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Middle Management in an Agile World webcast

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In an increasingly agile world, do we still need middle managers? Clearly we do, but middle management and HR departments must adapt or never meet the promise of highly motivated and productive teams. Some of the changes required may be considered quite radical when compared to traditional HR practices. But without these changes you will have difficulty attracting and retaining the talent you need.
In this webinar, Mark Lines provides an overview of trends we see in organizational design, career paths, the new role of middle management, and some progressive ideas regarding compensation and performance management.

Published in: Software

Middle Management in an Agile World webcast

  1. 1. Twitter: @mark_lines How Does Middle Management Fit In An Agile Organization? Based on 1-day workshop DA106: Disciplined Agile for Managers
  2. 2. Mark Lines 2 • President, Disciplined Agile Consortium • Managing Partner, Scott Ambler + Associates • Co-creator of the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) framework • Enterprise Transformation Coach • mark [at] scottambler.com • @Mark_Lines • Helping to create Agile and Lean enterprises around the world © Disciplined Agile Consortium
  3. 3. Let’s explore some important questions…. What important trends are happening? Where do managers fit into agile? So what do I actually do? How can I do it effectively and add value? How do I assess Teams and Team Members? How can I get on board and be part of the solution? What are some interesting ideas other companies are trying in HR? © Disciplined Agile Consortium 3
  4. 4. http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/ agility-at-scale/people-management/ 4 Disciplined Agile 2.x People Management process blade ”People Operations”?
  5. 5. Important Trends © Disciplined Agile Consortium 5
  6. 6. Trend #1: Traditional management tasks are performed by the team © Disciplined Agile Consortium 6
  7. 7. Trend #2: Leadership is addressed by new roles © Disciplined Agile Consortium Team Lead Architecture Owner Product Owner 7
  8. 8. Trend #3: Experienced organizations are moving towards stable teams © Disciplined Agile Consortium Work Work Work Work 8
  9. 9. Trend #4: Status reporting is being automated away © Disciplined Agile Consortium 9
  10. 10. Trend #5: Companies are Abandoning Annual Performance Reviews • Accenture, Deloitte, Cigna, GE, Adobe, Netflix • 10% of Fortune 500 have eliminated performance appraisals • Time spent huge source of waste and stress • Demoralizing to employees • Feedback loop too infrequent • MBO seen as ineffective, goals can change • Not Agile! • Moving towards continuous feedback • Teams self-assess and improve themselves © Disciplined Agile Consortium 10
  11. 11. Implications for Existing Managers 1. Empowered teams è Less work for managers to do 2. New leadership roles è Leadership is the responsibility of non-managers 3. Stable teams è Much less “resource management” is required è Budgeting is greatly simplified 4. Automated status reporting èContinuous feedback 5. Continuous performance feedback èLess work doing annual performance reviews © Disciplined Agile Consortium 11 For more info: “Where do all the managers go?” https://www.disciplinedagileconsortium.org/webinars
  12. 12. The Reality: There Are Fewer Management Positions in Agile Orgs Before Agile © Disciplined Agile Consortium After Agile 12
  13. 13. At scale you may need a few people in specialized management roles © Disciplined Agile Consortium 13
  14. 14. Potential Management Roles at Scale • Community of Excellence (CoE) Lead • Community of Practice (CoP) Lead • Data Manager • Functional Manager • Governor • Operations Manager • Portfolio Manager • Program Manager • Release Manager • Support (Help Desk) Manager © Disciplined Agile Consortium 14
  15. 15. Where do managers fit into agile? © Disciplined Agile Consortium 15
  16. 16. Agile Managers • From Managing, to Leadership and Support • Key Themes of the new Agile World for Managers – Nurturing Teams (Principle #5) – Expect High Performance Teams – Heat Shield from organizational chaos – Building “Systems for Happiness” – Radical transparency – Self development and mastery (Shu Ha Ri) – Need to learn Disciplined Agile enterprise & team strategies – Importance of fun and winning – Metrics design – Outcomes over Output – Teams are self-managing and keep each other honest & accountable
  17. 17. Rights of an Functional Manager • To expect his/her teams to pursue excellence in terms of producing high quality work as efficiently as possible • To expect the team to work together to address team issues before escalating outside the team • To be welcomed in most Team Meetings as an observer in the interested of transparency • To be treated with respect © Disciplined Agile Consortium 17
  18. 18. Responsibilities of an Functional Manager • Provision of a suitable environment to work in • Creation of an environment of safety • Reinforce agile principles and mindset • Encourage experimentation and accept failures • Protect the team from unnecessary external interruptions (heat shield) • Address organizational impediments to the team • Support individual and team learning opportunities • Individual and team coaching • Champion change, reinforce agile principles • Conflict resolution if required • Assist with resourcing as required • Removal of administration burdens © Disciplined Agile Consortium 18
  19. 19. Functional Managers Enable High Performance Teams © Disciplined Agile Consortium 19 Agile Manifesto Principle: “Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.” It is the team’s responsibility to pursue excellence and become a “High performance team” It is the Functional Manager’s responsibility to help create and maintain an ideal environment and support the team’s pursuit of this goal
  20. 20. Motivating Teams • You can’t mandate motivation, BUT you can create an environment where they are more likely to be motivated and happy • Take money off the table • Provide opportunities for: – Autonomy – Mastery – Purpose © Disciplined Agile Consortium 20 “Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.” – Agile Manifesto
  21. 21. The Joy of Work • Increase the joy and accomplishment people feel in their work © Disciplined Agile Consortium 21
  22. 22. Manage for Happiness • Complex Adaptive Systems – network collaboration over hierarchies • Manage the system, not the people • Consider gamification – Personal Mindmaps – Kudo Cards – Delegation Poker – Moving Motivators – Serious Lego © Disciplined Agile Consortium 22
  23. 23. A Story about Happiness © Disciplined Agile Consortium 23 Happy teams will be resilient
  24. 24. Creating the Environment © Disciplined Agile Consortium 24 “Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.” – Agile Manifesto From... To... Menlo Innovations
  25. 25. Workspace Design • Collocate where possible • Supplement with virtual tooling to simulate collocation • Design collaborative workspaces • Reduce the need for meeting rooms © Disciplined Agile Consortium 25
  26. 26. Organizational Design Considerations © Disciplined Agile Consortium 26
  27. 27. Organizational Design • From matrix style staffing of projects to long-term stable teams aligned by value stream © Disciplined Agile Consortium 27 http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/people/
  28. 28. Team Design © Disciplined Agile Consortium 28 • Seek “Whole Teams” – Reduce dependencies outside the team – Increasing team size may justify full-time specialists on a team • Favor Feature over Component teams – Consider embedding legacy/service team members into teams • Create stable teams – initial team design will likely be flawed. Treat as an experiment, learn and adapt http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/form-initial-team/
  29. 29. Traditional Structure with Managers of Disciplines © Disciplined Agile Consortium 29 Manager Development Developer Developer Developer Developer Developer Developer Manager Testing Tester Tester Tester Tester Tester Tester Manager Business Analysis Business Analyst Business Analyst Business Analyst Business Analyst Business Analyst Business Analyst Manager PMO Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Project Manager Developer
  30. 30. Modern Approach: Managers of Cross Functional Teams (Functional Managers) © Disciplined Agile Consortium 30 Functional Manager - Equities Teams 1 Team Member Team Lead Team Member Architecture Owner Team Member Team Member Functional Manager - Equities Teams 2 Team Lead Team Member Architecture Owner Team Member Team Member Team Member Functional Manager - Fixed Income Teams 1 Team Member Team Member Architecture Owner Team Member Team Member Team Lead Functional Manager - Fixed Income Teams 2 Architecture Owner Team Lead Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member Leopard Team Jaguar Team Maserati Team Porsche Team
  31. 31. But really, we can get by with a wider span of management © Disciplined Agile Consortium 31 Functional Manager - Equities Teams Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Lead Architecture Owner Leopard Team Team Member Team Member Team Member Jaguar Team Team Lead Architecture Owner Functional Manager - Fixed Income Teams Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Lead Architecture Owner Maserati Team Team Member Team Member Team Member Porsche Team Team Lead Architecture Owner
  32. 32. Supporting the Team © Disciplined Agile Consortium 32 “Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.” – Agile Manifesto http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/people/
  33. 33. Succeed Early over Fail Fast • Managers should – encourage experimentation – allow failure – expect learnings from mistakes • Teams that are punished for process experiments that fail will stop trying new things – foster a “safe” environment • Novice agile teams can succeed earlier, and fail less by – Learning Disciplined Agile strategies – referencing the DA framework for ideas – Validate their learning through certification testing • www.disciplinedagileconsortium.org • Coaching accelerates learning and increases chance of early success © Disciplined Agile Consortium 33
  34. 34. Self-organized Learning through Communities of Practice/Guilds • Learning from peers over learning from management © Disciplined Agile Consortium 34 http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/people/ communities-of-practice/
  35. 35. Self-organized learning over Top-down Career Development © Disciplined Agile Consortium 35 Functional Manager - Equities Teams Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Lead Architecture Owner Leopard Team Team Member Team Member Team Member Jaguar Team Team Lead Architecture Owner Functional Manager - Fixed Income Teams Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Member Team Lead Architecture Owner Maserati Team Team Member Team Member Team Member Porsche Team Team Lead Architecture Owner Testing Guild Encourage “Self-organizing Governance”
  36. 36. Career Progression Implications (1 of 2) • Traditional organizations often have too many job titles/profiles • Bureaucratic • Encourages silo mentality • Discourages learning and working outside specialty © Disciplined Agile Consortium 36 • Functional Analysts • Business Analysts • Systems Analysts • Solutions Analyst • Business Analyst I • Business Analyst II • Business Analyst III • Business Analyst IV • Business Analyst V 20 Job Profiles for Analysts Do same for Developers, Testers, Architects = 80 Job Profiles!
  37. 37. Career Progression Implications (2 of 2) • Modern practice is to reduce specialties and levels, and flatten hierarchies • Idea: Create profiles for generalizing specialists • Developer Specialist – Level 1 – Level 2 – Level 3 • Testing Specialist – Level 1 – Level 2 – Level 3 • Analyst Specialist – Level 1 – Level 2 – Level 3 © Disciplined Agile Consortium 37 You will still have specialists, just not so many! eg) DBAs, SMEs • Minimizes bureaucracy • Encourages learning outside specialties Ratings of individuals should include skills outside their specialty!
  38. 38. Agile Roles are NOT Job Titles! © Disciplined Agile Consortium Team Lead Architecture Owner Product Owner 38 - No formal tie to compensation, reporting structure, job titles
  39. 39. Trust them to Get the Job Done © Disciplined Agile Consortium 39 “Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.” - Agile Manifesto
  40. 40. Getting On Board © Disciplined Agile Consortium 40 “Management must enthusiastically champion the change, not merely tolerate it.” - Jon Smart, Barclays UK
  41. 41. “Management by Walking Around” • “Go to the Gemba” • Technique “can” be effective • Don’t be disruptive • Be sensitive to deadlines • Do not add to their stress level • Things to Observe – Levels of collaboration – Body language – Morale (laughter metric) • “Anything I can do to help?” © Disciplined Agile Consortium 41
  42. 42. The Danger of a Functional Manager as Coach • If a reporting relationship exists, coaching can become confused with a directive • Need to be self-aware and initially over compensate • Light-touch coaching © Disciplined Agile Consortium 42
  43. 43. Assessing Team Performance © Disciplined Agile Consortium 43 • Team performance over individual • Outcomes over output • Self-organizing within appropriate governance
  44. 44. Performance Management • Team assessment over individual assessments – Individuals need to grow, but not at the expense of teamwork – Stack ranking being abandoned • Reward effective teams – collaborative behavior – meeting commitments – “leave no Team Member behind” • Transparency of everything means individual assessment becomes easier – Teamwork, getting stuff done become visible to all – Are Team Members willing to pair and share © Disciplined Agile Consortium 44 http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/people/
  45. 45. Things to Observe • Collaborative teamwork – effective standups – daily collaboration • Visual radiators – Iteration and Release Burndowns/Burnups – Risks • Working the Task Board throughout the day • Preference towards conversations over e-mail • Actively minimizing of waste • For Lean teams: Flow of work, minimizing WIP, adhering to constraints • For Agile/Scrum teams: Meeting commitments • Effective meetings (lookahead, planning, etc) • Iteration Reviews/Governance – Are stakeholders engaged, asking questions, happy? – Release Plan, Milestone reviews taking place, Risks being reviewed? © Disciplined Agile Consortium 45
  46. 46. Team Metrics – Examples © Disciplined Agile Consortium 46 Business Goal Metric Frequent Delivery of Value Cycle Time Quality Escaped Defects Dependability/Customer Satisfaction Planned to Done Ratio High Performance Teams Team Morale/Happiness You should understand metrics like these. Are they trending positive?
  47. 47. How and When to Engage with Business • Managers should not interfere with Teams interaction with the Stakeholders but there are ways they can help – Looking at upcoming work stream to potentially address skills and capacity issues in the teams in a timely manner (look-ahead capacity planning) – Understand business satisfaction with Teams’ throughput, quality, dependability – Act as “heat shield” if the business has concerns © Disciplined Agile Consortium 47 Delivery Teams Functional Manager Product Owner
  48. 48. Do you have Working Groups or real Teams? • Team members collaborate continuously throughout the day • Esprit de corps • Enjoy constructive disagreements • Team members trust each other • Dedicated to meeting commitments • Team members share • No hidden work • Good teams feel safe – can make mistakes without fear • Team members care for each other) © Disciplined Agile Consortium 48
  49. 49. Interesting HR Ideas other Companies are Trying • Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Rewards • Compensation – Transparency – Equitable compensation – Merit Money bonus systems (Appelo) – Team over individual incentives • Unlimited Vacation • No annual performance reviews • Working remotely © Disciplined Agile Consortium 49
  50. 50. Parting Advice... • Don’t be a seagull • Encourage problem solving by teams • Consider where you yourself are on the Shu Ha Ri continuum before jumping to conclusions and “solving” problems • Accept mentoring from your Team Coaches • Aggressively pursue self-education • Lead by example • Support your Team Coaches • DA Certification of your teams will make your life easier – better choices lead to better outcomes © Disciplined Agile Consortium 50 A Message to Teams – Show Empathy for your Managers “They are people too. They are just stuck in the system.” – Jim Benson
  51. 51. How to Learn More • Disciplined Agile Consortium 1-day workshop – “DA106: Disciplined Agile for Managers” • This workshop focuses on how to to be effective as a people (or functional) manager in an agile world. The content covers agile leadership approaches from Disciplined Agile, Management 3.0, Daniel Pink, Lyssa Adkins, Menlo Innovations, and others. Many exercises and agile games are built into the workshop. • The workshop takes a deep dive into Disciplined Agile's People Management process blade to understand the various strategies available to you and which ones to adopt based on your organization and teams' context. • www.disciplinedagileconsortium.org/DA106 • Find an instructor near you: – www.disciplinedagileconsortium.org/instructors © Disciplined Agile Consortium 51
  52. 52. Thank You! mark [at] scottambler.com @mark_lines DisciplinedAgileConsortium.org DisciplinedAgileDelivery.com ScottAmbler.com Disciplined Agile Delivery © Disciplined Agile Consortium 52
  53. 53. Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) is a process decision framework The key characteristics of DAD: – People-first – Goal-driven – Hybrid agile – Learning-oriented – Full delivery lifecycle – Solution focused – Risk-value lifecycle – Enterprise aware © Disciplined Agile Consortium 53
  54. 54. Shuhari and Disciplined Agile Certification At the shu stage you are beginning to learn the techniques and philosophies of disciplined agile development. Your goal is to build a strong foundation from which to build upon. At the ha stage you reflect upon and question why disciplined agile strategies work, seeking to understand the range of strategies available to you and when they are best applied. At the ri stage you seek to extend and improve upon disciplined agile techniques, sharing your learnings with others. © Disciplined Agile Consortium 54
  55. 55. Would You Like This Presented to Your Organization? Contact us at ScottAmbler.com © Disciplined Agile Consortium 55
  56. 56. Scott Ambler + Associates is the thought leader behind the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) framework and its application. We are a boutique IT management consulting firm that advises organizations to be more effective applying disciplined agile and lean processes within the context of your business. Our website is ScottAmbler.com We can help © Disciplined Agile Consortium 56

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