The waters of israel tristan holaday

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The waters of israel tristan holaday

  1. 1. By Tristan Holaday The Waters of Israel
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Brief Background </li></ul><ul><li>Climate and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Demands and Conservation: Urban and Agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Hope For the Future </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hello Israel <ul><li>Located: 31°30′N 34°45′E  </li></ul><ul><li>Land Size: 7,992 sq. mi. </li></ul><ul><li>71 mi. at widest point, 9.3 mi at its narrowest point </li></ul><ul><li>Population est. 2011: 7,797,400 </li></ul><ul><li>(wikipedia.org) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hello Israel <ul><li>Demography: 75% Jewish, 20% Arabic, 4% other </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: Hebrew and Arabic (many unofficial languages spoken because of immigration) </li></ul><ul><li>(wikipedia.org) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climate and Resources <ul><li>Mediterranean Climate: “long, hot, rainless summers and relatively short, cool, rainy winters.” (wikipedia.org) </li></ul><ul><li>Most water sources lie in the north. (Tal) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Climate and Resources <ul><li>Precipitation: 1,175 Million-Cubic Meters (MCM)/year. </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater: Lake Kinneret (or the Jordan River watershed), the Coastal Aquifer, and the Mountain Aquifer, as well as many smaller sources. </li></ul><ul><li>(Tal) </li></ul>
  7. 9. The Issue! <ul><li>Israel’s water resources, which have always been fairly limited, are becoming increasingly strained mainly from over-pumping and pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation is further stressed by the inequality of water allocation and needs of both Israelis and Palestinians. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Inequality <ul><li>Israel drastically restricts the water of Palestinians. </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis receive as much as five times more water than Palestinians. </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli settlements in Palestinian territory use water from Palestinian sources. </li></ul>
  9. 13. Urban <ul><li>“ Over 90% of the population in Israel live in moderate to large cities.” (Lipchin) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 698 mcm/yr-domestic; 117 mcm/yr-industrial (jvl.org) </li></ul><ul><li>WHO standard of 100-150 l/day </li></ul><ul><li>Average Israeli uses 250 l/day (350 l/day with industry) </li></ul><ul><li>(wikipedia.org) </li></ul>
  10. 14. Urban <ul><li>&quot;I'll begin with a dry fact: There's no water.“- Uzi Landau </li></ul><ul><li>Low-flow faucet aerators- reduce water use by 30%-50% </li></ul><ul><li>Ban on watering private lawns, and stringent restrictions on public/business-owned lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Community water quotas </li></ul><ul><li>(haaretz.com) </li></ul>
  11. 15. Urban <ul><li>Increase water prices as much as three times </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination- build more plants and increase operating hours to 24/7. </li></ul><ul><li>Media Campaign: &quot;Israel Mityabeshet&quot; (&quot;Israel is drying up&quot;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased consumption by 12% (100,000 cubic meters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Haaretz.com) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Agriculture <ul><li>“ Making the desert bloom” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture is important to Israeli culture, thought to elevate the nation of Israel, played role in protecting Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural communities: Kibbutzim and Moshavim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But only makes up 3% of GDP (ifamericansknew.org) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ben Gal) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Agriculture <ul><li>some 435,000 ha are cultivated by 900 communities. </li></ul><ul><li>1,997 MCM needed annually in 2002 (only 82% renewable) </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water use in agriculture has dropped from 950 MCM in 1998 to around 550 MCM today </li></ul><ul><li>(Ben Gal) </li></ul>
  14. 19. Agriculture <ul><li>3-fold increase in water productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of wastewater (Effluent- treated wastewater) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>450 mcm/yr </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of brackish water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80 mcm/yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires salt resistant crops, and careful soil management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ben Gal) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Agriculture <ul><li>Micro-irrigation and fertigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation  seen a 15%-25% increase in efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertigation: applying fertilizers through drip system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also experimenting with plant specific irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ben Gal) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Agriculture <ul><li>Unfortunately, use of salt water and wastewater are not sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity causes lower yields thus requiring more water to be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and fresh ground water are eventually contaminated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desalinated water use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces leaching, but is stripped of several important minerals for plant growth (Ben Gal) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Agriculture <ul><li>Israel placed restrictions on Palestine’s ability to expand or make new wells. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian agriculture is mostly fueled by rain water, and is 90% of their GDP. (ifamericansknew.org) </li></ul><ul><li>Need more water to support irrigated crops, especially in Gaza strip. </li></ul><ul><li>(Assaf) </li></ul>
  18. 23. Pollution <ul><li>“ If we were to adopt the high standards of water use which are common in Europe, 70-80% of the water of the coastal aquifer would be deemed non-usable!” (Zaslavsky)   </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIMZHLo2d9o </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of pollution comes from: lack of planning and inspection, creation of industrial areas containing a wide variety of factories, lacking modern wastewater treatment plans (WWTP), unsupervised solid-waste dumps located at the edge of settlements and villages, and deficiencies in sewage infrastructure resulting in raw sewage discharge into river/stream basins </li></ul>
  19. 24. Pollution <ul><li>Municipal uses often add 100-120 milligrams of chlorine per liter. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt pollution- 200,000 tons added to aquifers each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Major pollution from rocket fuel at IDF factory. (haaretz.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Australian athletes from poisoning. (jvl.org) </li></ul><ul><li>(Zaslavsky) </li></ul>
  20. 25. Pollution <ul><li>Now recycle a lot of wastewater through irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some believe this will have catastrophic effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ From a practical standpoint, upgrading sewage treatment constitutes the single most important priority for improving water quality.” (Tubail) </li></ul>
  21. 26. Future Hopes <ul><li>Desalination </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA_XVxhBmTQ </li></ul>
  22. 27. Works Cited <ul><li>“ Aquifers.” debatepolitics.com. Image. </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Gal, Alon and Assaf, Said. “Agriculture and Water.” Water Wisdom: Preparing the Groundwork for Cooperative and Sustainable Water Management in the Middle East. Ed. Tal, Alon and Abed-Rabbo, Alfred. Rutgers Univeristy Press, 2010. 239-277. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Bar-Eli, Avi. “Water Authority seeking to cut Israeli home water usage by 10% in 2009.” Haaretz.com. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Geography of Israel.” Wikipedia.org. </li></ul><ul><li>Inbar, Yossi and Tubail, Khalil. “Sewage Treatment.” Water Wisdom: Preparing the Groundwork for Cooperative and Sustainable Water Management in the Middle East. Ed. Tal, Alon and Abed-Rabbo, Alfred. Rutgers Univeristy Press, 2010. 216-236. Print.   </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jezreel Valley.” holylandphotos.org. Image. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipchin, Clive. “The Water Culture of Israelis and Palestinians.” Water Wisdom: Preparing the Groundwork for Cooperative and Sustainable Water Management in the Middle East. Ed. Tal, Alon and Abed-Rabbo, Alfred. Rutgers Univeristy Press, 2010. 77-89. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Tal, Alon. “Israeli Water Resources – an Introduction.” Water Wisdom: Preparing the Groundwork for Cooperative and Sustainable Water Management in the Middle East. Ed. Tal, Alon and Abed-Rabbo, Alfred. Rutgers Univeristy Press, 2010. 6-40. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>http :// www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Environment/envt2.html </li></ul><ul><li>“ Water in Palestine.” http:// www.ifamericansknew.org/cur_sit/water.html   </li></ul><ul><li>“ Water Supply and Sanitation in Israel.” Wikipedia.org. </li></ul><ul><li>  Zazlavsky, Dan.“Definition of Israel’s Water Problems: Or Water as a Metaphor.” Bar-Ilan University. 14 June, 2000. Inauguration of Project. </li></ul>

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