The Infamous Giraffe <ul><li>Brittany Ferguson </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Nature and The Environment  </li></ul><ul...
Index <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Species and Population </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li>...
Evolution <ul><li>  Antelope-like species appeared    about 20 million years ago in  Africa, Asia, and Europe </li></ul><u...
Lamarck and Darwin’s Theory
Species and Population <ul><li>Current Population is approximately 100,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased by 30% in the l...
Species Distinction of species and their genetic variation.
Habitat <ul><li>Historically, giraffe was spread around Africa, today they are found in the Sub-Saharan areas </li></ul><u...
Anatomy <ul><li>The giraffe is the tallest living animal and one of the heaviest land animals </li></ul><ul><li>As adults:...
Circulatory System <ul><li>Has a very large heart proportionally, compared to other animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can weig...
Neck <ul><li>6 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>7 vertebrae </li></ul>
Ossicones <ul><li>One of the few ruminant animals born with horns </li></ul><ul><li>Both sexes have skin covered horns </l...
Legs and Feet <ul><li>A giraffes front legs are about 10% longer than their hind legs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the hea...
Digestive System <ul><li>Herbivorous diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giraffes eat 65-75 pounds of food a day </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
Mouth and Tongue <ul><li>On average tongue is 18 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Uses it to rip leaves off of thorny acacia trees...
Basics and Behaviors <ul><li>Male are called Bull, female-Cow and baby-Calves </li></ul><ul><li>Average life span of 25 ye...
<ul><li>  Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffes spend twenty minutes to one hour a day sleeping or resting </li></ul>
Male Dominance <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DXcGvQqWB-0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7HCIGF...
Mating Process <ul><li>Breeding season is year round </li></ul><ul><li>Female reach sexual maturity at ages 3-4 </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Females can give birth to up to 12 calves in their lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately following coitus, the ma...
<ul><li>At birth the baby giraffe is six feet tall and can weigh 104-154 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>After 20 minutes the cal...
Predation <ul><li>50% of calves are killed by predators </li></ul><ul><li>Predators also take advantage of the sick and we...
Poaching <ul><li>Giraffes are easily killed and are poached for their meat and hide.  </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe tails are ...
<ul><li>http://eol.org/pages/308378/overview </li></ul><ul><li>http://giraffesanctuary.wildlifedirect.org/2008/10/01/how-m...
Questions?
Expected Learning Outcomes <ul><li>What is unique about giraffes social behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>What is important abo...
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Giraffe brittany ferguson

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  • Most populous species, the reticulated dropped from 30,000 to around 5,000.
  • Movement is minimal,usually about 20-30 km
  • living in loose, open herds. At a given moment a giraffe may be in a herd composed of all males, all females, females and young, or of both sexes and all ages or all alone if it is a mature bull or a cow guarding a new calf. The fluid nature of giraffe society reflects the need to spend most of its time feeding and to move independently between variably spaced trees, and size that makes it unnecessary to bunch together for mutual security. Also height and excellent eyesight enable giraffes to maintain visual contact at long distances a dozen may be dispersed over 1/2 mi (0.8 km) of savanna and still be in a herd. In fact giraffes rarely cluster together unless they happen to be attracted to the same tree, nervous over the presence of lions, or aggregated in the open. Even at rest, herd members stay over 20 yd apart. As usual, females are more sociable than males and rarely out of sight of other females. Mothers of small calves associate most consistently, at least partly because of a mutual attraction between youngsters that results in creches of up to 9 calves. Average spacing between calves is usually less than 10yd. Males remain in maternal herds until they outgrow their resemblance to females at about 3 years, after which they join bachelor herds. They eventually leave their natal range, whereas females stay put. Home ranges of adults and subadults of the two sexes average 63 miles square in Tsavo NP (163 km square), hut vary enormously from 2 up to 252 miles square (5-654 km square). Once settled, hulls have smaller ranges than cows
  • Giraffe brittany ferguson

    1. 1. The Infamous Giraffe <ul><li>Brittany Ferguson </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Nature and The Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Mark McGinley </li></ul>
    2. 2. Index <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Species and Population </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Basic and Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul>
    3. 3. Evolution <ul><li> Antelope-like species appeared about 20 million years ago in Africa, Asia, and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Lamarck and Darwin’s Theory: competition for food became fierce between antelope species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The antelope adapted longer necks to get leaves from the tops of trees. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Lamarck and Darwin’s Theory
    5. 5. Species and Population <ul><li>Current Population is approximately 100,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased by 30% in the last decade. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only one species, Giraffa camelopardalis , was classified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ camel and leopard” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six species were classified in a study conducted in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>First separation of species of Giraffe was between happened about 1 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>West African, is endangered and two others are becoming endangered </li></ul>
    6. 6. Species Distinction of species and their genetic variation.
    7. 7. Habitat <ul><li>Historically, giraffe was spread around Africa, today they are found in the Sub-Saharan areas </li></ul><ul><li>The giraffes in the south have more stable populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Savannas, grasslands, or open woodlands where acacia is abundant </li></ul>
    8. 8. Anatomy <ul><li>The giraffe is the tallest living animal and one of the heaviest land animals </li></ul><ul><li>As adults: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>males stand 15-19 feet tall and weigh 1,700-4,300 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>females stand 13-16 feet tall and weigh 1,200-2,600 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compared to other hoofed mammals the giraffe has a short body, and disproportionately long legs. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Circulatory System <ul><li>Has a very large heart proportionally, compared to other animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can weigh up to 22 pounds and measure 2 feet long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unique blood pressure system allows the giraffe to stretch and lower it’s neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin on legs is very tight to control high blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Neck <ul><li>6 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>7 vertebrae </li></ul>
    11. 11. Ossicones <ul><li>One of the few ruminant animals born with horns </li></ul><ul><li>Both sexes have skin covered horns </li></ul><ul><li>Male’s are thicker and used in fights </li></ul>
    12. 12. Legs and Feet <ul><li>A giraffes front legs are about 10% longer than their hind legs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the heavy muscular development at the base of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mature giraffes have large hooves, around 12 inches wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Can run up to 60 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Main defense against predators, a kick from the front feet can kill a lion </li></ul>
    13. 13. Digestive System <ul><li>Herbivorous diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giraffes eat 65-75 pounds of food a day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficient at extracting all nutrients from leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Extract water from food </li></ul><ul><li>The giraffe is a ruminant animal with a four chambered stomach </li></ul>
    14. 15. Mouth and Tongue <ul><li>On average tongue is 18 inches </li></ul><ul><li>Uses it to rip leaves off of thorny acacia trees </li></ul><ul><li>Inside of mouth is rough and can handle thorny acacia leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible lips </li></ul>
    15. 16. Basics and Behaviors <ul><li>Male are called Bull, female-Cow and baby-Calves </li></ul><ul><li>Average life span of 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot swim </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beyond the range of human hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giraffes search for food and mates 10-24 hours/day </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe is not territorial, social and lives in loose open herds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no leaders of the herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giraffes can be spread about large areas </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li> Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffes spend twenty minutes to one hour a day sleeping or resting </li></ul>
    17. 18. Male Dominance <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DXcGvQqWB-0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7HCIGFdBt8&feature=rellist&playnext=1&list=PL2A44FC594B16D451 </li></ul><ul><li>Most of giraffe sex is homosexual </li></ul><ul><li>Necking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A way for “teenage” male giraffes to see who is stronger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way that older male giraffes show dominance to potential female mates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giraffes are not territorial </li></ul>
    18. 19. Mating Process <ul><li>Breeding season is year round </li></ul><ul><li>Female reach sexual maturity at ages 3-4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estrus or every two weeks, where female excretes pheromones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male giraffes are ready to mate at ages 6-7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must impress the female with its dominance-necking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male can detect a female’s excretion of pheromones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flehmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatedly tries to mount female </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Females can give birth to up to 12 calves in their lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately following coitus, the male leaves the female to take care of the baby, but remains involved in the calves life for up to 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation period is 13-15 months </li></ul><ul><li>Female gives birth while standing </li></ul><ul><li>The baby falls to the ground but isn’t injured </li></ul>Reproduction
    20. 21. <ul><li>At birth the baby giraffe is six feet tall and can weigh 104-154 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>After 20 minutes the calve can stand and is ready to milk </li></ul><ul><li>Calves can walk about an hour after birth and can run within 24 hours of birth. </li></ul>Calves <ul><li>Giraffe calves grow about 3 centimeters tall each day during the first week and double their height in their first year. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Predation <ul><li>50% of calves are killed by predators </li></ul><ul><li>Predators also take advantage of the sick and weak </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffes have a successful defense against predators </li></ul><ul><li>Most harmful predator is humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poaching </li></ul></ul>African lions Crocodiles Leopards Hyenas HUMANS
    22. 23. Poaching <ul><li>Giraffes are easily killed and are poached for their meat and hide. </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe tails are highly prized by many African cultures and most often giraffes are killed for their tail alone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good-luck bracelets, Fly swatters and thread for sewing or stringing beads </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>http://eol.org/pages/308378/overview </li></ul><ul><li>http://giraffesanctuary.wildlifedirect.org/2008/10/01/how-many-species-of-giraffes-exist/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://scienceblogs.com/grrlscientist/2007/12/giraffe_species </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.natureinstitute.org/pub/ic/ic10/giraffe </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.macroevolution.net/giraffe-habitat.html#.Tr7NhWAuhCc </li></ul>Bibliography
    24. 25. Questions?
    25. 26. Expected Learning Outcomes <ul><li>What is unique about giraffes social behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>What is important about the predation of giraffes? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the giraffe’s body adapted to support its size? </li></ul>

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