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  1. 1. Deforestation &Deforestation in Malaysia Malaysia Bat Education Adventure Texas Tech University Dr. Mark A. McGinley
  2. 2. Deforestation► Deforestation is defined as the loss of forests that occurs when people cut down trees.
  3. 3. Why do people cut down trees?Use wood for building
  4. 4. Why do people cut down trees? ► Use wood for fuel
  5. 5. Why do people cut down trees? ► Toclear land for farming
  6. 6. Why do people cut down trees?► Small farms to feed families  Often formed by “slash and burn” ► Slash -Cut down the trees ► Burn the trees to clear the land for farming  Generally cut down only small areas at a time
  7. 7. Why do people cut down trees? ► Plantations  Clear large areas to plant crops Banana Plantation
  8. 8. Why do people cut down trees?► Toclear land for grazing
  9. 9. Why do people cut down trees?► Toclear land for building
  10. 10. Reasons for Deforestation What is the major cause of deforestation?
  11. 11. Amount of Deforestation Has Increased Over Time► Why?► Better tools  From stone axes to chainsaws
  12. 12. Amount of Deforestation Has Increased Over Time► Why?► More People  More people to feed means we need more and larger farms  So people cut down more trees
  13. 13. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring?
  14. 14. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring? Which country has the highest rate of deforestation?
  15. 15. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring?► Today, most deforestation is occurring in tropical regions.► Tropical rainforests are found in tropical rainforests  Most deforestation in tropical rainforests
  16. 16. Results of Deforestation► Clear cutting- cutting down all trees in an area
  17. 17. Clear Cutting► Loss of all habitat for wildlife  If animals have no place to live then it is possible that they will all die► Habitat loss is the leading cause of species becoming extinct.
  18. 18. The number of birds in Brazil is predicted to decrease in the future asthe amount of deforestation increases.
  19. 19. Habitat Loss and Extinction► Many species on the earth are at risk of extinction caused by deforestation
  20. 20. Clear Cutting► Soil erosion  Without plant roots to hold the soil in place soil particles are easily eroded away by water when it rains.  When soil is lost the soil is not as good for farming.
  21. 21. Clear Cutting ► Soil erosion causes siltation  Eroded soil particles end up in rivers ► Rivers become muddy  Harms the animals and plants that live in the river  Rivers carry eroded particles into the ocean ► Siltcan damage coral reefs
  22. 22. Deforestation in Malaysia
  23. 23. Deforestation in Malaysia► Tropical Rainforests are found in Malaysia► Rates of deforestation in Malaysia are some of the highest in the world
  24. 24. Deforestation in Malaysia
  25. 25. Logs are transported by floating them in the river ► These logs can sometimes escape to the sea and damage coral reefs when they are washed ashore by storms.
  26. 26. Reasons for Deforestation in Malaysia► Trees are cut in Malaysia for  Lumber  Fuel  To clear land for agriculture
  27. 27. Oil Palm Plantations
  28. 28. Forest cut to plant oil palm plantation
  29. 29. Oil Palm ► Thefruits of oil palm are used to produce oil  Used in cooking  Used as fuel ► Palm oil can be added to gasoline and used to drive your car  biofuel
  30. 30. Oil Palm Plantations in Malaysia► Deforestation to clear land for oil palm plantations  Habitat loss  Erosion
  31. 31. The amount of undisturbed foresthas been decreasing rapidly in the last sixty years in Borneo The part of the map shaded in green contains undamaged forest
  32. 32. Habitat Loss and Extinction in Malaysia ► The Four Most Endagered Terrestrial Species in Malaysia  Tiger  Asian rhinoceros  Asian elephant  Orangutan ► Allare at risk because of habitat loss caused by deforestation
  33. 33. Deforestation in West Texas?► Today we think of deforestation as being a problem that is occurring in the tropical regions.► Do you think that deforestation has occurred in West Texas?
  34. 34. Deforestation in West Texas► Sand shinnery oak  Quercus havardii  Short (1 – 1.5 meters tall)  Spread by underground branches ► Individuals plants can be 100m x 70m in size (that’s one of the largest individual plants in the world!!)
  35. 35. Deforestation in West Texas ► Before the white settlers reached the high plains, 5 – 7 million acres of sand shinnery oak was spread across the high plains of New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma ► It was the largest oak forest in area in the United States ► (About the size of the state of Maryland)
  36. 36. Deforestation in West Texas► Todaymost of the sand shinnery oak has been destroyed  Removed by ►chopping down the trees and digging up the roots ►Poisoning with herbicide  poisons that kill plants
  37. 37. Deforestation in West Texas ► Sand shinnery oak was removed  To grow pasture ► Cattle don’t like to eat the oak leaves so they cut down the trees and plant grass instead  To grow cotton
  38. 38. Deforestation in West Texas► Deforestation has caused the loss of what once was the largest oak forest in the US!!► Who knew that deforestation was important on the prairie in West Texas!!
  39. 39. Habitat loss has harmed some of the species that lived in the shin oak habitat Lesser Prairie Chicken
  40. 40. Deforestation► Do you  Live in a house built with wood?  Burn wood in your fireplace?  Eat food grown on farms?  Eat food or drink milk that comes from pastures?  Ride in a car powered by gasoline?
  41. 41. Deforestation► If you answered yes to any of these questions then you have probably benefited from the results of deforestation
  42. 42. Deforestation► Are you sad when  Trees are cut?  When species go extinct?  The soil washes away?  When rivers become full of silt?  When fish die in silty rivers?  When coral reefs are destroyed by silt
  43. 43. Deforestation► Ifyou answered yes to any of these questions then you have probably been harmed by deforestation.
  44. 44. Is deforestation good or bad?► This is a complex question  Deforestation both helps and harms us  Different people have different opinions about this ►Who might favor deforestation? ►Who might be against deforestation?
  45. 45. How do you think deforestation in Malaysia affects bats?