nodes C2WelcomeSMi Sixth Annual Conference Weapons/“Effectors” Sensing Network Centric Warfare -Enhancing Battlespace Management 26 October 2004 Chair: Mark Tempestilli CAPT, USN (Ret.) Director Modeling, Simulation & Gaming and Advanced Concepts & Strategies Next Century Corporation email@example.com
Important Questions to Ponder• What are the “new sources of power,” and how can we exploit them for NCW?• What are the “new rules” of the emerging era and what do they mean for NCW?• How can a network-centric force innovate and adapt for distinct advantage?• Should we and can we “manage” network-centric organizations and operations?• What is the relationship between NCW and Effects-Based Operations?• Should we and how can we “co-evolve” organizations and human elements withnetwork-centric technology?• How can we explore, discover and/or develop answers to the previous questions?
The New Sources of Power• What are the “new sources of power,” and how can we exploit them for NCW? Ø Fight first for knowledge. Ø Achieve shared, high quality knowledge. Ø Maintain knowledge advantage. Ø Act like a node in a network, organizationally & informationally. Ø Self-synchronize/organize/align. Self- Ø Parallel, nonlinear dynamics. Ø Speed and agility. Ø Adaptability and innovation. Ø Reach and persistence. nodes C2 Ø Achieve effects. Weapons/“Effectors” Sensing Ø Trustworthiness. Ø New mindsets.
The New Sources of Power• What are the “new sources of power,” and how can we exploit them for NCW? Despite valuable advances in technology, connectivity & equipment interoperability, the real power comes via… Ø New organizational forms and C2 schemes. Ø New leadership and warfighting styles. Ø New personnel roles and competencies. Ø New behavioral norms, rules & principles. Ø New network-centric culture.
The New Sources of Power• What are the “new sources of power,” and how can we exploit them for NCW? Domains of NCO & EBO: Social Cognitive Information Physical
New Rules • What are the “new rules” for organizations and operations and what do they mean for NCW?q Collaborate, share, collaborate – across previous boundaries.q Human judgment (based on new mindsets and revalued norms), proactively guided by well-articulated and understood intent for well- strategy, mission, and risk-management is vital. risk-q Allow individuals to act on their own local knowledge put in context. context. (“Think global, act local.”)q Behave to encourage best structures to emerge.q Apply rules to simple, generic units and allow them to combine in in many different ways.q Encourage credible, understandable, enduring, and accountable commitments. (> trust)q Protect criticism and foster feedback and learning.q Establish a framework within which people can create nested frameworks of more specific rules. Based in part on Virginia Postrel, “The Bonds of Life”
Operational Innovation & Adaptation• How can a network-centric force innovate and adapt for distinct advantage? See the previous two slides: Refine and incorporate the new sources of power and new rules. Ø Empower members to innovate and adapt. Ø Teach them about linking technology with process changes and human/organizational changes. Ø Give them leeway and resources to try. Ø Incentivize innovation through operational urgency, etc. Ø Set reasonable risk mitigation bounds. Ø Accept non-critical failure. non- Ø Learn from trying—whether succeeded or failed. trying— Ø Ensure systematic organizational learning across the force—use the force— network. Ø Raise up and reward the innovators and adapters. Ø Also raise up subordinate leaders who similarly empower innovation. innovation.
Manage vs. Command• Should we and can we “manage” network-centric organizations and operations? Ø Overly tight management of highly adaptive & agile organizations organizations and their operations is anathema to success. Ø High quality shared awareness does not automatically imply directive, hierarchical control. Ø We never really had tight control of organizations and operations operations anyway. Ø Self-synchronization and emergent, adaptive ops must be led and Self- guided differently. Ø Re-emphasize the art of command and the processes that Re- accompany it. Ø (Again, see “new sources of power” and “new rules.”)
NCW ~ EBO • What is the relationship between NCW and Effects-Based Operations? “Effects-Based” Outcomes Best strategic, operational, tactical effects “Network Centric” Operational qualities: Behavior – Speed – Precision – Appropriate Effects – Adaptability Advanced – Agility C2 Dynamics – Battlefield Innovation – Persistence – Initiative “Knowledge Superiority” – Unity of Effort Status Shared understanding of situations and intentsInformation InfrastructureAdvanced communications, sensing, computing & interface Copyrighted material
Co-Evolving Capabilities • Should we and how can we “co-evolve” organizations and human elements with network-centric technology? POLICY DOCTRINE D O ORGANIZATION CONCURRENT LINES OF T TRAINING & EDUCATION CAPABILITIESDEVELOPMENT NEC M MATERIEL L LEADER DEVELOPMENT P PERSONNEL F FACILITIES
Co-Evolving Organizations • Should we and how can we “co-evolve” organizations and human elements with network-centric technology? LEADERSHIP PEOPLE…and SIMILARLY: PROCESSES CONCURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF ALL STRUCTURESORGANIZATIONAL NCO & OPERATIONAL CULTURE & MINDSETS ELEMENTS BEHAVIOR TECHNOLOGY MEASURES
Exploring The New• How can we explore, discover and/or develop answers to the previous questions? Keep it S 1. Continuous Rapid Prototyping Heuristic imple Approac 2. Simulations & Games Engagin Relevan g Scena h rios – New Rules Mitigate t Chall Critical R enges Feed Ex isk as N – New Concepts ploratory Collabora Value eeded – New Mental Models Learn te – Re-valuated Norms – New Roles, Structures, Processes – New Behaviors – Self-Synchronization – Emergence – New Capabilities 3. Operational Experiments 4. Tactical D&E 5. Online-assisted Collaborative Communities 6. Measure against Effects 7. Iterate & Adapt 8. Learn TM TM
Change is coming… 73% of online Americans say the Internet has improved their ability to learn. (Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 2004) 74% of online teens use IM. 84% surf the web for fun. (Pew Project, July 2001) Soldiers overseas playing XBOX via Internet.And we can be with the leading edge… …which is already arriving. Copyrighted material
Are we looking… …where we already had light? Copyrighted material
…or are we making new lightand looking in new places? Copyrighted material
On with the show… Questions or Follow - Up? Follow- See your Chair: Mark Tempestilli CAPT, USN (Ret.) Director Modeling, Simulation & Gaming and Advanced Concepts & Strategies Next Century Corporation firstname.lastname@example.org
Network Centric Operations: “What’s new?”nodes C2 Weapons/“Effectors” Sensing • Distributed Functions & Resources • New Competencies & Mindsets • Distributed Intelligence & Knowledge • Extensive Collaboration • Better Shared Situational Awareness • Understanding the Basis of Effects • New Organizations and Rules • New Culture and Behavior
Notional Model of Network Centric Ops Including Effects Based Ops Current (but evolving) U.S. joint Effects-Based Outcomes definitions of "effects": Best strategic, operational, tactical effects Effect - The physical, functional, or “Network- psychological outcome, event, or consequence that results from specific Centric” military or non-military actions. Organizational Behavior Effects Based Operations (EBO) - A process for obtaining a desired strategic outcome or "effect" on the enemy, through the synergistic, multiplicative, and cumulative application of the full range of military and Advanced nonmilitary capabilities at the tactical, C2 Dynamics operational, and strategic levels. Effects Based Warfare - The application of armed conflict to achieve desired strategic “Knowledge Superiority” outcomes through the effects of military force. Status Shared understanding of situations and intents Effects Based Strategy - The coherent application of national and alliance elements of power through effects-based processes to accomplish strategic objectives.Information InfrastructureAdvanced communications, sensing, computing & interface Copyrighted material
The Familiar Process Surveillance Acquisition Weapons Engagement Battle and and Targeting Launch Weapons DamageReconnaissance Localization and Homing Assessment Guidance (BDA) Sensors Sensors Correlation Fusion Fusion Fusion Planning Decision Aids Observe – Orient – Decide – Act -- Observe Again Sequential, linear, cyclic activity Copyrighted material
The Emerging Network-based Process Observe Orient Decide ActParallel, collective, non-linear activity Copyrighted material
The Emerging Network-based Process Plans Ops Intelligence LogisticsParallel, collective, non-linear activity Copyrighted material
The Emerging Network-based Process Operation X Task 1 Operation X Task 2 Emergent (Unplanned) Op Y Planned Op ZParallel, collective, non-linear activity Copyrighted material