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Ancient Greece
THE EARLY PEOPLE OF THE
AEGEAN
Section 1
Introduction
• Crete: The Cradle of Civilization
• Crete helped spread ideas from east to west and it was a
bed of cultural ideas
Minoan Trade and
Propserity
• Intro
• Crete
• It was home to a very early civilization that was brilliant
• Unsure of what they called themselves
• The Minoans
• Was at its height and greatest success between 1600 BCE and
1500 BCE
• Success was based on trade and not conquest
• They had science
• Writing
• Architecture
Minoan Art at Knossos
• Knossos was the Minoan capital city
• The palace of Knossos
• Housed rooms for family
• Banquet halls
• Working areas
• Religious Shrines
• (areas dedicated to honor of gods and goddesses)
Minoan Art at Knossos
• The palace of Knossos
• On the walls there were colorful frescoes
• Watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
• Tell us a lot about the society
• Women appeared freely in public
• Garden life
• Women rights
Minoan Civilization
Disapears
• 1400 BCE it seems to have vanished
• It is a mystery
• Archeologist think part of it was a violent volcanic
eruption
• Invasion
• Mycenaean's were the enemies
• They were the first Greek-speaking people
Trade and War with
Mycenae Civilization
• Intro
• They conquered the Greek mainland
• They were Indo-European (Show map)
Trade and War with
Mycenae Civilization
• Sea Trade brings Wealth
• From 1400 BCE-1200 BCE the Mycenaean's dominated the
Aegean world
• Sea Traders
• They were similar to the Minoans
• Adopted Writing
• Learned many skills
• Absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian customs
• Lived in separate city states on the mainland
• Ruled by separate warrior kings who surrounded their cities
with huge walls
The Trojan War
• This is what the Mycenaean's are best remembered for
• Took place around 1250 BCE
• May have had economic origins between Mycenae and
Troy
• Troy controlled many trading routes and vital straits
• Narrow passages of water
The Trojan War
• The Kidnapping of Helen
• Helen was the beautiful wife of a Greek king
• The Mycenaean's went to fight for her
• It was originally thought to be a romantic legend
• However it was discovered that it is rooted in fact
• Heinrich Schliemann
• He was a German Buisnessman
• He discovered the truth of the site and found evidence of Troy
Homer
Homer
• Intro
• Decline of the Mycenaean's
• Invasion
• Sea raiders called the Dorians
• They were Greek speaking
• Power faded and they abandoned their cities
• Greek civilization seemed to take a step backward
Homer
• Was a poet that lived around 750 BCE
• Wrote the famous works called the Iliad and the Odyssey
• Iliad
• Was about the Trojan war
• Achilles was a mighty greek warrior that was treated
unfairly by the commander
• Achilles helped turn the tide of the Trojan war in the
greeks favor
Homer
• Odyssey
• Tells the tale of the struggles of Odysseus
• It is about his return journal after the war of Troy
• He wants to go home to his wife Penelope
• Stories of monsters and sorceress'
Homer
• Significance of his stories
• The heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence, as
when Achilles rallies his troops
• Eloquence- a manner of speech that is vivid and persuasive
• For over 3000 years is has inspired European writers
and Artists
• Also shows a lot about Greek culture
Looking Ahead
• After the Dorians, Greece passed several centuries in
darkness
• There was not a lot of contact with the outside world
• Eventually the stories of the past Greek success would
inspire Greek civilization
• It would go on to dominate the region and extend
influence of Greek culture over most of the Western
World
CONFLICT IN THE GREEK
WORLD
Section 3
The Persian War
• Intro
• Who were the Persians?
• How big was their empire?
• They conquered a huge empire and the subjects included the
Greek city-states of Ionia in Asia Minor
• Even though they were self governing, they resented their situation
• Ionians rebelled in 499 BCE and Athens sent shipt to
help them
The Persian War
• Athenians Win at Marathon
• Persians Crushed the rebel cities of the Ionians
• Darius I
• Was ticked off at Athens
• Sent a mighty force to Marathon (North of Athens)
• Athens asked for help
• No one really cared
• Athens beat the Persian force with few men
• Persians were amazed
• Themistocles
• He was the leader of the Athenians, but he knew it only just begun…
• MUHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAH
The Persian War
• Greek City-States Unite
• Darius died but his son Xerxes (490 BC) sent a much
larger force to conqur Greece
• Athens convinced Greece to unite
• Thermopylae
• It was a narrow mountain pass where the great Warrior King
Leonidas held his men
• Major battle between the Spartans and Persians
• The Persians beat them eventually
The Persian War
• Greek City States Unite
• Themistocles
• Let a fleet of ships against the Persian navy
• He drew the enemy in and then rammed them
• Their ships had underwater battering rams
• Persian fleet sank
• It was a huge fleet
• The Next year the Greeks defeated the Persians on land
Athens Leads The Delian
League
• The Greeks began to feel even more super
• The gods are protecting their way of life
• Think about how it must of felt like
• After the first part of the War Athens was the most
powerful city state
• Created an alliance- a formal agreement between two or
more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one
another defense
• It was known as the Delian League
Athens Leads The Delian
League
• Athens was the leader
• They manipulated it
• Used it to create an empire
• Used the money collected to build its own city
• If People tried to leave it, Athens would force them to
say
• Athens was able to champion political freedom as home though
The Age of Pericles and
Direct Democracy
• Intro
• Pericles
• Led the golden age of Athens
• Was a statesmen
The Age of Pericles and
Direct Democracy
• Athenian Democracy
• Under Pericles Athens had a direct democracy
• Citizens take part directly in the day-to-day affairs of
government
• Athenian assembly met several times a month
• Pericles believe all citizens should take part in government
• Led to paying a stipend to people in the assembly
• Fixed salary
The Age of Pericles and
Direct Democracy
• Athenian Democracy
• Athenians served in juries
• Jury- a panel of citizens who have authority to make the final
judgment in a trial
• Unlike America, Juries could have hundred or even thousands
of people.
• Athenians could ostracize a leader
• Ostracism- banish or send away a person
• It lasted for 10 years
The Age of Pericles and
Direct Democracy
• Culture Thrives in Athens
• Buildings
• Architecture
• Philosophy
• Etc.
The Peloponnesian War
• Intro
• Many Greeks outside Athens resented their domination
• To counter the Delian League the Spartans and other
enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League
• War broke out in 431 BCE and lasted for 27 years
The Peloponnesian War
• Sparta defeats Athens
• Sparta had an advantage
• They were inland
• It made Athens strongest power (its navy) useless
• They Surrounded Athens and Pericles allowed
everyone outside the city to come in its walls
• What do you think happened then?
• Yes, it even killed Pericles
• Sparta allied itself with Persia even
• Persia helped them defeat Athens navy
The Peloponnesian War
• Greek Dominion declines
• Athens fell, but eventually bounced back
• However, Greek culture and spirit declined
• There were battles amongst themselves, no unity
• What is this perfect for?
• INVASION!!!!!!!
• But we will get to that later….
THE GLORY THAT WAS GREECE
Lesson 4
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Intro
• Philosophers
• The lovers of Wisdom
• They were driven by curiosity and a belief in wisdom
• Logic
• Rational thinking
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Debating Morality and Ethics
• Types of Questions
• What is the best kind of government?
• What standards should rule human behavior?
• Sophists
• Questioned accepted ideas
• To them, success was more important then moral truth
• Developed skills in rhetoric- the art of skillful speaking
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Socrates Questions Tradition
• Socrates
• He was an outspoken critic of the Sophists
• Stonemason and philosopher
• Never wrote books
• Learned everything through his pupil Plato
• Used the Socratic Method
• He would pose a series of questions to a student or passing citizen
and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Socrates Questions Tradition
• Socrates was not well liked
• He challenged commonly held beliefs and culture
• Death
• When he was 70 he was arrested and put on trial. He was
accused of corrupting the youth
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Plato Envisions a Perfect Society
• Plato
• Student of Socrates
• He was upset with democracy
• Through rational thought, he argued that people could discover
unchanging ethical values
• We can use that to make a perfect society
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Plato Envisions a Perfect Society
• The Republic
• It was one of h8is books
• Rejected Athenian Democracy
• The nation should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives in order
to provide their best interests
• Society should be broken up into three categories
• Workers
• Soldiers
• Philosophers -rulers
• These would be in charge of making sure things are just
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Plato Envisions a Perfect Society
• Women
• Thought that in general men surpasses women but
some Talented women could serve the state
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Aristotle Pursues the Golden Mean
• Aristotle- Plato's most famous student
• Developed his own idea of government
• Democracy and monarchy each had value
• He favored rule by a single strong virtuous leader
Philosophers: Lovers of
Wisdom
• Addressed How people ought to live
• The Golden mean
• It is a moderate between two extremes
• Reason
• Is the guiding force
• He was very important in later ages
Idealism in Architecture
and Art
• Monumental Architecture
• Greek Architects sought to convey a sense of perfect
balance to reflect the harmony and order of the
Universe
• Parthenon- the most famous example of Greek
architecture
• Temple dedicated to the Goddess Athena
• Has been admired for centuries
Idealism in Architecture
and Art
• Artists Craft lifelike Human Forms
• Early Greeks
• Sculpted figures in rigid poses
• Rigid is stiff, unbending; severe
• 450 BCE
• Sculptors began to emphasize more natural forms
• Lifelike
• Idealistic
• Showed people or goddesses with perfection
Greek Literature
• Intro
• It began with epic poems such as Homer
Greek Tragedies (Tragic
Drama)
• Greek plays were one of the most important elements of Greek
Society
• They bean out of religious festivals to honor gods and
goddesses
• Performed in large outdoor theaters
• Often based on popular myths and legends
• Assignment will be about this
• Greatest Athenian Playwrights
• Aeschylus
• Sophocles
• Euripides
Greek Tragedies (Tragic
Drama)
• These individuals wrote tragedies
• Plays that told stories of human suffering that usually
ended in disater
• Example
• Oresteia
• Showed a poerful family torn apart by betrayal, murder, and
revenge
• Showed how people can suffer or be part of the gods wrath
• Written by Aeschylus
Greek Tragedies (Tragic
Drama)
• Example
• Antigone
• Written by Sophocles
• What happens when an individuals moral duty conflicts with laws of the
state
• Antigone is a young woman whose bro was killed leading a rebellion
• It was illegal to burry the brother
• She did it anyway
• The Trojan Women
• Euripides
• He stripped the glory of war by telling the horrors of the Trojan war from
women standpoint
Greek Comedies
• Comedies
• Humorous plays that mocked people or customs
• They ridiculed individuals of the day
• Could be rulers
• Types of people (Spartans)
Writers of History
• Herodotus
• He began to write historical events.
• What word does Herodotus relate to?
Alexander the
Great
Section 5
Introduction
• 338 BCE
• Athens fell to the Macedonian army
• Greek city states lost their independence
• There culture began to spread through the empire
though.
The Empire of Alexander
the Great
• Intro
• To the Greeks, the Macedonians were half civilized
• It was like the hillbillies
• They were Greek though
• Philip II
• He was a king that traveled around Greece
• Hired Aristotle to tutor his young son Alexander
The Empire of Alexander
the Great
• Philip II Conquers Greece
• Built a powerful army
• Through threats, bribes, diplomacy he conquered
Greece
• He even conquered Sparta and Athens
• Dreamed of conquering Persia
• He was assassinated at his daughters wedding
• Assassination- the murder of a public official
The Empire of Alexander
the Great
• Alexander Takes Persia
• Shared his fathers ambition
• Persia was weak with Darius II
• There were numerous rebellion
• Yet it was still a large empire
• He attacked the Persians (334 BCE) and was
undefeated
• He would actually lead his troops in battle
• Conquered Persia (330 BCE)
Empire of Alexander the
Great
• Advanced into India
• Went into India and still won battle after battle
• His troops encountered enemies on elephants
• His troops were tired and refused orders to continue
The Empire of Alexander
the Great
• Alexanders early Death
• Thirty-two
• He fell victim to a sudden fever
• His generals decided to split the empire
• Often fought each other
• Three main generals
• The empire lasted for the next 300 years
Legacy of Alexander
• Cultures Combine
• All throughout the empire, Greek temples were built
• There were athletic competitions
• Local people assimilated (absorbed) Greek ideas
• Alexander encouraged the blending of eastern and
western cultures
• During the blending something new came about
(Hellenization)
Legacy of Alexander
• Alexandria: The Cultural Capital
• This was the Alexandria, Egypt
• It was the cultural capital of the WORLD
• Alexander and his generals encouraged the building of
Museums and Libraries
• Library of Alexandria
• Held scrolls from all over the world
• Scholars would come there to study
Legacy of Alexander
• New Roles for Women
• Women were no longer restricted to their homes during
the Hellenistic period
• There were more that were educate
Hellenistic Arts and
Sciences
• New Philosophies
• Stoicism
• Was the most influential
• Founder was Zeno
• Preached high moral standards
• Avoid desires and disappointments by accepting what ever life
brought you calmly
• All people were morally equal (not legally)
Hellenistic Arts and
Sciences
• Advances in Math and Astronomy
• Pythagoras
• Derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the
sides of a right angle
• Aristarchus
• Argued that the Earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun
• Theory called heliocentric- sun centered solar system
• Was not accepted by most scientist till almost 2000 years later
Hellenistic Arts and
Sciences
• Advances in Math and Astronomy
• Archimedes
• Applied physics to make practical inventions
• Like a pulley
• A lever
• Improving Medical Practice
• 400 BCE Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses
and looked for cures

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Ancient Greece

  • 2. THE EARLY PEOPLE OF THE AEGEAN Section 1
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  • 5. Introduction • Crete: The Cradle of Civilization • Crete helped spread ideas from east to west and it was a bed of cultural ideas
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  • 7. Minoan Trade and Propserity • Intro • Crete • It was home to a very early civilization that was brilliant • Unsure of what they called themselves • The Minoans • Was at its height and greatest success between 1600 BCE and 1500 BCE • Success was based on trade and not conquest • They had science • Writing • Architecture
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  • 9. Minoan Art at Knossos • Knossos was the Minoan capital city • The palace of Knossos • Housed rooms for family • Banquet halls • Working areas • Religious Shrines • (areas dedicated to honor of gods and goddesses)
  • 10. Minoan Art at Knossos • The palace of Knossos • On the walls there were colorful frescoes • Watercolor paintings done on wet plaster • Tell us a lot about the society • Women appeared freely in public • Garden life • Women rights
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  • 15. Minoan Civilization Disapears • 1400 BCE it seems to have vanished • It is a mystery • Archeologist think part of it was a violent volcanic eruption • Invasion • Mycenaean's were the enemies • They were the first Greek-speaking people
  • 16. Trade and War with Mycenae Civilization • Intro • They conquered the Greek mainland • They were Indo-European (Show map)
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  • 18. Trade and War with Mycenae Civilization • Sea Trade brings Wealth • From 1400 BCE-1200 BCE the Mycenaean's dominated the Aegean world • Sea Traders • They were similar to the Minoans • Adopted Writing • Learned many skills • Absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian customs • Lived in separate city states on the mainland • Ruled by separate warrior kings who surrounded their cities with huge walls
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  • 24. The Trojan War • This is what the Mycenaean's are best remembered for • Took place around 1250 BCE • May have had economic origins between Mycenae and Troy • Troy controlled many trading routes and vital straits • Narrow passages of water
  • 25. The Trojan War • The Kidnapping of Helen • Helen was the beautiful wife of a Greek king • The Mycenaean's went to fight for her • It was originally thought to be a romantic legend • However it was discovered that it is rooted in fact • Heinrich Schliemann • He was a German Buisnessman • He discovered the truth of the site and found evidence of Troy
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  • 28. Homer
  • 29. Homer • Intro • Decline of the Mycenaean's • Invasion • Sea raiders called the Dorians • They were Greek speaking • Power faded and they abandoned their cities • Greek civilization seemed to take a step backward
  • 30. Homer • Was a poet that lived around 750 BCE • Wrote the famous works called the Iliad and the Odyssey • Iliad • Was about the Trojan war • Achilles was a mighty greek warrior that was treated unfairly by the commander • Achilles helped turn the tide of the Trojan war in the greeks favor
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  • 32. Homer • Odyssey • Tells the tale of the struggles of Odysseus • It is about his return journal after the war of Troy • He wants to go home to his wife Penelope • Stories of monsters and sorceress'
  • 33. Homer • Significance of his stories • The heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence, as when Achilles rallies his troops • Eloquence- a manner of speech that is vivid and persuasive • For over 3000 years is has inspired European writers and Artists • Also shows a lot about Greek culture
  • 34. Looking Ahead • After the Dorians, Greece passed several centuries in darkness • There was not a lot of contact with the outside world • Eventually the stories of the past Greek success would inspire Greek civilization • It would go on to dominate the region and extend influence of Greek culture over most of the Western World
  • 35. CONFLICT IN THE GREEK WORLD Section 3
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  • 37. The Persian War • Intro • Who were the Persians? • How big was their empire? • They conquered a huge empire and the subjects included the Greek city-states of Ionia in Asia Minor • Even though they were self governing, they resented their situation • Ionians rebelled in 499 BCE and Athens sent shipt to help them
  • 38. The Persian War • Athenians Win at Marathon • Persians Crushed the rebel cities of the Ionians • Darius I • Was ticked off at Athens • Sent a mighty force to Marathon (North of Athens) • Athens asked for help • No one really cared • Athens beat the Persian force with few men • Persians were amazed • Themistocles • He was the leader of the Athenians, but he knew it only just begun… • MUHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAH
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  • 42. The Persian War • Greek City-States Unite • Darius died but his son Xerxes (490 BC) sent a much larger force to conqur Greece • Athens convinced Greece to unite • Thermopylae • It was a narrow mountain pass where the great Warrior King Leonidas held his men • Major battle between the Spartans and Persians • The Persians beat them eventually
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  • 45. The Persian War • Greek City States Unite • Themistocles • Let a fleet of ships against the Persian navy • He drew the enemy in and then rammed them • Their ships had underwater battering rams • Persian fleet sank • It was a huge fleet • The Next year the Greeks defeated the Persians on land
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  • 47. Athens Leads The Delian League • The Greeks began to feel even more super • The gods are protecting their way of life • Think about how it must of felt like • After the first part of the War Athens was the most powerful city state • Created an alliance- a formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another defense • It was known as the Delian League
  • 48. Athens Leads The Delian League • Athens was the leader • They manipulated it • Used it to create an empire • Used the money collected to build its own city • If People tried to leave it, Athens would force them to say • Athens was able to champion political freedom as home though
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  • 50. The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy • Intro • Pericles • Led the golden age of Athens • Was a statesmen
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  • 52. The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy • Athenian Democracy • Under Pericles Athens had a direct democracy • Citizens take part directly in the day-to-day affairs of government • Athenian assembly met several times a month • Pericles believe all citizens should take part in government • Led to paying a stipend to people in the assembly • Fixed salary
  • 53. The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy • Athenian Democracy • Athenians served in juries • Jury- a panel of citizens who have authority to make the final judgment in a trial • Unlike America, Juries could have hundred or even thousands of people. • Athenians could ostracize a leader • Ostracism- banish or send away a person • It lasted for 10 years
  • 54. The Age of Pericles and Direct Democracy • Culture Thrives in Athens • Buildings • Architecture • Philosophy • Etc.
  • 55. The Peloponnesian War • Intro • Many Greeks outside Athens resented their domination • To counter the Delian League the Spartans and other enemies of Athens formed the Peloponnesian League • War broke out in 431 BCE and lasted for 27 years
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  • 58. The Peloponnesian War • Sparta defeats Athens • Sparta had an advantage • They were inland • It made Athens strongest power (its navy) useless • They Surrounded Athens and Pericles allowed everyone outside the city to come in its walls • What do you think happened then? • Yes, it even killed Pericles • Sparta allied itself with Persia even • Persia helped them defeat Athens navy
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  • 60. The Peloponnesian War • Greek Dominion declines • Athens fell, but eventually bounced back • However, Greek culture and spirit declined • There were battles amongst themselves, no unity • What is this perfect for? • INVASION!!!!!!! • But we will get to that later….
  • 61. THE GLORY THAT WAS GREECE Lesson 4
  • 62. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Intro • Philosophers • The lovers of Wisdom • They were driven by curiosity and a belief in wisdom • Logic • Rational thinking
  • 63. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Debating Morality and Ethics • Types of Questions • What is the best kind of government? • What standards should rule human behavior? • Sophists • Questioned accepted ideas • To them, success was more important then moral truth • Developed skills in rhetoric- the art of skillful speaking
  • 64. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Socrates Questions Tradition • Socrates • He was an outspoken critic of the Sophists • Stonemason and philosopher • Never wrote books • Learned everything through his pupil Plato • Used the Socratic Method • He would pose a series of questions to a student or passing citizen and challenge them to examine the implications of their answers
  • 65. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Socrates Questions Tradition • Socrates was not well liked • He challenged commonly held beliefs and culture • Death • When he was 70 he was arrested and put on trial. He was accused of corrupting the youth
  • 66. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Plato Envisions a Perfect Society • Plato • Student of Socrates • He was upset with democracy • Through rational thought, he argued that people could discover unchanging ethical values • We can use that to make a perfect society
  • 67. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Plato Envisions a Perfect Society • The Republic • It was one of h8is books • Rejected Athenian Democracy • The nation should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives in order to provide their best interests • Society should be broken up into three categories • Workers • Soldiers • Philosophers -rulers • These would be in charge of making sure things are just
  • 68. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Plato Envisions a Perfect Society • Women • Thought that in general men surpasses women but some Talented women could serve the state
  • 69. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Aristotle Pursues the Golden Mean • Aristotle- Plato's most famous student • Developed his own idea of government • Democracy and monarchy each had value • He favored rule by a single strong virtuous leader
  • 70. Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom • Addressed How people ought to live • The Golden mean • It is a moderate between two extremes • Reason • Is the guiding force • He was very important in later ages
  • 71. Idealism in Architecture and Art • Monumental Architecture • Greek Architects sought to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony and order of the Universe • Parthenon- the most famous example of Greek architecture • Temple dedicated to the Goddess Athena • Has been admired for centuries
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  • 75. Idealism in Architecture and Art • Artists Craft lifelike Human Forms • Early Greeks • Sculpted figures in rigid poses • Rigid is stiff, unbending; severe • 450 BCE • Sculptors began to emphasize more natural forms • Lifelike • Idealistic • Showed people or goddesses with perfection
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  • 78. Greek Literature • Intro • It began with epic poems such as Homer
  • 79. Greek Tragedies (Tragic Drama) • Greek plays were one of the most important elements of Greek Society • They bean out of religious festivals to honor gods and goddesses • Performed in large outdoor theaters • Often based on popular myths and legends • Assignment will be about this • Greatest Athenian Playwrights • Aeschylus • Sophocles • Euripides
  • 80. Greek Tragedies (Tragic Drama) • These individuals wrote tragedies • Plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in disater • Example • Oresteia • Showed a poerful family torn apart by betrayal, murder, and revenge • Showed how people can suffer or be part of the gods wrath • Written by Aeschylus
  • 81. Greek Tragedies (Tragic Drama) • Example • Antigone • Written by Sophocles • What happens when an individuals moral duty conflicts with laws of the state • Antigone is a young woman whose bro was killed leading a rebellion • It was illegal to burry the brother • She did it anyway • The Trojan Women • Euripides • He stripped the glory of war by telling the horrors of the Trojan war from women standpoint
  • 82. Greek Comedies • Comedies • Humorous plays that mocked people or customs • They ridiculed individuals of the day • Could be rulers • Types of people (Spartans)
  • 83. Writers of History • Herodotus • He began to write historical events. • What word does Herodotus relate to?
  • 85. Introduction • 338 BCE • Athens fell to the Macedonian army • Greek city states lost their independence • There culture began to spread through the empire though.
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  • 87. The Empire of Alexander the Great • Intro • To the Greeks, the Macedonians were half civilized • It was like the hillbillies • They were Greek though • Philip II • He was a king that traveled around Greece • Hired Aristotle to tutor his young son Alexander
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  • 89. The Empire of Alexander the Great • Philip II Conquers Greece • Built a powerful army • Through threats, bribes, diplomacy he conquered Greece • He even conquered Sparta and Athens • Dreamed of conquering Persia • He was assassinated at his daughters wedding • Assassination- the murder of a public official
  • 90. The Empire of Alexander the Great • Alexander Takes Persia • Shared his fathers ambition • Persia was weak with Darius II • There were numerous rebellion • Yet it was still a large empire • He attacked the Persians (334 BCE) and was undefeated • He would actually lead his troops in battle • Conquered Persia (330 BCE)
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  • 92. Empire of Alexander the Great • Advanced into India • Went into India and still won battle after battle • His troops encountered enemies on elephants • His troops were tired and refused orders to continue
  • 93. The Empire of Alexander the Great • Alexanders early Death • Thirty-two • He fell victim to a sudden fever • His generals decided to split the empire • Often fought each other • Three main generals • The empire lasted for the next 300 years
  • 94. Legacy of Alexander • Cultures Combine • All throughout the empire, Greek temples were built • There were athletic competitions • Local people assimilated (absorbed) Greek ideas • Alexander encouraged the blending of eastern and western cultures • During the blending something new came about (Hellenization)
  • 95. Legacy of Alexander • Alexandria: The Cultural Capital • This was the Alexandria, Egypt • It was the cultural capital of the WORLD • Alexander and his generals encouraged the building of Museums and Libraries • Library of Alexandria • Held scrolls from all over the world • Scholars would come there to study
  • 96. Legacy of Alexander • New Roles for Women • Women were no longer restricted to their homes during the Hellenistic period • There were more that were educate
  • 97. Hellenistic Arts and Sciences • New Philosophies • Stoicism • Was the most influential • Founder was Zeno • Preached high moral standards • Avoid desires and disappointments by accepting what ever life brought you calmly • All people were morally equal (not legally)
  • 98. Hellenistic Arts and Sciences • Advances in Math and Astronomy • Pythagoras • Derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a right angle • Aristarchus • Argued that the Earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun • Theory called heliocentric- sun centered solar system • Was not accepted by most scientist till almost 2000 years later
  • 99. Hellenistic Arts and Sciences • Advances in Math and Astronomy • Archimedes • Applied physics to make practical inventions • Like a pulley • A lever • Improving Medical Practice • 400 BCE Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses and looked for cures