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Playful engagement

Mark Sage
@sagema
Life is a game.
Money is how we keep score.
                  (Ted Turner)
Loyalty is a game.
Points are how we keep score
…the game just got a little more complicated
What’s changed?
•   Why are consumers acting differently and why is this becoming much more
    significant?




                SOCIAL                        SINGLE                    WHEREVER,
              NETWORKS                       IDENTITY                   WHENEVER

            With over 700m people on     Increasingly brands and         As smartphone/tablet
           Facebook and growth rates     services are using social      adoption continues it’s
               of 100m in the last 6     networks like twitter and    massive growth, customers
           months, almost everybody is      Facebook to control      are interacting before, during
           interconnected – the social     identity management         and after a purchase – in
                   layer is built                (login) and                   real-time.
                                              communication




                  This is creating a wealth of interactions for any brand
                                    that wants to listen
Increasingly interactions are becoming more
important than the transaction

                     Post-
                                             Awareness
                   purchase




                       Interactions
            Purchase                                Research




                              Pre-purchase
Gaming has learnt to introduce and manage
complexity whilst keeping people engaged
     High
      Challenge Level




     Low

                        Skill Level   High
What is a game?



 “A game is a system in which players engage in an
  artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result in a
                  quantifiable outcome”
             •   Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Salen & Zimmerman) 2004
Game design principles can be used to
improve & enhance everyday interactions



         GAME                           GAME                        GAME
       STRUCTURE                     ENGAGEMENT                  RECOGNITION

     Using the basic structure of      Understanding what          Leaning from game
         game design to add          keeps people playing and    reward, recognition and
        additional depth and         engaged across all levels   motivation mechanics to
         engagement to the                   of ability            improve the overall
             interaction                                                interaction




                                    This is Gamification
Gamification is not about creating
standalone games




  Played almost 8,000 times and broken all previous participation records for a study of this
  nature…

  …however this is not Gamification, it’s a game.
Gamification is about adding gaming design
mechanics to every day activities

                                     Creates the
                                     rules




                                     Quantifiable
                                     outcome



                 The system
GAME STRUCTURE
The game loop
Defined as:-
• The chain of actions you do over and over again

                                                                          Buy Plot




                                                  Collect                                       Buy & Place
                                                  Income                                           Item




                                                                          Wait for
                                                                          Income



                                            http://www.slideshare.net/wooga/killer-game-loops-in-social-games
Loyalty has similar characteristics



             [Loyalty is] an integrated system of
             marketing actions that aims to make
               member customers more loyal
                      (Share and Sharp 1997)
The loyalty game loop

                                          Share of
                                                     Tenure   Advocacy
                                           Spend


                     Purchase
    Join
                       Item




           Redeem     Listen &   Earn
            Points     Learn     Points




                     Collect
                      Points


                                                                         1
                                                                         5
The loyalty game loop needs to incorporate
more than the basic transaction

                                                      Share of
                                                                       Tenure   Advocacy
                                                       Spend


                                 Purchase
           Join
                                   Item

                                                                 Check-in
 Product
 Review                Redeem     Listen &   Earn
                        Points     Learn     Points
                                                               Price
                                                             Comparison
  Social Share
                                 Collect
                                  Points

                  Use of an                         Web Login
                    Offer         Tweet                                                    1
                                 Mention                                                   6
The game loop – Smart Depth
                                                                                                                         Adding
1. Consistency - Add a new layer on the                                                                                 additional
   existing game loop, not create a new one                                                                              layers
2. Discovery - Novice players should not                                          Buy Plot
   need to care about it until they figure it out
   on their own
3. Depth - Strategic thinking with variable
   solutions and outcomes is best                         Collect                                       Buy & Place
4. Achievement - Players should be able to                Income                                           Item
   stumble on it and feel smart for achieving
   it
5. Extensibility - After doing it once and
                                                                                  Wait for
   gaining rewards, players are able to                                           Income
   repeat to get a better solution


                                                    http://www.slideshare.net/wooga/killer-game-loops-in-social-games
GAME ENGAGEMENT
Keeping users engaged - Game flow

                                              High



                                                                       Anxiety

“The state in which people are so involved




                                               Challenge Level
 in an activity that nothing else seems to
    matter; the experience itself is so
  enjoyable that people will do it even at
great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it”                                                    Boredom


                                              Low

                                                                 Low             Skill Level             High
Rules of flow
1. Direction - Activity with a clear set of
   goals which adds direction and
                                              High
   structure to the task
2. Achievable - Good balance between
                                                                            Anxiety
   the perceived challenges of the task at
   hand and his or her own perceived




                                               Challenge Level
   skills.                                                                                              Hardcore
                                                                                                         Gamer
3. Feedback - Clear and immediate
   feedback helps the person negotiate
   any changing demands / adjust to
                                                                                 Casual
   maintain the flow state                                                       Gamer
                                                                                                             Boredom

   Ultimate goal is to keep every player                           Newbie
                                              Low
  involved and engaged, whatever their
                                                                 Low                      Skill Level                  High
                   ability
Loyalty flow
•    Loyalty programmes also need to be
     designed around flow
                                              High
•   Challenge level can be directly
    attributed to ongoing engagement
                                                                       Anxiety
•   Tiers can be used to create levels that
    people chase to attain – increasing the




                                               Challenge Level
                                                                                              Gold
    challenge in line with ability                                                                       Customers
                                                                                                         top out
•   Have to be careful tiering doesn’t “top
                                                                                 Silver
    out” – schemes see drop in activity
    once top tier reached
•   Need to consider feedback and how                                   Bronze                     Boredom
    this can play a pivotal role in
    engagement/flow
                                              Low

                                                                 Low         Skill/Ability Level              High
Loyalty flow - Tiers vs levels
•     Tiers in loyalty are very similar to levels used
      within social gaming
•     Gaming levels do present additional
      opportunities however:-
•    Early days engagement – Users are pushed
     through lower levels quickly to help “lock in”
     the behaviour
•    Social Currency – Levels are published to
     friends to create an element of competition
     and achievement
•    Incremental Achievement – More levels
     provide granular behaviour recognition and
     prevent “topping out” so quickly
•    Signposting – Different activities can help you
     “level up” more quickly
Engagement through meaningful play



    “Meaningful play occurs when the relationships
   between actions and outcomes in a game are both
discernable and integrated into the larger context of the
                        game”
               Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Salen & Zimmerman) 2004
Creating meaningful play

• Discernable
    –Allow players to understand that an action has a reaction
       – “If I shoot the asteroid it blows up”
       – “If I swipe my card, recommend a friend or take up an offer this is recognised
    –The closer recognition is to action the better the game play
• Integrated
    –Recognition is not only immediate, but also plays larger part of overall
     game
       – “Shooting lots of asteroids gains points which go toward higher level – higher
         tiers provide bigger guns”
    –Within a loyalty programme, my actions combine progress towards a tier
     and/or reward
       – High tiers provide faster earning / increased reward selection
Every action has a reaction
Every action has a reaction




                              Making credit card
                                transactions
                                 interactive
Farming engagement



 “People exert more effort
towards reaching a goal the
  closer they come to the
           goal”
           (Hull 1932)
Daily Mail rewards example




    Progression
     Dynamic                  Goal
                             Directed


   Appointment
    Dynamic
GAME RECOGNITION
If we are to recognise every
       “check-in”, product
     review, “like” or social
    interaction, we need a
   different way to reward
             people
Social Currency

Recognising all interactions requires the unlocking of “social currency”




           Things that help     Social        Things that make
             me belong         Currency        me feel special
Do you remember?

               How many coins did        Example of
               you put in this           early social
                                          currency


                                    Simply to get onto
                                    this?
Leader boards democratise social currency



                                  Game play compared
                                    to other friends
[re·ward] – noun
A thing given in recognition
of service, effort, or
achievement
Foursquare relies on social currency to
  create rewards from recognition




Get recognised                              Share with
for taking part                              friends
Loyalty Rewards used to be about “me”
Now it’s what they say “about me”




                   Cost
80m people a week can’t be wrong…




Social gaming has come of
age utilising:-
• Appointment dynamics to
   encourage return
• Social currency through
   levels
• Dual currencies to both
   reward and recognise
Balancing recognition and reward
    Dual Currency Example - Delta

                                        MQM reward
                                       currency earned
                                        from flights &
                                           partners




                      MQS benefits
                         currency
                      earned from
Both currencies can
                       flights only
be used to achieve
                                       Only the miles
status and benefits
                                      currency can be
                                      used for rewards
Loyalty programmes are games



        GAME                          GAME                        GAME
      STRUCTURE                    ENGAGEMENT                  RECOGNITION

    Using the basic structure of     Understanding what          Leaning from game
        game design to add         keeps people playing and    reward, recognition and
       additional depth and        engaged across all levels   motivation mechanics to
        engagement to the                  of ability            improve the overall
            interaction                                               interaction




           Now we need to make the game play better

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Playful engagement

  • 2. Life is a game. Money is how we keep score. (Ted Turner)
  • 3. Loyalty is a game. Points are how we keep score
  • 4. …the game just got a little more complicated
  • 5. What’s changed? • Why are consumers acting differently and why is this becoming much more significant? SOCIAL SINGLE WHEREVER, NETWORKS IDENTITY WHENEVER With over 700m people on Increasingly brands and As smartphone/tablet Facebook and growth rates services are using social adoption continues it’s of 100m in the last 6 networks like twitter and massive growth, customers months, almost everybody is Facebook to control are interacting before, during interconnected – the social identity management and after a purchase – in layer is built (login) and real-time. communication This is creating a wealth of interactions for any brand that wants to listen
  • 6. Increasingly interactions are becoming more important than the transaction Post- Awareness purchase Interactions Purchase Research Pre-purchase
  • 7. Gaming has learnt to introduce and manage complexity whilst keeping people engaged High Challenge Level Low Skill Level High
  • 8. What is a game? “A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that result in a quantifiable outcome” • Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Salen & Zimmerman) 2004
  • 9. Game design principles can be used to improve & enhance everyday interactions GAME GAME GAME STRUCTURE ENGAGEMENT RECOGNITION Using the basic structure of Understanding what Leaning from game game design to add keeps people playing and reward, recognition and additional depth and engaged across all levels motivation mechanics to engagement to the of ability improve the overall interaction interaction This is Gamification
  • 10. Gamification is not about creating standalone games Played almost 8,000 times and broken all previous participation records for a study of this nature… …however this is not Gamification, it’s a game.
  • 11. Gamification is about adding gaming design mechanics to every day activities Creates the rules Quantifiable outcome The system
  • 13. The game loop Defined as:- • The chain of actions you do over and over again Buy Plot Collect Buy & Place Income Item Wait for Income http://www.slideshare.net/wooga/killer-game-loops-in-social-games
  • 14. Loyalty has similar characteristics [Loyalty is] an integrated system of marketing actions that aims to make member customers more loyal (Share and Sharp 1997)
  • 15. The loyalty game loop Share of Tenure Advocacy Spend Purchase Join Item Redeem Listen & Earn Points Learn Points Collect Points 1 5
  • 16. The loyalty game loop needs to incorporate more than the basic transaction Share of Tenure Advocacy Spend Purchase Join Item Check-in Product Review Redeem Listen & Earn Points Learn Points Price Comparison Social Share Collect Points Use of an Web Login Offer Tweet 1 Mention 6
  • 17. The game loop – Smart Depth Adding 1. Consistency - Add a new layer on the additional existing game loop, not create a new one layers 2. Discovery - Novice players should not Buy Plot need to care about it until they figure it out on their own 3. Depth - Strategic thinking with variable solutions and outcomes is best Collect Buy & Place 4. Achievement - Players should be able to Income Item stumble on it and feel smart for achieving it 5. Extensibility - After doing it once and Wait for gaining rewards, players are able to Income repeat to get a better solution http://www.slideshare.net/wooga/killer-game-loops-in-social-games
  • 19. Keeping users engaged - Game flow High Anxiety “The state in which people are so involved Challenge Level in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it” Boredom Low Low Skill Level High
  • 20. Rules of flow 1. Direction - Activity with a clear set of goals which adds direction and High structure to the task 2. Achievable - Good balance between Anxiety the perceived challenges of the task at hand and his or her own perceived Challenge Level skills. Hardcore Gamer 3. Feedback - Clear and immediate feedback helps the person negotiate any changing demands / adjust to Casual maintain the flow state Gamer Boredom Ultimate goal is to keep every player Newbie Low involved and engaged, whatever their Low Skill Level High ability
  • 21. Loyalty flow • Loyalty programmes also need to be designed around flow High • Challenge level can be directly attributed to ongoing engagement Anxiety • Tiers can be used to create levels that people chase to attain – increasing the Challenge Level Gold challenge in line with ability Customers top out • Have to be careful tiering doesn’t “top Silver out” – schemes see drop in activity once top tier reached • Need to consider feedback and how Bronze Boredom this can play a pivotal role in engagement/flow Low Low Skill/Ability Level High
  • 22. Loyalty flow - Tiers vs levels • Tiers in loyalty are very similar to levels used within social gaming • Gaming levels do present additional opportunities however:- • Early days engagement – Users are pushed through lower levels quickly to help “lock in” the behaviour • Social Currency – Levels are published to friends to create an element of competition and achievement • Incremental Achievement – More levels provide granular behaviour recognition and prevent “topping out” so quickly • Signposting – Different activities can help you “level up” more quickly
  • 23. Engagement through meaningful play “Meaningful play occurs when the relationships between actions and outcomes in a game are both discernable and integrated into the larger context of the game” Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Salen & Zimmerman) 2004
  • 24. Creating meaningful play • Discernable –Allow players to understand that an action has a reaction – “If I shoot the asteroid it blows up” – “If I swipe my card, recommend a friend or take up an offer this is recognised –The closer recognition is to action the better the game play • Integrated –Recognition is not only immediate, but also plays larger part of overall game – “Shooting lots of asteroids gains points which go toward higher level – higher tiers provide bigger guns” –Within a loyalty programme, my actions combine progress towards a tier and/or reward – High tiers provide faster earning / increased reward selection
  • 25. Every action has a reaction
  • 26. Every action has a reaction Making credit card transactions interactive
  • 27. Farming engagement “People exert more effort towards reaching a goal the closer they come to the goal” (Hull 1932)
  • 28. Daily Mail rewards example Progression Dynamic Goal Directed Appointment Dynamic
  • 30. If we are to recognise every “check-in”, product review, “like” or social interaction, we need a different way to reward people
  • 31. Social Currency Recognising all interactions requires the unlocking of “social currency” Things that help Social Things that make me belong Currency me feel special
  • 32. Do you remember? How many coins did Example of you put in this early social currency Simply to get onto this?
  • 33. Leader boards democratise social currency Game play compared to other friends
  • 34. [re·ward] – noun A thing given in recognition of service, effort, or achievement
  • 35. Foursquare relies on social currency to create rewards from recognition Get recognised Share with for taking part friends
  • 36. Loyalty Rewards used to be about “me”
  • 37. Now it’s what they say “about me” Cost
  • 38. 80m people a week can’t be wrong… Social gaming has come of age utilising:- • Appointment dynamics to encourage return • Social currency through levels • Dual currencies to both reward and recognise
  • 39. Balancing recognition and reward Dual Currency Example - Delta MQM reward currency earned from flights & partners MQS benefits currency earned from Both currencies can flights only be used to achieve Only the miles status and benefits currency can be used for rewards
  • 40. Loyalty programmes are games GAME GAME GAME STRUCTURE ENGAGEMENT RECOGNITION Using the basic structure of Understanding what Leaning from game game design to add keeps people playing and reward, recognition and additional depth and engaged across all levels motivation mechanics to engagement to the of ability improve the overall interaction interaction Now we need to make the game play better

Editor's Notes

  1. http://digitalriverblog.com/2011/09/30/met-office-campaign-shows-value-of-gamification/
  2. There is always one customer, regardless of the channels they interact on.
  3. http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-11332187-carrot-heap.php?st=7a03fc6
  4. http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-12524067-row-of-apples.php?st=2d9b268http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-15498964-red-apples.php?st=2d9b268Loyalty programmes have used social currency for yearsLounge access = helping me belong Priority Queuing / Black Card = helping me look signficantNeed to better utilise this form of reward to allow additional levels of recognition to provide early engagement and wider interaction
  5. http://www.istockphoto.com/stock-photo-11819207-vintage-pocket-clock.php?st=8abc831