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Research in Nursing Chapter 2


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Research in Nursing Chapter 2

  1. 1. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN  Theoretical sources can be found in periodicals and monographs. Data – Based (Research) Reports  Consists of reports of research and includes published studies in journals or book, critique reviews, professional and government reports and unpublished studies. Conceptual Literature Data – Based Reports  Published articles,  Published NURSING RESEARCH documents, chapters in book. quantitative and  Literature reviews of qualitative studies. CHAPTER 2 concepts.  Unpublished studies  Proceedings and audiotapes  Unpublished Review of Related Literature & Studies and videotapes from research abstract or scholarly conferences. entire studies from Lecturer: Mark Fredderick R. Abejo RN, MAN  Web-based online articles print, audio, online,________________________________________________ and information from conferences etc. professional organizationsLiterature – consists of all written sources relevant to the and agencies.topic that is selected for research. B. Primary and Secondary SourcesLiterature Review Is an organized critique of the important scholarly Primary Sources literature that supports a study and a key step in the  A source written by a person who originated or research process. is responsible for generating the ideas Is useful in developing the researcher’s understanding published. and background and is particularly essential when the  This is the person who conducted the study, researcher is not completely familiar with studies developed the theory or prepared the scholarly previously done within the problem area. discussion on the concept, topic, issue and It links past researches to existing knowledge to form problem. foundation for future direction.  Can be published or unpublished A review of literature provides the researcher with the  A primary data-research source is written by a current theoretical and scientific knowledge about person who conducted the research while a particular problem and resulting in a synthesis of what is primary conceptual source is written by the known and not known. theorist who developed the theory or conceptual content. The review should be organized into sections that present themes or identify trends. The purpose is not to list all Secondary Sources material published but instead, the review of literature  This is someone other than the original should synthesize and evaluate it based on the focus of author who writes or present the author’s the study. original work. The material is usually in A literature review must do these things: the form of a summary or critique of 1. Be organized around and related directly to the someone else’s scholarly work. thesis or research question you are developing  Can be published or unpublished 2. Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is  A secondary source often represents a not known response to or a summary or critique of a 3. Identify areas of controversy in the literature theorist’s or researcher’s works. 4. Formulate questions that need further research Indexes and Journals that publish reports on nursing and related literatureSOURCES INCLUDED IN A LITERATURE REVIEW (USA)  Nursing Research A. Conceptual (Theoretical ) Literature and Data-  Nursing Outlook based (Research) Reports  Nursing Science  Nursing Forum Conceptual (Theoretical) Literature  Journal of Nursing Education  Includes concept analysis, models, theories and  American Journal of Nursing conceptual frameworks that support a selected  Journal of American Hospital Asso. research problem and purpose.  American Journal of Public Health  Can be articles that comprise an author’s theory  Hospital Management and Journal of Nursing or it can be a discussion of a particular Service Administration concepts, theory or topic.Review of Related Literature and Study Abejo
  2. 2. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN 7. Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to theIn the Philippines: problem/issue? Does the author include literature taking positions she or he does not agree with?  Academy of Nursing in the Philippines 8. In a research study, how good are the basic  Newsette of the National League of Government components of the study design (e.g., population, Nurses intervention, outcome)? How accurate and valid are  The Philippine Journal of Nursing the measurements? Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis?The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It 9. In material written for a popular readership, does the author use appeals to emotion, one-sided examples, or rhetorically-charged language and tone? Is there an objective basis to the reasoning, or is the authorAsk yourself questions like these: merely "proving" what he or she already believes? 10. How does the author structure the argument? Can 1. What is the specific thesis, problem, or research you "deconstruct" the flow of the argument to see question that my literature review helps to define? whether or where it breaks down logically (e.g., in 2. What type of literature review am I conducting? Am establishing cause-effect relationships)? I looking at issues of theory? methodology? policy? 11. In what ways does this book or article contribute to quantitative research (e.g. on the effectiveness of a our understanding of the problem under study, and new procedure)? qualitative research (e.g., studies )? in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the 3. What is the scope of my literature review? What strengths and limitations? types of publications am I using (e.g., journals, 12. How does this book or article relate to the specific books, government documents, popular media)? thesis or question I am developing? What discipline am I working in (e.g., nursing psychology, sociology, medicine)? 4. How good was my information seeking? Has my search been wide enough to ensure Ive found all the PURPOSE OF LITERATURE REVIEW relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the number of sources Ive used appropriate for the length of my paper? Major Goal: The major goal of a literature review is to develop a 5. Have I critically analysed the literature I use? Do I strong knowledge base to carry out research and other follow through a set of concepts and questions, scholarly education and clinical practice activities. comparing items to each other in the ways they deal with them? Instead of just listing and summarizing A review of the literature also dies the following: items, do I assess them, discussing strengths and  Determines what is known and unknown about a weaknesses? subject, concept or problem. 6. Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my  Determine gaps, consistencies and inconstancies in perspective? the literature about a subject, concept or problem. 7. Will the reader find my literature review relevant,  Uncovers research findings that support evidence- appropriate, and useful? based practice.  Discover conceptual traditions used to examine problems.Ask yourself questions like these about each book or  Uncovers a new practice interventions or gainsarticle you include: supporting evidence for current intervention, protocols and policies. 1. Has the author formulated a problem/issue?  Promotes evidence-based revision and development 2. Is it clearly defined? Is its significance (scope, of new practice protocols, policies etc. related to severity, relevance) clearly established? nursing practice. 3. Could the problem have been approached more  Generates useful research question and hypotheses effectively from another perspective?  Determine an appropriate research design, 4. What is the authors research orientation (e.g., methodology and analysis for answering the research question or hypotheses. interpretive, critical science, combination)?  Determines the need for replication of a study or 5. What is the authors theoretical framework (e.g., refinement of a study. psychological, developmental, feminist)?  Synthesis the strengths and weaknesses and findings 6. What is the relationship between the theoretical and of available studies on a topic / problem. research perspectives?Review of Related Literature and Study Abejo
  3. 3. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN Quantitative Research Qualitative Research c. Using Reference Management Software Is conducted to direct  Use of literature review  Reference management software is a type the planning and for a particular of a software that can be used to conduct implementation of a approach: searches and to store the information on study. Phenomenological all search fields for each reference - Compare and combine obtained. findings from the study  RefWorks (, a with the lit. to determine software that does not require researchers current knowledge of a to purchase or install the software in their phenomenon. computer since it operates directly from Grounded theory the internet. - Explain, support and extend the theory C. Locating Relevant Literature generated in the study.  Performing Complex Searches Ethnographic  In a complex search, two or more concepts or - Provide a background synonyms are combined in one search. for conducting the study.  The following are several ways to arrange terms and combine them. The word AND is used to combined terms For topics that reveal too many uselessPERFORMING A LITERATURE REVIEW hits because selected term includes another topic that of no interest, use theA. Using the Library word NOT  Major categories of library: The word OR is useful when searching for a. Public Library synonymous or concept. b. Academic Library c. Special Library  Limiting the Search  Selecting Search FieldsB. Identifying Relevant Research Studies  Linking  Researchers should be aware that before they begin  Allows the researcher from one website to searching the literature, they should consider exactly another. what information they are looking for.  Searching Electric Journal  A written plan that includes:  Electronic journals are published only in a. Selecting Databases to Search electronic form.  Bibliographical Database, a compilation  These journals may have more current of citations that provides the information information on the topic than traditional necessary to locate a reference. journals since articles submitted by authors are  The following are the three most useful reviewed and published within three to four electronic databases for nurse researchers: months. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)  Search the World Wide Web  An advantage of information found from the Medical Literature On-Line Web is that it is likely to be more current than (MEDLINE) materials found in the books.  The disadvantage is that information is uneven Institute for Scientific Information in terms of accuracy and validity of the sources. (ISI)  Metasearchers, these are programs that can perform a search using multiple search engines, allowing a single search to cover more of the b. Selecting Key Words Web.  Keywords are the major concepts or variables of a research problem or topic. These terms will be what the researcher will enter to begin a search READING AND CRITIQUING SOURCES 1. Phrases and single terms can also be used. 2. Synonyms or alternative terms for concept or variables. A. Skimming Sources 3. Truncating or shortening/abbreviating  Is quickly reviewing a source to gain a broad terms may also allow researcher to overview of its content. locate.  Skimming allows researchers to make preliminary 4. The author’s name can also be used. judgment about the value of a source and determine whether it is a primary or secondary.Review of Related Literature and Study Abejo
  4. 4. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MANB. Comprehending Sources  Comprehending a source requires one to read the whole article carefully. Focus on understanding major concepts and the logical flow of ideas within the source. Highlights the content that is considered important. Practice writing notes that indicate whether the information from the source will be used in developing a research proposal.  Record quotations that can be used in a review of literature section.C. Analyzing Sources  Determining the value of a source for particular study is done through analysis.  There are two stage in analyzing sources: The first stage involves the critiquing of individual studies wherein the relevant content in the source is clearly identified and sources are sorted into refined system of categories. The second stage involves making comparisons between studies, which allows the researchers to critique the existing body of knowledge in relation to the research problem.D. Synthesizing Sources  Involves clarifying the meaning obtained from the source as a whole.  Clustering and interrelating ideas from several sources to form a gestalt are done through synthesis. _________________________________________ References: 1. Venzon. 2004. Introduction to Nursing Research: Quest for Quality Nursing, 1st ed. Philippines: C&E Publishing Inc. 2. Barrientos-Tan. 2006. A Research Guide in Nursing Education, 3rd ed. Philippines: Visual Print Enterprises. 3. Reyes & Layug. 2009. Comprehensive Reviewer for the Nurse Licensure Exam, Philippines: East West Educational Specialists, C&E Publishing Inc. 4. Calmorin & Piedad. 2008. Nursing Research. National Bookstore Publishing 5. Brink & Wood. 2001. Basic Steps in Planning Nursing Research, 5th ed. Philippines: Jones and Bartlett Publisher Inc. 6. Burns & Grove. 2007. Understanding Nursing Research : Building an Evidence-Based Practice, 4th ed. China; Elsevier, Health Sciences. 7. LoBiondo-Wood & Haber. 2006. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 6th ed. USA: Mosby Inc. 8. Polit & Beck. 2008. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Review of Related Literature and Study Abejo