Yellow = genetically modified crops grown South AfricaRed = GMO ban Ghana, Zambia, AlgeriaOrange caution = rejected GMO grain as food aid Nigeria, Sudan, Malawi
The movement of genes from GM plants into conventional crops or related species in the wild (referred to as “outcrossing”), as well as the mixing of crops derived from conventional seeds with those grown using GM crops, may have an indirect effect on food safety and food security.
The grapple fruit typically looks large and have a flesh that is sweeter and crisper. The grapple fruit is one of the varieties of Fuji apple. Grapple is an Washington apple. It normally tastes like an apple and grape.High in caloriesCholesterol free fruit andreduces the level of cholesterol Reduces the chance of cancer When kept at room temperature, this fruit become soft, mealy and mushy The Grapple season begins late October or early November. It gets paired with some cheese varieties for a tasty treat.
Israeli researchers produced a genetically engineered tomato that tastes with its hint of lemon and rose aromas. Nearly 82 people have tested the experimental fruit against unmodified counterparts. It describes as perfume, rose, geranium and lemon grass.
Heavily fortified with vitamin C and have no sodium or cholesterol
According to the University of Central Florida biomedical researchers, capsules of insulin produced in genetically modified lettuce could hold the key to restoring the body's ability to produce insulin and help millions of Americans who suffer from insulin-dependent diabetesEngineered tobacco plants with the insulin gene and then administered freeze-dried plant cells to five-week-old diabetic mice as a powder for eight weeks. By the end of the study, the diabetic mice had normal blood and urine sugar levels, and their cells were producing normal levels of insulin. Those results and prior research indicate that insulin capsules could someday be used to prevent diabetes before symptoms appear and treat the disease in its later stages, Daniell said. He has since proposed using lettuce instead of tobacco to produce the insulin because that crop can be produced cheaply and avoids the negative stigma associated with tobacco.Insulin typically is given through shots and not pills so the hormone can go straight into the bloodstream. In Daniell's method, plant cell walls made of cellulose initially prevent insulin from degrading. When the plant cells containing insulin reach the intestine, bacteria living there begin to slowly break down the cell walls and gradually release insulin into the bloodstream.
About 20.8 million children and adults in the United States, or about 7 percent of the population, have Type 1 or 2 diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. If human trials are successful, the impact of Daniell's research could affect millions of diabetics worldwide and dramatically reduce the costs of fighting a disease that can lead to heart and kidney diseases and blindness.
Geneticall modified crops jessica schacherer
GeneticallyModified Crops Jessica Schacherer
What are Genetically Modified Crops? GM plants created using GMOs GMOs Organisms in which DNA has been altered in a way not naturally occurring “modern biotechnology” “gene technology” Allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism to another or between non-related species
Benefits of GM Crop Use Resistance to herbicides Insect resistance Decrease use of pesticides Drought resistance Addition of vitamins & nutrients Golden Rice – Vitamin A Bt cotton in India Crop yields increased by 60% Use in United States by 2009/2010 Soybeans 93% Cotton 93% Corn 86% Sugar Beet 95%
GM Crop Global Uses World hunger issue Supply more food to starving nations Poverty issue Conflict with current Allow for better crop yield in regulations in Africa poor countries Promote economic growth Export products Financially independent Conflict with current regulations
Allergenicity Gene Transfer Out CrossingConcerns
Allergenicity •Transfer from commonly allergenic foods discouraged •Unless protein product proven safe •Protocols for tests by WHO •No allergic effects foundConcerns currently in GM foods
Gene Transfer •Transfer from GM foods to human cells •Via intestinal tract •Antibiotic resistant genes •Probability low •Negative health effects?Concerns
Out Crossing •Movement of genes from GM plants to wild species •Mixing of seeds, indirect effect on food safety & security Maize product in US •Ecological relationshipsConcerns
Designer Fruit Example: Peach + Nectarine “Natural cross hybrid” Peach: passes on its taste Combinations of different fruits to Nectarine: easy to eat, no fuzz produce novel ones on skin None naturally occurring Genetically different than either parent Created to enhance characteristics from other species Sold as specialty items New fruit market .50 cents to $1.00 more Methods in field, not lab Still genetically modified food? Controversy avoided
Genetically Modified Lettuce Professor Henry Daniell of the University of Central Florida Genetically engineered tobacco plants with insulin gene Administered to diabetic mice Restored normal blood and urine sugar levels Proposed using lettuce instead Prevent diabetes before symptoms appear Treat disease is later stages
Genetically Modified Lettuce 20.8 million children and adults in US 7% of population Type 1 or 2 diabetes Double by 2025 $79.7 billion out of $645 billion federally spent treating diabetes NIH provided $2 million in funding of study Affect millions worldwide