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It gives exclusive
attention to “building
national consensus and
carrying out a broad
through all possible
It involves all relevant segments of society, from
policy and decision makers to religious
associations, professional groups, opinion
leaders, communities, and individuals.
It is a decentralized process that seeks to
facilitate developmental change through a wide
range of players engaged in interrelated and
complementary efforts (Ling and Wilstein 1998).
It calls for a coalition
partners in order to
into societal action.
Those who can make
policy and program
decisions, as well as
resources for services.
Those which can help
create and sustain
public support for a
social product and can
also encourage public
Those who can set up
systems within the
community and can also
play important roles in
among members of the
Those who can push the
concerns of social
allocation of local
funding in support of the
programs and can also
come up with policy and
program decisions in
favor of socmob
Those who have direct
access to the intended
beneficiaries and are
often credible sources of
information on the
Those who can chart the
course of action of the
program and can put in
more resources such as
additional funding and
Those who can
directions and can
services in existing
explains their being key
actors in the process.
The critical participants
in the program since
they are the ultimate
users/buyers of the
As enumerated by McKee (1992):
An approach which aims
at “winning political and
policy commitment for
major goal and the
allocations to realize that
Aims at eliciting the
cooperation of service
providers and other
organizations which can
provide direct or indirect
support to the program.
Aims at gaining the
commitment of local
political, religious, social,
and traditional leaders,
as well as local
women’s groups and
Aims at securing the
support of national or
goals, either by
resources or carrying
out the advertising
Involves informing and
motivating the program
of community groups,
through traditional and
Information, Education, a
nd Communication (IEC)
Networking and Alliance
Is an important component of social mobilization
which involves “convincing, persuading, and
motivating individuals and entities” that there is a
problem and that there are appropriate policies
and strategies which could be adopted for
solving such a problem. (Valdecanas, et al.,
Targets the different actors capable of creating a
positive environment for the program, such as
leaders, legislators, planners, administrators in
various sectors, media organizations, and NGOs
Two words constantly associated
with advocacy efforts:
(1) Policy support; and
(2) Resource generation.
Its activities main purpose is the generation of
information or release of ready-made
information and distribution through all available
communication methods (Heffner 1998).
Should not be regarded as a “mere information
campaign or communication project but a long-
term program built into the sectoral programs of
a community” (Stuart 1995).
Examples of IEC strategies are the design,
packaging, and production of appropriate
radio/TV programs, news, spots, shows,
documentary films, newspaper articles, posters,
books, newsletters, leaflets, pamphlets, stickers,
or even messages on particular items like T-
shirts, caps, plastic bags, etc.
Entertainment - has also been used for
Songs, radio and TV shows/plugs, serial
dramas or soap operas, and the like were proven to be
helpful in making developmental messages more appealing
to the general public (Piotrow, et al. 1997).
Enter-Educate Approach - Involves activities that
entertain and educate
(Piotrow, et al. 1997)
everywhere, from village
fairs to cable
television, from songs
and dances to drama
and talk radio.
People voluntarily seek
They like it and eagerly
pay attention to it.
Entertainment can bring
the audience right into a
thoughts and actions.
Audiences identify with
characters as if they
People participate in
through songs, dances,
and sports and also by
following the lives of
characters, writing fan
mail, and discussing
entertainment with friends
remember, talk to
others, and sometimes
change their behavior.
In entertainment, people
can see the
consequences of wise
and foolish behavior.
They identify with role
models and may imitate
performers already exist
and are looking for
dramatic themes such
as health, love, sex, and
Entertainment can pay
its own way, generating
sponsorship, support for
collateral materials, and
financial returns to
attitudes, and act
differently as a result of
The Nine Ps are reflected in simple slogan:
“Sing and the world sing with you.
Lecture and you lecture alone.”
Aims to “empower local
leaders, parents, families, groups, and the
whole community.” (Stuart 1995)
Basic element in mobilization at the grassroots
“The bottom line in social mobilization is that
individuals and community groups are able to
get a sense of what they can do themselves to
improve their situation” (Vldecanas, et al. 1996).
An essential element in encouraging community
Helps develop people’s “capability for problem-
solving, decision making, and collective action
thus, developing and strengthening their
networks” (Stuart 1995).
Through its activities, people are enabled to
perceive the problem, recognize what they can
do, and eventually work their way out of it.
Can be directed both towards the program
implementers themselves and towards the
Use to enhance “people’s
knowledge, appreciation of, and skills in
advocacy, mobilization, and community
organizing of people empowerment” (Stuart
Develop people’s “competencies in dealing with
their networks, in resource sharing, problem-
solving, decision-making, and most
importantly, collective action” (The Sixth Training
Enhances continuous expansion of the network
of advocates and mobilizers, thus contributing to
the sustainability of the whole socmob process.
The “common thread” that runs through all the
other socmob elements (Valdecanas, et al.
Adds to the success of any mobilization activity
by identifying those who can “actually and
potentially act on the problem” and establishing
close collaboration with them (Stuart 1995).
“They have the first hand understanding of the
local issues thus, can respond quickly to
educate, motivate, and mobilize for action at the
community level” (The Sixth Training 1996).
They might be also helpful in securing the
support and commitment of government officials,
be it at the local or national level.
It is a socmob component strategy which
measures the “efficiency of program
implementation and the effectiveness of the
strategies taken in achieving defined goals”
The meter stick used for periodic checks on the
progress of the program as it moves towards its
Focus in Monitoring (The Sixth Training 1996)
These things serve as indicators in determining
whether or not there is discrepancy between
where you are and where you should be.
Level - looks at the stage of the project
where you are against where you
should already be.
Timing - says how long you have already
been working on this activity
vis-à-vis the allotted time.
Effectiveness - looks into what has been
accomplished so far.
Was described by Piotrow, et al. (1997) as a
process which determines whether the program
objectives were met – that is, whether the
intended audience changed their
knowledge, attitudes, or behavior.
“An assessment of whether or not the program
or project strategies actually worked out” (The
Sixth Training 1996).
It involves activities such as information
gathering and analysis and discussion with
program staff, sponsors, and decision-makers
which as a process can be done
before, during, and after the program
Timing depends on factors such as
(The Sixth Training 1996):
Pre-identified purposes of evaluation
Work cycle of those involved in the activity
Three Types of Evaluation
(The Sixth Training 1996)
is the gathering of information relevant to decision-
making during the planning or implementation
stages of a program. It sometimes known as
context evaluation, needs assessment, situational
analysis, or diagnostic research.
is done during the project implementation phase. It
involves analysis of the program in terms of
continuing relevance, outputs, effectiveness, and
is apparently carried out at the latter part of a
program or after its completion. It aims to sum up
the accomplishments, impacts, and lessons
“Advocacy ensures the continuation of support. IEC
sustains the awareness of the problems and solutions. CO
allows the community to unify and seek solutions to
problems. Training maintains the commitment and
cooperation of program implementers as it integrates new
techniques and approaches in the solution. Alliance
building identifies relevant individuals and groups who can
contribute to the achievement of the goals of the program.
Monitoring and evaluation shows us how to improve our
techniques. It gives us the feedback we need --- are we
solving the problem or not.”