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Global Water Crisis and Missouri S&T's chapter of Engineers Without Borders -final 4.2.15

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Global Water Crisis and Missouri S&T's chapter of Engineers Without Borders -final 4.2.15

  1. 1. The GlobalWaterCrisis and Missouri S&T’s Chapter of EngineersWithout Borders MO-AWWA/MWEA Joint Conference 2015 Mark Hogan
  2. 2. About Me – Mark Hogan • Senior in Environmental Engineering • Minor: Global Studies 2 Source: http://mst.edu/
  3. 3. About Me – Mark Hogan • Senior in Environmental Engineering • Minor: Global Studies • Water Environment Federation (WEF) • 2012-2014: Missouri StreamTeam Coordinator 3
  4. 4. About Me – Mark Hogan • Senior in Environmental Engineering • Minor: Global Studies • Water Environment Federation (WEF) • 2012-2014: Missouri StreamTeam Coordinator • Engineers Without Borders (EWB) • 2013: Guatemala Program Leader • NowVice President 4
  5. 5. Outline  How bad is the global water crisis?  Who is doing something about it?  What is Missouri S&T doing?  Guatemala potable water project  What can you do?
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. TheWater Crisis Is Everywhere Gathering water in Ghana Rodrigo de Freitas Lake – to host the rowing events for the Rio de Janiero 2016 Olympic Games 7 Source: http://thomaslee.photoshelter.com/ Source: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/
  8. 8. Water Affects Health AndTime • Lack of clean drinking water affects not only health, but also TIME • Women and children spend 140 MILLION HOURS each day collecting water. • How many minutes have passed? • It is estimated that a child dies from water borne illnesses every minute. 8 Source: http://water.org/water-crisis/water-facts/women/
  9. 9. SafeWork Hours • 140 MILLION HOURS = 20 empire state buildings • How many companies have 1 million safe work hours? • 2 million safe work hours? • 3 million safe work hours? • Imagine what could be done with that time. • For women: • Earn more family income • For children: • More quality time at school • Time to be a kid and play! 9 Source: http://water.org/water-crisis/water-facts/women/
  10. 10. Geniuses who almost didn’t get the chance to shine: • Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826) • Orphan at 11, labored in mirror making workshop. • Upon collapse of master’s house, soon-to-be King of Bavaria Maximillian, rescued Joseph and offered him a position at the Optical Institute. • By 27, he was the world’s greatest designer of lenses, which paved the way for better telescopes. • Became famous for Fraunhofer lines, which are the dark lines in the light spectrum emitted by the sun. 10 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_von_Fraunhofer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraunhofer_lines
  11. 11. Geniuses who almost didn’t get the chance to shine: • Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920) • Real life GoodWill Hunting • Professor Hardy from Cambridge University accepted his mathematical theorems. • Contributed to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. 11 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srinivasa_Ramanujan
  12. 12. 12 Source: http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2015/#read
  13. 13. Outline  How bad is the global water crisis?  Who is doing something about it?  What is Missouri S&T doing?  Guatemala potable water project  What can you do?
  14. 14. Who is doing something about the GlobalWater Crisis? 14 Source: http://www.unicef.org/ http://water.org/ https://www.engineeringforchange.org https://www.globalbrigades.org http://www.ewb-usa.org/ https://www.charitywater.org/ http://www.waterforpeople.org/
  15. 15. • GaryWhite: UMR alumnus! • What makes water.org unique? • Approach: • Local Partners and Community Ownership • AppropriateTechnology • The WaterCredit Initiative 15 Source: http://water.org/
  16. 16. • What makes charity:water unique? • Fundraising campaigns • Birthday donations • Creating your own campaign profile • Seeing exactly where your money goes  16 Source: https://www.charitywater.org/
  17. 17. • What makes EWB-USA unique? • You can be directly involved: • 250+ student and professional chapters • Student: MU, S&T,Wash U, SLU, UMKC, KU, SIU Edwardsville, SIU Carbondale • Professional: Gateway (STL), Kansas City, Sunflower State (Topeka) 17 Source: http://ewb-usa.org/get-involved/chapters
  18. 18. Outline  How bad is the global water crisis?  Who is doing something about it?  What is Missouri S&T doing?  Guatemala potable water project  What can you do?
  19. 19. What Is Missouri S&T Doing? • Research in India • Focused onWater, Food, andWellness • Led by Dr. DanielOerther • International Senior Design (Geo Eng.) • Ceramic Pot Filters (EcoFiltro) • Led by Dr. Curt Elmore • Engineers Without Borders • 4 programs, each with 2 or 3 ongoing projects • 10 years strong - 10,000 lives 19
  20. 20. EWB-S&T:Tacachia, Bolivia • In the Andes, 17 miles southwest of La Paz • About 120 community members • Potable water project • Hydraulic Ram Pumps (natural spring) • SettlingTanks • FerrocementTank • Distribution System • Biosand Filters • Erosion control project • Implemented Riverbank Protection
  21. 21. • Almost 30 houses and 120 people • Built by Habitat for Humanity-Bolivia • Projects: • Flooding Counter-measures • Well, Pump and Electricity • FerrocementTank • Distribution System EWB-S&T Los Eucaliptos, Bolivia
  22. 22. • Approximately 9,000 people Problems and their solutions: • Outdated water system designed for 3,000 people • Performed leak study • High levels of arsenic • Drilled a 4th well, with ample production and (luckily) low arsenic levels • Unstable levels of chlorine (using drip) • Installed chlorine injection pumps • Extreme hardness clogs injector parts • Backwash daily with vinegar solution EWB-S&T Santiago, Honduras
  23. 23. • Approximately 3,000 people • Goal: Establish a dependable potable water system that can be maintained • 430’Well • Pump and Chlorination System • ElevatedTank • 7.5 Mile Distribution System EWB-S&T Nahualate, Guatemala
  24. 24. Outline  How bad is the global water crisis?  Who is doing something about it?  What is Missouri S&T doing?  Guatemala potable water project  What can you do?
  25. 25. • Infrastructure: • Electricity • Cell phone coverage • Nearby EMS care • Jobs: • Work on sugar cane & rubber tree plantations • Chop and haul wood • General labor • 3 Schools and 5+ Churches EWB-S&T Nahualate, Guatemala
  26. 26. • Nahualate River: poor quality, but constant • Canals: worse quality, also constant • RainWater Collection: seasonal, attracts mosquitos • Shallow Wells: better quality, depletes in dry season • Ceramic Pot Filters: slow operation, maintenance costs Water Sources
  27. 27. Getting Started (2008-2010) Abandoned well
  28. 28. Getting Started (2011)
  29. 29. NewWell Location (Completed Sept.18, 2012)
  30. 30. NewWell Location (2012)
  31. 31. WELL LOCATION HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING NAHUALATE, GUATEMALA Rio Nahualate (perennial stream) Elev. ~ 347 m Rio Nimaquiej (perennial stream) Elev. ~ 378 m 370 400 390 380 400 Elevation In meters Elevation In meters Drawing Not to Scale Well Depth: Drilled to 430 feet or ~131 meters Hypothetical piezometric surface Worst case scenario piezometric surface 390~7 meters ~38 meters 360 350 340 330 320 310 370 380 390 300 290 280 270 Soil Bedrock: Quaternary Volcanics Well Location Elev. ~396 m
  32. 32. Rio Nahualate (perennial stream) Elev. ~ 347 m Rio Nimaquiej (perennial stream) Elev. ~ 378 m 370 400 390 380 400 Elevation In meters Elevation In meters Well Location Elev. ~396 m Drawing Not to Scale 390 360 350 340 330 320 310 370 380 390 300 290 280 270 Bedrock: Quaternary Volcanics 115 gpm well pumping ~40 meter drawdown piezometric surface Drawdown ~40 meters Static water level piezometric surface Contaminated Surface Water Soil WELL LOCATION HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING NAHUALATE, GUATEMALA Well Depth: Drilled to 430 feet or ~131 meters
  33. 33. • Located near the Church’s property, center of the community • The well house provides shelter for: • Pump controls • Chlorination system • Extra supplies NewWell House
  34. 34. 230V 30 Gallon Drum PowerTransformer Two Metering Pumps operating at 50% capacity Chlorine Feed Well Pump Control Panel 120V CheckValves 4” Fill Line insideWell House Two-Pump Chlorination System
  35. 35. Water StorageTank (Completed May, 2014)
  36. 36. • The required size of the elevated tank was calculated to be 58,000 Liters (15,000 Gallons) • Size was determined for a per day method via EPANET • The pump will operate at 125 GPM for nearly 12 hours a day Sizing ofWater StorageTank
  37. 37. The elevated tank was the most expensive single project, totaling ~$86,000 Design of Steel ElevatedTank (2013) Designs were guided and reviewed by RoyWall, P.E.
  38. 38. Lesson Learned
  39. 39. Lesson Learned (continued)
  40. 40. Success of the construction was favored by scheduling it during the dry season (note the cloudy skies upon completion). Construction of ElevatedTank
  41. 41. Water Distribution System (approximately 7.5 miles)
  42. 42. Distribution System Map and Elevations
  43. 43. • Used AutoCAD Civil 3D to plot pipe locations • Used EPANET to analyze pressure and model  • Various valves: • Gate and ball shut-off valves • Air release valves • Pressure reducing valves • Most houses are <20 meters from distribution line • Individual homes will purchase a connection Designs were guided and reviewed byTodd Williams, P.E. Water Distribution Design (2011-2012) EPANET pressures at peak demand
  44. 44. Plan and Profile Construction Drawings
  45. 45. Distribution System Construction (2013-ongoing)
  46. 46. Sustainability and Monitoring
  47. 47. 1. Construction Manual for the Construction Manager and the NahualateWater Committee 2. Operation & Maintenance Manual for the O&M Manager and the Nahualate Water Committee 3. Management Manual for finances and management within the NahualateWater Committee 4. General info tri-fold brochures to keep community members updated and interested in project Literature for the Community
  48. 48. EWB-S&T is partnering with Masters of Public Health (MPH) students from University of Missouri-Columbia • July 2012 health surveys of 180 homes • Will continue to help with the education of the community • Health Clinic constructed by fellow volunteer group, but ran out of funding Education
  49. 49. Will be in charge of: • Hiring and overseeing the O&M Manager • This is the only paid position • Handling money - collecting fees, paying temporary laborers, etc. • Making executive decisions The community will contribute financially: • Installation fee: ~$15 • Monthly service fee: $3 • Community members agree that these are reasonable amounts Water Committee =Water Utility Company
  50. 50. During construction and at completion of project, a local engineer visits and takes notes on our behalf  EWB-S&T and MPH will travel to community to monitor success of project Metrics to monitor: • Health surveys by MPH • Monitoring of system water meters • Analyzing the cost and maintainability of the water supply system • Periodic water quality tests Monitoring the Project Jeanny Rios: NGO Engineering Liaison Source: http://publichealth.missouri.edu/
  51. 51. Outline  How bad is the global water crisis?  Who is doing something about it?  What is Missouri S&T doing?  Guatemala potable water project  What can you do?
  52. 52. What CanYou Do? Companies, Foundations, and Individuals Can: 52 • Give advice • Lead training sessions on modeling software • Network with international companies and NGOs Who Helped EWB- S&T HowThey Helped ToddWilliams (M3 Engineering) Guatemala Distribution System Vince Stollhans (STLMSD) Guatemala Pump Controls Steve Hubbs (W4P, LouisvilleWater Co.) Honduras and Guatemala Chlorination Sal Elkott (Elkott Engineering) Bolivia SurfaceWater Countermeasures RoyWall (MECS, Inc.) Structures in Guatemala, Honduras, and Bolivia Dan Israel (Terracon) Advise Guatemala Kent Mace Bolivia Surveying Craig Erdman (Geoengineers) Bolivia ErosionControl
  53. 53. What CanYou Do? Companies, Foundations, and Individuals Can: 53 • Give financial support • Donations • Merchandise • Grants • Participate in events! Donate this week! Source: http://www.waterforpeople.org/
  54. 54. Fundraising Events and Ideas EWB-S&T’s 5k on April 11th in STL Shop on Amazon? Use Amazon Smile 54 Source: https://racesonline.com/events/engineers-without-borders-run-for-water Source: http://smile.amazon.com/ Source: http://www.ewb-stl.org/drupal/ • Just search “EWB 5k STL” and you’ll find the registration site. • Find us on Facebook! • Amazon will support the charity of your choice (EWB,W4P, water.org, charity:water) EWB-Gateway Pro Chapter is hosting aTrivia Night April 24th • ewb-stl.org or find them on FB
  55. 55. 55 Source: http://water.org/ When you give awareness of a problem that is serious, but also give awareness of a solution that is practical, I think it’s in people’s nature to want to step up and do their part. --Matt Damon, co-founder of Water.org
  56. 56. Thank you! Any questions? Mark Hogan: markhogan89@gmail.com EWB-S&T: ewb-mst.org – cewb@mst.edu

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