  • 65. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0 The Distraction of Entertainment 0 Circus Maximus 0Rome's largest racecourse 0It was a chariot race 0Many people bet 0 Gladiator matches 0Most popular 0Slaves were taught to fight 0If a gladiator made a poor showing, then sometimes the crowd wanted them dead
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74. The Age of the Roman Empire Dawns 0 The Distraction of Entertainment 0 Entertainment was often a successful way to keep the masses in line 0It distracted them from their problems
  • 75. The Rise of Christianity Sec 4
  • 76. Introduction 0 Remember the pax romana? 0 What is it? 0 A New Religion began to rise 0 Christianity arose in one of the cornors of the empire 0 By 380-390 CE Christianity became the offical religion of the empire 0 It reshaped the Roman empire 0 After the fall of Rome, The Christian faith became the leader of the world for over 1,000 years
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79. The Early Empire has Diverse Religions 0 Rome Tolerates Diversity 0 Mystery Religions 0These were religions with that had secret rituals and only a few followed 0Some would devote themselves to a specific god or goddess 0 As long as citizens of the empire showed loyalty by honoring Roman gods and acknowledging the divine spirit of the empire, the people were allowed to believe what they wanted
  • 80. The Early Empire has Diverse Religions 0 Divisions in Judea 0 In 63 BCE Rome had firm control of Jerusalem 0They allowed them to practice their monotheism 0 Some Jews conformed to Roman ideas, however, there were others who rejected 0These people were called zelots 0 Many were looking for a messiah- the annointed king osent by God 0They thought he would lead their people
  • 81. The Early Empire has Diverse Religions 0 Jewish Rebellions 0 66 AD Jews rebelled 0They were crushed in 4 years 0 Jews rebelled again later 0Romans burned down the city and destroyed the temple
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85. Jesus Proclaims his Teaching 0 Intro 0 The rise of Christianity began among followers of a certain person named Jesus 0He was Jewish 0 The life of Jesus is told in the New Testament of the Christian Bible 0Mathew 0Mark 0Luke 0John
  • 86. Jesus Proclaims his Teaching 0Jesus Begins Preaching 0Jesus was born around 4 BCE 0According to the Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) here are some instances of Jesus' life 0Jesus was born to a woman named Mary 0Jesus worshiped 1 God and followed Jewish law 0Jesus would teach amongst huge crowds 0He used Parables- short stories with simple moral ideas 0He performed miracles
  • 87. Jesus Proclaims his Teaching 0Jesus teaches new beliefs 0Jesus did teach about following Jewish law, he also taught new ideas as well 0Radical ideas 0Jesus called himself The Son of God 0He claimed that his mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life to anyone who believed in him
  • 88. Jesus Proclaims his Teaching 0 Jesus teaches new beliefs 0 Other ideas 0Emphasized God's love 0Taught the need for justice
  • 89. Jesus Proclaims his Teaching 0 Condemned to Death 0 According to the Gospels 0Jesus was betrayed by one of his disciples 0Jesus died by Crucifixion 0Rumors speak that Jesus rose from the dead 0Then he taught that people 0This became one of the central beliefs of Christianity.
  • 90.
  • 91. The Message of Christianity Spreads 0 Intro 0 After Jesus' death, the message and life of Jesus was spread by his disciples 0 They began to preach to the Jewish community around the known world 0 According to tradition, the Apostle Peter set up Christianity in Rome
  • 92. The Message of Christianity Spreads 0 Paul Spreads Christianity 0 Paul- a Jew from Asia minor, played the most influential role in spreading Christianity 0He had never met Jesus 0He was actually one of the persecutors 0 He had a vision of Jesus appearing to him and he converted 0 He traveled all throughout Greece and Asia Minor discussing difficult teachings and emphasizing Jesus
  • 93. The Message of Christianity Spreads 0 Paul Spreads Christianity 0 He traveled all throughout Greece and Asia Minor discussing difficult teachings and emphasizing Jesus sacrificing his life for the love of humanity 0 He wrote letters and it became a part of the New Testament
  • 94.
  • 95. Christians are Oppressed 0 Rome's religious tolerance was not extended to Christians 0 They believed that they were not loyal because they refused to offer sacrifices to the emperor or to Roman deities 0 There were often rumors of Christians evil practices.
  • 96. Christians are Oppressed 0 Ways they were persecuted 0 Scapegoated 0 Death 0 Torture 0 They often became martyrs 0 People who suffer or die for their beliefs
  • 97.
  • 98. The Message Appeals to Many 0 Even though persecution happened, Christianity spread throughout the world 0 Christianity welcomed all people, 0 Poor 0 Sick 0 Rich 0 The oppressed
  • 99. The Message Appeals to Many 0 People found equality 0 Persecution even brought new converts 0 Watching someone willing to die for the beliefs is powerful
  • 100. Rome Embraces Christianity 0 Christian persecution ended in 313 AD when the emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan 0 It granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman empire 0 Emperor Theodosius 0 Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire and repressed the practice of other faiths
  • 101.
  • 102. The Early Church Develops 0 Joining the Church 0 To join the church a person had to be baptized or blessed with holy water 0Through this people were believed to be forgiven 0 In early church communities women served as teachers and administrators 0Later they were barred from any official role in the Church
  • 103.
  • 104. The Early Church Develops 0 Structuring the Clergy 0 Clergy- a group of people who conduct Christian services 0Could only be men 0 Diocese- each Christian community and it's clergy as a group
  • 105. The Early Church Develops 0 Structuring the Clergy 0 Bishop 0A high Church official responsible for everyone in his diocese 0Traced their spiritual authority back to the disciples 0 Patriarch 0An honorary title and they exercised authority over other bishops in their area
  • 106. The Early Church Develops 0Differences arise with the Church 0There soon was rivalry among patriarchs 0Latin West 0 Bishops of Rome were called popes 0 They began to claim authority over all other bishops 0Greek East 0 This is where 4 of the 5 patriarchs lived 0 Believed that there should be a sharing of power 0Heresy emerged 0Beliefs that are said to be contrary to offical church teachings
  • 107. The Early Church Develops 0 Scholars Further Define Christianity 0 Theology 0Its s a Greek work that means "talk or discourse about God" 0 There were numerous scholars in the early Church 0Clement 0Origen
  • 108. The Long Decline of Rome Section 5
  • 109. The Roman Empire Divides 0 Intro 0 After Marcus' Aurelius' death in 180. the Roman empire entered into turmoil 0 Political Violence Becomes Common 0 It was a common occurrence that Roman emperors would be overthrown by politicians or generals who had support from their military 0 In 50 years, there at least 26 Emperors
  • 110. The Roman Empire Divides 0 Social and Economic Problems arise 0 High taxes to support the army 0Hurt the small business owners and shop keepers 0 Poor farmers often left their land
  • 111. The Roman Empire Divides 0Emperor Diocletian Shares Power 0284 CE Diocletian 0Wanted to restore power 0He had a huge empire 0Divided it into two parts- 0East 0 Rule by him 0West 0 Ruled by Co-Emperor Maximian
  • 112.
  • 113. The Roman Empire Divides 0 Emperor Diocletian Shares Power 0 Diocletian tried to stop inflation (Rapid rise of prices) 0Fixed the prices of certain goods 0 He forced farmers to stay on their land 0 Sons were required to follow their father's occupations
  • 114. The Roman Empire Divides 0 Emperor Constantine Makes Further Reforms 0 312 AD Constantine took the throne 0Was a talented General 0 Granted Toleration of Christians 0 Established the new capital at the city of Byzantium 0He renamed it Constantinople
  • 115. The Roman Empire Divides 0 Improvements proved to be temporary 0 The reforms of Constantine and Diocentine worked for about 100 years, but it was not able to stop the long decline
  • 116. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 Intro 0 Rome has always faced attacks from the German people from the east of the Rhine 0 When Rome was powerful, t hey were able to hold them back
  • 117. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 Migrating Nomads Attack 0 200 CE 0There were numerous wars in Asia that would eventually overwhelm Rome in the West 0They sent nomadic people, the Huns, migrating from central Asia toward eastern Europe
  • 118.
  • 119. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 370 CE 0 Huns went into Europe 0 They were skilled fighters 0 Great horsemen 0 The Huns pushed the Germans further into Roman territory
  • 120.
  • 121. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 Rome was hard Pressed 0 Surrendered Britain 0 France 0 Spain
  • 122. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 Rome is Sacked 0 Roman Army tried to push back. But they kept loosing 0 Alaric The Visigoth 0Overran Italy and sacked Rome in 410 CE 0 Vandals 0Took over Spain and even parts of North Africa
  • 123.
  • 124. Invaders Threaten the Romans 0 ATTILA THE HUN!! 0 In 434 CE he began to lead a savage campaign of conquest over much of Europe 0Romans believed it was divine punishment for their sins 0 Odoacer the German 0 In 476 CE ousted the emperor in Rome
  • 125. Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall 0 Military Attacks 0 There were just so many that Rome could not fight them all 0 Romans lacked discipline and training because of the constant loss of soldiers 0 They had to hire mercenaries (foreign soldiers)
  • 126. Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall 0 Political Turmoil 0 Government became more oppressive and authoritarian 0 Frequent Civil Wars 0 Economic Weakness 0 There were numerous economic problems
  • 127. Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall 0 Social Decay 0 People were more focused on social plesures then patriotism 0 In the past 0Politics was geared towards Rome survival
  • 128. Many Problems Cause Rome to Fall 0 Did Rome Really fall? 0 Not really 0In The West the city Fell, but the culture survived for a few centuries 0The Catholic church kept much of the Roman Traditions alive 0 In the East 0The Eastern Empire was in a Golden Age 0They survived another 1000 years