Super Insulated Glass Energy efficient insulated glass for: • Windows • Curtain walls •Doors • Skylights • Roof Windows • Atriums Residential andcommercial buildings.
History of glass• The first glass dates to Mesopotamia – 3000 BCE.• Early Roman Empire window glass, largest being 3 feet by 4 feet, wasdiscovered in Pompeii .• By the 10th century, Murano, Italy becomes the glass center of the worldproducing crown and cylinder window glass.• Plate glass was introduced in France in the late 17th century.• In 1959 Pilkington Brothers LTD started production of float glass, sincelicensed to other glass manufacturers, and becomes the worldwide standard.
Low-e Insulated SUMMER Glass• Low-Emissivity coated glassimproves glass efficiency in1983 and improved versionsare the current standard oftoday.• Microscopically thin,virtually invisible, metal ormetallic oxide layers WINTERdeposited on a windowglazing surface• Sealed air-filled space istypically replaced with argonor krypton gases.•Low-e coatings can virtuallyeliminate the suns harmfulUV rays.
Super Insulated Glass• Super insulated glass can becustomized for almost anyapplication, applicable for allsides of a building.• It combines the latesttechnology incorporatingmultiple Low-e coatings,argon or krypton gas,multiple glass layers, andwarm edge separators.• Can produce U-valuescomparable to a standardwall while still utilizingpassive solar gain.• Manufactures include:Cardinal, PPG, Southwall,and Serious Glass.
VacuumInsulated Glass (VIG)• Vacuum Insulated Glass was invented in Sydney, Australia in 1990.• A thin vacuum layer separates low-e coated glass typically only 6 mm thick.• Characterized by thin beads in between glass layers and metal vacuum seal.• Lightweight compared to other insulated glass units (IGU).• Manufactured by Pilkington and several overseas companies.
Dynamic GlassDynamic glazing delivers these benefits: • Stops solar heat • Increase day lighting • Uninterrupted view •Dramatically reduces fading • Blocks glareGives you the power to change your environment by doing what ordinaryglass can’t do: It switches from clear to darkly tinted at the push of a button.
1983 Insulated Glass hadimproved over 350% since 1930! (single pane to standard low-e coated IGU) U=.55 U= .9 U=.25 U values of super insulated glass can reach a low of .05 an additional 500% improvement
Important Specifications (Northern regions)•U-Value is the rate of heat loss − .30 glass and .35 window (Energy Star & IECC)and .20 glass (DOE).• Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is the amount of solar heat gained.• Visible light (VT) is the amount of light emitted through the glass.• Ultraviolet rays (UV) is the amount of harmful rays emitted through the glass.• Air infiltration is the amount of air that leaks through window seals.• DP grade is the rating of a window in terms of water and wind resistance.
Super Insulated GlassPremium Manufacturers Offer: • Minimum U-value of .125 (R-8). • Appropriate SHGC’s for all cardinal coordinates. • Optimize VT for daylighting. • Multiple manufacturing facilities.• Serious Glass •Meets all four criteria • U-.125 Double-pane, U-.08 triple-pane• Cardinal Glass •Meets 3 of 4 criteria (lacks a U-.125 unit) • U-.2 Double-pane, U-.15 triple-pane•Southwall Technologies • Meets 3 of 4 criteria (lacks multiple manufacturing sites) • U-.1 Double-pane, U-.08 triple-pane, .05 quad-pane
Glass Sustainability (Common Sense)• Glass is extremely durable, low- cost, recyclable, down-cyclable, provides daylight, provides views, provides passive solar energy, and most brands offer self-cleaning glass.• Higher embodied energy rates, 6750 to 7500 BTU/lb are being reduced up to 65% with technology.• Carbon neutral buildings are almost impossible to economically design without super efficient glass that maximizes passive solar technology.
Windows Units• The Romans first use glass inwindows in about 100 CE.• Andersen Lumber Companyintroduced the first massproduced window in 1915.• Windows are available inseveral types including: double-hung, casement, fixed, awning, and glider.• Frame types include:aluminum, steel, vinyl, fiberglass, wood, and clad wood.• Wood windows are the leastenergy efficient and fiberglass arethe most efficient.
Super Insulated WindowsPremium Manufacturers Offer: • Minimum U-value of .125 (R-8). • Appropriates SHGC’s for all cardinal coordinates. • Optimize VT for daylighting. • Insulated fiberglass frame construction. • Multiple manufacturing facilities.• Serious Windows – Multiple Locations (Residential and Commercial)•Alpen Windows - Colorado•OwensCorning – Michigan (Sunrise) and Illinois (Serious)• Sunrise Windows – Michigan• Republic – Arizona•Thermotech– Ottawa, Ontario• H-Line - Wisconsin
Window Sustainability (Common Sense) Wood framed windows can contain certified forestry wood and is a good insulator, but are rarely recycled, most are expensive, is the least energy efficient, have a high expansion rate, and are susceptible to moisture. Aluminum or steel framed windows are extremely durable, can contain high recycled content, are recyclable, a poor insulator, impervious to moisture, can accept super insulated glass, but require huge amounts of energy during production.
Window Sustainability (Common Sense) Vinyl framed windows are the least expensive, can be durable, can contain a high recycled content, are recyclable, impervious to moisture, can accept super insulated glass, can have insulated frames, but have a high expansion rate and require huge amounts of energy during production. Fiberglass framed windows are mid- priced, extremely durable, can contain a high recycled content, are recyclable, impervious to moisture, can accept super insulated glass, have super insulated frames, have the lowest expansion rate, but due require large amounts of energy in production.
Efficiency applied to all four sides of a buildingThe best super insulated glass and window manufacturers produce productsthat can be applied to every side of a building. The least amount of heat loss(U-values of .125 or lower); multiple SHGC’s options with highest on southwall (opposite in warm climates), medium for west and east, and lowest onnorth; and while achieving good visible light for daylight.
Window vs. the Wall• Energy zone 5 wall insulation requirements are: R-13 to 15wall cavity plus R2 to 6 insulated sheeting for gas heat for amaximum R-21 (U-.048) total. Electric heatis R-13 to 21+R-5to 6 for a max of R-27 (U-.037).• Energy zone requirements for windows are only a R-3.33(U-.30). It will require another 650% efficiency increase tomatch wall requirement (for gas heat).• Doubling a windows R value to 6.66 (U-15) will have thesame benefit as increasing wall R value to a R-105 (U-.001).• Windows with a R value of 8 or higher (U-.125 or lower)are better than the best wall insulation because theycollectmore heat than they loose in 24 hour period.
Storm WindowsPro’s • Low-cost, simple installation. • Considerably extends life of existing windows. • Low-e storm window installed over a single-pane is comparable to a new low-e IGU. • Lowers window unit air infiltration. • 3 ½ to 5 year payback.Con’s • Limited efficiency improvement.Chicago Case Study
SkylightsPro’s • Significantly increases day lighting • Increases solar gain • New Glass Technology reduces heat loss and reduces solar gain (if preferred)Con’s • Can be difficult to shade • Proper installation is crucial
LEED CreditsEnergy and Atmosphere (EA) • Optimize Energy Performance 1-19Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) • Increase Ventilation 1 • Daylight and Views, daylight 1 • Daylight and Views, views 1
Cradle to CradleEmpire State Building, New York City • Retrofit all 6,514 dual-pane windows (.5 U-value) with Serious super insulated glass that incorporates Southwall’s Heat Mirror- technology that improved efficiency by 400% (.125 U). • Reused glass and rebuilt IGU’s on site. • Saves $410,000 ($4 million complete building retrofit) in energy costs per year. • Pay back – three yearsSo what? • 40% of commercial buildings in NYC were built before 1945. • Commercial building use 80% of building energy in NYC. • In the US, buildings use 44% of total energy and 18% is commercial. • 4.8 million US commercial buildings and only 4,000 (in 2007) meet energy star (.35 U in northern region)
Regulators• Energy Star• Department of Energy (DOE)• American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)• National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC)• Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design(LEED)• International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)• National Green Building Standard (NGBS)• Housing and Urban Development (HUD)• United States Rural Development (USRD)
Next Generation IGU•Foreign companies, like IP Glass Technology, are just now producinghybrid systems that combine VIG with standard IGU that create a 20%improvement in efficiency. These IGU U-values are about .067, which isclose the standard Quad IGU, but with approximately half the weight.•Grezenbach (Germany) also is experimenting with this same hybridtechnology and plans to have an initial .005 U-value hybrid IGU inproduction by 2012, later improving to a .035 (a whopping R-29).
CreditsPrint•Allen, E. &Iano, J ((2004). Fundamentals of Building Construction, John Wiley & Sons.•Lechner, N. (2001). Heating, Cooling, and Lighting, Design Method for Architects, John Wiley &Sons.• McDonough, W. and Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle, North Point Press.• Montoya, M. (2011). Green Building Fundamentals, Prentice Hall.•Environment Building News, Building Green LLC.•Energy Design Update, Aspen Publishers.•Glass Magazine, National Glass Association.Web• The Efficient Windows Collaborative.• All listed manufacturers web sites.