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Biodiversity: Species, classification, importance


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Biodiversity: Species, classification, importance

  1. 1. Dr. Mark A. McGinley Texas Tech University BIOL 5311 Summer 2001 Biodiversity Species, Classification, Biodiversity
  2. 2. Species <ul><li>Biologists classify organisms into species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to breed with each other to produce offspring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Biological Species Concept. <ul><li>Most biologists say that species are the same species if they can have children. </li></ul>X Father Mother
  4. 4. Inherited Traits <ul><li>Parents pass on inherited traits to their offspring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus parents and offspring of the same species tend to resemble each other </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Species <ul><li>All species have a scientific name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus name and Species name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinus contorta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canis lupus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zea mays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always capitalize 1 st letter of genus name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species name all lower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underline or italicize scientific names </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Species <ul><li>Some species have common names </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens Humans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinus contorta Lodgepole pine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canis lupus Wolf </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zea mays Corn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because using common names can be confusing, biologists use scientific names </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Telling the Difference Between Species <ul><li>Some differences are simple! </li></ul><ul><li>Different species look different! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Telling the Difference Between Species <ul><li>Some differences are difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>These two birds look the same but are actually different species! </li></ul><ul><li>These ants look different but are actually the same species! </li></ul>
  9. 9. How Many Species Are There? <ul><li>Good Question!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t know the exact answer because scientists are discovering new species all of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists have already discovered and described over 1.5 million species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate that there are probably from 5 million to 30 million species living on the earth!! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. When there are lots of things to keep track of then we like to classify them into groups.
  11. 11. Classifying Lubbock, Texas <ul><li>There are lots of cities in the world </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classifying Lubbock, Texas <ul><li>A planet contains many continents </li></ul><ul><li>A continent contains many countries </li></ul><ul><li>A country contains many states </li></ul><ul><li>A state contains many counties </li></ul><ul><li>A county contains many cities </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classifying Lubbock, Texas <ul><li>All Cities on Earth Planet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities in North America Continent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities in the United States Country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities in Texas State </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities in Lubbock, County County </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lubbock City </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classifying Species <ul><li>There are different ways to classify organisms- for example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What they eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they are related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How could we classify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lions, sharks, hawks, manatees, cows, and fruit bats? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Classify by what animals eat <ul><li>Carnivores- eat meat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lions, sharks, hawks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbivores- eat plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows, manatees, fruit bats </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Classify by how they move <ul><li>Walk/run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lions, cows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawks, fruit bats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manatees, sharks </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Classify by how they are related <ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lions, cows, manatees, fruit bats </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Phylogenetic Classification <ul><li>Biologists like to classify species in a way that helps us to understand how they are related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic classification </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Classifying Species <ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genus species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Kingdom contain many Phyla </li></ul><ul><li>A Phylum contain many Classes </li></ul><ul><li>A Class contain many Orders </li></ul><ul><li>An Order contain many Families </li></ul><ul><li>A Family contain many Genera </li></ul><ul><li>A Genus contains many species </li></ul>
  20. 20. Doing it Right <ul><li>Use “Phylum” when you are talking about only one Phylum – singular </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Phyla” when you are talking about more than 1 Phylum- plural </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Genus” when you are talking about only one Genus – singular </li></ul><ul><li>Use “Genera” when you are talking about more than one Genus - plural </li></ul>
  21. 21. Classifying Species
  22. 22. CLASSIFYING A CAT Felis catus - Cat <ul><li>Kingdom : Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum : Chordata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have a spine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class : Mammalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Order : Carnivora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They eat meat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family : Felidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This family includes the housecat, tigers, lions, jaguar, leopard, cheetah, and lynx. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genus : Felis </li></ul><ul><li>Species : catus </li></ul>
  23. 23. Why should we care about biodiversity on earth?
  24. 24. Species play important role in food webs
  25. 25. Species play important role in food webs <ul><li>All species are a source of food for other species </li></ul><ul><li>All species compete with other species of food </li></ul><ul><li>Many species use other species for food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species are connected in a food web </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. WHY DO WE NEED LOTS OF SPECIES? <ul><li>Agriculture – we like to grow lots of different kinds of plants and animals to eat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are better at growing in different places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some different species taste better </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. WHY DO WE NEED LOTS OF SPECIES? <ul><li>Medicine ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our medicine was discovered using chemicals found in plants, animals, and small organisms (bacteria). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need lots of different kinds to be able to discover different medicines to help people. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. WHY DO WE NEED LOTS OF SPECIES? <ul><li>Materials ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber comes from trees found in the rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woods, dyes, fiber. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. WHY DO WE NEED LOTS OF SPECIES? <ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scuba diving and snorkelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Biodiversity is Beautiful
  31. 31. Risks to Biodiversity <ul><li>Species are at risk of extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing and hunting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many species are in danger!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>