Research in Nursing Chapter 1


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Research in Nursing Chapter 1

  1. 1. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN IV. Taking Notes Direct Quotation from a Source  Copying words exactly as they appear in the source.  When you quote a source, you must use quotation marks before and after the quotations then identify who made the statements. Paraphase from a Source  Is a statement of the ideas from a source using slightly different words. Summary of a Source NURSING RESEARCH  Is a statement of the main ideas of a source using your own words. CHAPTER 1 Organizing your notes V. Citing Sources Lecturer: Mark Fredderick R. Abejo RN, MAN You may show this in three ways:________________________________________________  Endnotes followed by a bibliography  Footnotes followed by a bibliography  Parenthetical Citations followed by a worked RESEARCH PROCESS cited list. VI. Writing BibliographyThe research process embodies a series of actions that aresystematic and organized into steps.Purpose: To provide directions to the researcher RESEARCH PROBLEMResearch Process - To reveal new knowledge that may contribute to the The selection of a research problem or query is solution of a problem. probably the most important and most difficult step in the research processProblem Solving - To solve an immediate problem in a particular Research Problem setting. A research problem is an enigmatic , perplexing or troubling condition. Problem Solving Research Process It presents the idea that is to be examined in the study Process and is the foundation of the research study. Identify the problem  Identify the problem It is an area of concern where there is a gap in the Gather pertinent  Review of related knowledge base needed for nursing practice. information literature The research problem: Suggest solutions  Theoretical framework  Identifies the area of concern for a particular Consider outcomes  Questions to be population answered and  Indicates the significance of the problem hypothesis to be tested.  Provides a background for the problem Choice of solution  Research methodology  Outlines the need for additional study in a problem Implement solution  Data gathering statements. Evaluate results of  Analysis and implementation interpretation of data Formulate the Problem Modify, revise, change  Summary, conclusions  Natural curiosity or burning interest in a particular area and recommendations may lead to formulation of a problem. A researcher’s intellectual curiosity enables him/her to conduct a studySteps in Doing Research Study in the most creative and productive ways.  A perceived difficulty and feeling of discomfort I. Choosing Topic  A discrepancy or a gap between “what is” and “what The most important key in choosing the topic is to should be” identify the general topic and define it carefully.  The daily experience of human beings List several questions you would like to ask about the topic Sources of Problems II. Assemble Data on the Topic 1. Fields of SpecializationsIII. Evaluating Information 2. Instructional Programs Test the information for: 3. Organizational structures, policies and interpersonal  Relevance relations.  Reliability 4. New technologies  Accuracy 5. Conflicting ideas and ideals  Objectivity 6. Journals, books, thesis or dissertationsResearch Process Abejo
  2. 2. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN 7. Mass media  Researchability of the Problem 8. Theories and Principles affecting certain phenomena  Feasibility of the Study 9. Problem Areas in Nursing  Time and Timing 10. Problem situations and issues  Money commitment 11. Suggestions of Experts and authorities  Researcher experience  Researcher interestCharacteristics of a Good Problem  Availability of the study participants  The research question is feasible.  Availability of facilities and equipment  The research question is important.  Cooperation of others  The concept to be studied must be related to  Ethical consideration observable events.  The findings of a good researchable problem may be Criteria for Choosing a Problem for Scientific Inquiry generalized in other areas. External Criteria  The purpose of the study is clearly defined. a. Novelty  The researcher must be interested and qualified to do b. Availability of subjects the study. c. Institutional or admistrative support d. Ethical Considerations e. Facilities and Equipment Characteristics of Researchable Problems Internal Criteria  Originality a. Motivations, interest, intellectual curiosity and  Significance perceptiveness of the researcher  Manageability b. Experience, training and professional qualifications  Measurability c. Time management  Resource Availability d. Costs and returns e. Hazards, penalties and handicapsDeveloping and Refining Research Problems Selecting Topic Nursing situations often provide a variety of BASIC COMPONENTS OF A research topics or concepts that identify broad RESEARCH REPORT problem areas investigations. Ideas should be noted and sorted in terms of interest, knowledge about topics, It will be useful to discuss preliminary ideas with A. TITLE OF THE STUDY colleagues and advisers, look at research literature, The title embodies substantive words or phrase which observe what is happening in clinical settings and gives the idea of what the research study is all about. engage in reflection to be able to select researchable Research titles must be clearly stated, concise and and feasible topics for study. consists of not more than 15 words. After selecting the most fruitful ideas, the list made should not be discarded. “Self Concept and Professional Attributes of Staff Nurses in Relation to Patients’ Satisfaction Index” Narrowing the Topic After the identification of a topic of interest, broad “Work Values of Nurses and their Clinical question can be generated which will lead to a Performance in Selected Government Hospitals in researchable problem. Metro Davao” Questions that may help to focus an inquiry are the following:  What is going on with…..? B. INTRODUCTION  What is the process by which……? This section presents a brief discussion of the  What is the meaning of…….? rationale and background of the problem or subject  What is the extent of……? of inquiry.  What influences or causes……? The introduction serves as a springboard for the  What is the relationship between……? statement of the problem.  What factors contribute to……..? It should stimulate the interest of the reader and set the stage for the presentation of the study.Evaluating Research Problems The Introduction part includes the following:  The context of the problem and its historical Significance of the Problem background.  Influences nursing practice  Authoritative viewpoints on the problem  Builds on previous research  The researcher’s interest in working on the  Promotes theory testing or development problem  Addresses nursing research priorities  The purpose of the study in relation to the problem.Research Process Abejo
  3. 3. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN C. THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL Research Topic FRAMEWORKS ATTITUDE OF WEST NEGROS UNIVERSITY Theory LEVEL 3 STUDENT NURSES Comes from the Greek word “ theoria” which means a TOWARDS SMOKING beholding spectacle or speculation. Is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions and CHAPTER I prepositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGOUND of explaining and predicting the phenomena. Introduction Characteristics of Theory Smoking is a habit but curable. 1. It consist of a set of CONCEPTS. Considered as curable but few people try to control themselves from doing it. People, students and even professionals are often tempted to smoke. For some, Concepts smoking relieves tension; superiority among others, - are abstractions that categorize observations based curiosity, satisfaction, and a form of self deception on commonalities and differences. They are building but the adverse consequences of smoking is one’s blocks of theories. own health. - Kinds of Concepts:  Enumerative Smoking exist everywhere even in school  Associative campuses that conclude to be huge problem.  Relational According to Toni Christopherson, a problem that  Statistical everyone tries to eradicate but fails to act on it  Summative because they themselves cannot practice what they preach . It is obvious that smoking is one of the Construct major problems of every college student. Many - Is a group of concepts that are directly or indirectly college students are fond of smoking, it driven observable. oneself to heavenly feeling. But it is not an excuse to - They are derived from combination of academic and be free from any complication someday. clinical knowledge and add meaning and scope to a theory. Many people tried self discipline to control the temptation of smoking. Others would try Fact re- lifestyle and refocus their attention just to stop - It is the most basic term in research that is themselves from doing it. But worse, others don’t irreducible because it is an established and verifiable know what to do and they simply give in. Others on truth. the other hand, would smoke not because they don’t know what to do but simply because they won’t get Conceptual Framework belong to the “in group’. - Represents a less formal attempt at organizing phenomena. As mentioned earlier, smoking is curable; - It serves as springboard formulation of research one always has the power to control one’s self. hypothesis and as preliminary step in the Because of smoking, few qualified people get to be construction of more formal theories. successful. Its because of smoking is one of the reason that words mortality rate. Smoking could Theoretical Framework never be eradicated unless we try to start the battle - Is derived from one or more theories or paradigms against it and heart attack in those with heart through the process of induction and deduction. disease. Studies have indicated that some student does smoking during their vacant time than studying 2. Theory also consists of PROPOSITIONS, each of which their lessons. Smoking in college especially in indicates relationships between concepts derived from nursing students is becoming popular substitute for empirical data. learning. There are some factors of smoking which has the social approval from parents, faculty and friends. Some studies shows that student with low Proposition self – esteem is actually more likely to smoke than - are statements that describe the relationship of two student with high self – esteem because of the or more concepts. negative evaluation that they might receive from the people around them.Research Process Abejo
  4. 4. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN3. A theory is represented by CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM and THORETICAL MODEL Differences Between Conceptual and Theoretical Model Conceptual Paradigm - Are concepts that provide a structure or pattern for Conceptual Model or Theoretical Model or organizing phenomena of interest in the practice of Paradigm Framework research. - A conceptual paradigm may be constructed in the It is a pre-theoretical basis It proposes a framework following manner from which substantive derived from theories  These are presented in solid lines, indicating theories may be derived direct relationship and dotted lines indicating indirect relationship. It is highly abstract It is less abstract  These are also presented with basic shapes and arrows that indicates flow of direction, Concept are related and Concepts are narrowly interaction, interdependence and multidimensional bounded, specific and interrelationship. explicitly interrelated.  This should be properly labeled and must be accompanied by a textual explanation. It provides a perspective for It postulates relationship.  Keep the paradigm short an simple in order not science It is descriptive, explanatory to confuse the reader. or predictive. ( Refer Appendix A for the example of Paradigm ) It is derived from systematic It is constructed from observation and intuition. available theories and findings of empirical Model research. - Represents some aspects of reality, concrete or abstract, by means of likeness that may be structural, It is developed through the It is develop through the pictorial, diagrammatic or mathematical. process of intuition process of induction and - Types of Models: deduction.  Conceptual Model It must be evaluated through It permits empirical tests. These are ideas formulated in the mind; logical grounds and cannot be picture of something that actually exists empirically tested. which consists of patterns, standards or examples.  Theoretical Model Purposes of Theories These represent the real world expressed in language or mathematical symbols,  To summarize existing knowledge critical to the Refers to a group of interrelated theories development and advancement of scientific knowledge. that provides rationale fro the hypotheses,  To explain or interpret observation as well as predict and policies and curricula of a science. control outcomes.  To stimulate the effort of making new discoveries.4. Theories are purposely created and formulated, not Criteria for Judging a Theory discovered.  Internal Criticism5. Theories are, however, only tentative and subject to  Clarity change.  Consistency  Logical Development6. Theory development occurs if new evidences or  The Level of Theory Development observations undermine a previously accepted theory.  External Criticism  Adequacy A theory, conceptual model or theoretical  Utility framework identifies parameters for the study,  Significance guides data collection and provides a perspective  Discrimination in the interpretation of data to enable the  Scope researcher to structure facts into an orderly  Complexity and Parsimony system.Research Process Abejo
  5. 5. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAND. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Errors to be avoided by the researcher in stating research A problem statement is an expression of the problem: dilemma or disturbing situation that needs × Problems that elicit broad, general findings instead investigation for the purposes of providing of specific information needed for their solution. understanding and direction. × Shallow and unimportant inquiries. The problem must be clearly stated. × Rhetorically stated problem which tend to elicit It must be expressed in precise terms as the subject emotional reactions that diminishes the scientific of inquiry. intent of the inquiry. It indicated the population and the major variables of × Question that are not testable and cannot be the study which need to be subjected to empirical answered through scientific investigation. testing. Problem statements, particularly for quantitative CONCEPT MAPPING studies, often have most of the following six components: An educational technique that uses diagrams to a. Problem identification demonstrate the relationship of one concept or b. Background situation. c. Scope of the problem A structure process, focused on a topic or construct d. Consequences of the problem of interest, involving input from one or more e. Knowledge gaps participants, that produces an interpretable pictorial f. Proposed solutions view of their ideas and concepts and how these are interrelated.Ways of Stating the Problem Steps of Concept Mapping1. Problem stated in question form: a. Single question  Preparation Are the hours of nursing care available in  Generation general hospitals related to patient satisfaction?  Structuring Does smoking cause lung cancer among adult  Representation males?  Interpretation  Utilization b. Single question followed by a series of questions What are the common methods of contraception practiced by fifty selected RESEARCH QUESTION mothers in Barangay Pembo? A research question is an explicit query about a What problems do these mothers face, if any, problem or issue that can be challenged, examined in the particular method of their choice? and analyzed and will yield useful new information. A research question should provide answers that2. Problem stated in a declarative sentence: explain describe, identify, substantiate, predict or a. Single declarative sentence qualify (Brink, 1994 ) To determine whether people who watch The two basic components of a question are: television read fewer books. Stem, direct the research process To identify common problem among nurses in Topic, is the actual focus of the study Operating Room. Tips for beginning researchers b. A series of declarative sentence  Start with a simple question The study attempts to determine:  Your first task is to try to write your question The general food pattern and food intake of as simply as possible families whose mothers had nutrition education  The research question is ACTION – background. ORIENTED The food groups in which their meals were  Ask active question deficient; How adequate these nutritional needs are met; Brink cited some examples. Notice the difference.3. A declarative sentence followed by a series of questions  Mastectomy has an effect on women To determine the proper sequence of learning Question : What are the reactions of women toexperiences in operating room nursing geared to the needs of mastectomy?students and patient in surgery: What were the needs of the students and patients  Ice water increases heart rate in surgery? Question: What is the relationship between What sequence of learning experience was temperature of ingested drinking water and heart provided for students particularly in the operating rate? room?Research Process Abejo
  6. 6. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN  Black women have smaller babies than white RESEARCH VARIABLES women. Question: What is the relationship between ethnicity Variables and birth size of infants? Are qualities, properties or characteristics of people , things, events or situations under study that vary from one person to another.Steps in examining the components of a research question: These variables are assessed and measured quantitatively and qualitatively.  The topic can be simple, embodying a single concept or idea. Quantitatively – statistical measurement of different  As the topic becomes more complex, they deal with variables which uses numbers. two or more concepts in relationship to one another Qualitatively – descriptive interpretation base on and they require a different stem. narrative explanation, do not use statistical treatment  The topic is even more complex when you ask a to present data. question beginning with a WHY stem.  A topic developed for a “why” stem becomes quite complex because it shows that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the two Characteristics of Variables concepts. 1. They have two or more mutually exclusive values or properties that can be quantitatively or qualitatively measured. Example: height, weight, age, civil status and likes Research Topic The Effects of Touch Therapy on Recovery among 2. They are varying factors that affect the phenomenon Premature Infants Confined in the Incubators Example: preoperative anxiety, body temperature Of Selected Hospital in Metro Manila 3. They are varying qualities of people, institutions, Statement of the Problem situations or status. Example: ethnicity, government agency, level of This study will look into the effects of touch care therapy of premature infants to promote early weaning from confinement in the incubator and 4. They can be heterogeneous when the attributes or enhanced recovery. characteristics of a group being studied are extremely varied Specifically, this study attempts to answer the following question: 5. They can be homogeneous if the attributes or characteristics of the group being studied have 1. How do premature infants responds to gentle limited variability. touch and gentle stroking for several seconds or few minutes of therapy in terms of: Kinds of Variables 1.1 Breathing 1.2 Movement a. Explanatory Variable 1.3 Heart Rate This refers to the phenomenon under study that varies or assumes different values. 2. To what extent is touch therapy on a premature This is the focus of the research that indicates infant observation / perceptible with regard to direction of influence to what the researcher would the following variables: like to discover and not merely establishing a direct 2.1 Activities causal link between the persons, objects or things 2.2 Reducing Stress being studied. 2.3 Promotion of wellbeing Types of Explanatory Variable 3. Is there a significant effect of touch therapy between the experimental group and control 1. Independent Variables (CAUSE) group as to:  These are factors that are being manipulated by 3.1 Activities the researcher and the focus of the inquiry. 3.2 Reducing Stress  They are also called experimental, treatment, 3.3 Promotion of wellbeing causal or stimulus variable. 2. Dependent Variable (EFFECT)  This is the factor or variable that is affected or influenced by the independent variable.  It is also called criterion, effect, response or outcome variable, which captures the interest of the researcher.Research Process Abejo
  7. 7. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN 3. Intervening Variable (MEDIATOR) Statements of Purpose  This is a factor or variable that exists between the independent and the dependent variable.  Quantitative Study  That explains why the relationship exists and In a quantitative study, a statement of purpose bears influence on the effect of the independent identifies the key study variables and their possible variable on the dependent variable. interrelationship as well as the nature of the population of interest. 4. Moderator Variable  This is a variable that affects the strength or  Qualitative Study direction of the relationship between the The statement of purpose in qualitative studies independent and the dependent variables. indicates the nature of the inquiry, the key concept  The independent variables interacts with the or phenomenon, the group, community or setting moderator variable which makes the under study. relationship of the IV and DV stronger or weaker.Examples Writing the statement of purpose:  The purpose is usually expressed as a declarativeIV Independent Variables statements.DV Dependent Variable  The investigator combines “what” is being done and “why” it is being done.  The purpose must be clear, precise, concrete and Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics easy to communicate. of Staff Nurses (IV) in Relation to Patient’s Satisfaction  The statements of the purpose usually contains an Index (DV) active verb preceded by the preposition “to”. Thus it is common that purpose begin with “to assess”, “to Thermoregulation of Infants (DV ) utilizing Mineral provide”, “to gain” etc. Water Container and Droplight (IV) Research Objectivesb. Extraneous or Exogenous Variables Are clear, concise, declarative statements that are These variables are not also the direct interest of the expressed in the present tense. researcher, and must be controlled or eliminated in Objectives can also focus on: order the hypothesis can be validly tested. - Identifying relationship or association - Determining differencesc. Abstract or Continuous Variables - Predicting variables These are factors that have different values which Formulating Research Objectives are quantitatively and statistically tested through the a. Identification hypothesis. b. Description c. Differenced. Dichotomous Variables d. Relational These are factors with only two values used in e. Prediction comparative studies and specifically indentified in the hypothesis. Good Research Objectivese. Active Variables Characteristics These are factors which the researcher creates and or manipulates. S Specific M Measurablef. Attribute Variables A Attainable These are pre-existing characteristics of the subjects R Realistic and Result Oriented which the researcher simply observes and measures. T Time BoundE. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES In the nursing profession the purpose may deal with contribution to nursing education or nursing administration. Objectives relate to realistic short term goals.Research Process Abejo
  8. 8. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN Purposes of Hypothesis  Hypotheses unify theory and reality by evaluating theory The purpose of this study is to identify on the basis of observation facts or reality. factors that maximize opportunities for mothers of  Hypotheses gives direction to research by determining hospitalized children to participate in their care. research design, data collection procedures, analysis and interpretation of data. “This study will determine which parental  Hypotheses enhance knowledge by inducing critical style and attitude are most significant to the thinking and deepening insights. emotional intelligence development of the child. It will also investigate other factors that may Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis contribute to effective parenting. Hence, this study will ascertain if parents are really worthy to be real  It is testable parents in rearing their children to become  It is logical responsible and proficient adults”  It is directly related to the research problem  It is represents a single unit or subset of the problem  It is factually or theoretically based  It sets limits of the study  It is stated in such a from that it can be accepted orF. ASSUMPTIONS rejected Is a statement describing a fact or condition that is Sources of Hypotheses accepted to be true on the basis of logic and reason. These are statements or assertions related to the  Problems, issues or concerns raised in the research problem usually drawn from the theoretical study. framework.  Theoretical framework, experiences, observations, replications and related literature.Types of Assumptions  Induction and deduction1. Universal Assumptions  These come from the knowledge of the researcher Induction – these are observation patterns, trends of and from observed facts related to the problem phenomena with a tentative explanation or which are presumed as true on the basis of prediction of a phenomena. observation, experiences and findings of previous Deduction – begins with general theories or research. principles applied to a particular situation.2. Study Assumptions  These are assertions needed in the pursuit of the study which are so stated that they serve as starting Types of Hypotheses points from which the study proceeds.  They also confirm the validity of the explanatory Simple Hypotheses – predicts the relationship between one variables as well as serve as basis for formulating independent variable and one dependent variable. the hypotheses of the study. Example: Performance in the College of Nursing is related to3. Theory or Research Based Assumptions success in the nurse’s licensure exam.  These are assumptions premised on theories applicable to the field of study.  It may come from a previous researchers and need Complex Hypotheses – predicts the relationship between two further confirmation or validation. or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables. Example: Heredity, home environment and quality ofG. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES instruction are related to intelligence, motivation and performance of school. Hypothesis Is an intelligent guess or inference that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts Directional/Predictive Hypotheses – specifies the direction or conditions and to guide further investigation. of relationship between the variables being studied. A statement of relationships between the phenomenon and the variables being studied. Example: People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer The hypothesis is not proved, it is only tested. than those who do not smoke. Non Directional Hypotheses – predicts only that there is a relationship between the variables being studied but does not specify what it is.Research Process Abejo
  9. 9. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MANExample: There is a difference in the level of anxiety of pre-operative patients who receive pre-operative instruction than Research Topicthose who do not receive such instruction. EFFECTS OF BILATERAL TUBAL LIGATIONStatistical / Null Hypotheses – is an assumption that there is AMONG WORKING MOTHERS ATno difference between the studied variables. QUIRINO MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTER: A BASIS FORExample: There will be no correlation between liberalization COUNSELLINGattitudes and completion of a course in human sexuality. PROGRAMResearch Hypotheses – this is also referred to as substantiveor declarative hypotheses or statement of expected relationship Significance of the Studybetween variables. RespondentsExample: There is a significant relationship between maternal This study can reveal the possible effectsheroin addiction and birth weight of infants. of bilateral tubal ligation among women, giving them the proper knowledge and information about this effect help them to manage and able to accept this changes that they are experiencing.H. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Prospective Clients The researcher cites the importance, responsiveness Identifying this effects that women or relevance of expected outcomes of the experiencing after undergoing bilateral tubal ligation investigation and its probable effects on a nursing can be used in providing all the prospective client theory or practice. the correct and appropriate information for them to This section must also emphasize the significant have the right decision whether they will still contributions of the proposed research study to its undergo this procedure or not. target population, to the different sectors in nursing education and nursing, to society and its Nursing Practitioners implications to future researches in nursing. The findings of this study will provide insight on the client’s reason for not wanting to undergo tubal ligation. This will enable the nurse toResearch Benefits to various sectors: formulate a plan of intervention for the patient’s better understanding of the procedure and its effects.  Improvement of policies, program and practices Her knowledge and awareness could serve as basis  Contribution to particular field of study or for developing strategies to encourage voluntary profession. female sterilization.  Guide in decision making  Added knowledge and expertise for individual practitioners.  New theory learned  Personal and social development I. SCOPE, LIMITATION AND DELIMITATIONSBeneficiaries of Research studies: Scope – deals with the extent to which the study will be made.  The nursing profession Limitation – are perceived weakness that are discussed and  The public reported.  The nursing service Delimitations – are restrictions that the researcher places prior  Nursing education to data gathering.  Nurse practitioners  Nursing students The researcher must be aware of and should state  Hospital administrators certain constraints in the study over which the researcher has no control. Uncontrolled variables may affect study results, hence, expected findings should not beyond what the study can achieve in terms of the following aspects:  Issues – past & current  Scope or coverage of areas of concern  Respondents  Time frame  Type of data such as qualitative, quantitative or combined.Research Process Abejo
  10. 10. Lecture Notes on Nursing ResearchPrepared By: Mark Fredderick R Abejo R.N, MAN Connotative Definition Example: Scope , Limitation and Delimitation of the Study Father – strong, provider, head of the family Nurse – warm , gentle mannered, health It limits only for the 50 Level III nursing students provider and 5 clinical instructors as the respondents used as a purposive sampling techniques. The study deals with the Related Learning Experience of Level III BS Nursing Students at GCIC in Definition of Terms terms the College of Nursing philosophy, objectives, policies and regulation. It also determines the problems Motivation – The ability of the nurse on duty encounter by the students and their clinical instructors in to accomplished her task on time the RLE, thus identifying the strength and weaknesses as well as the quality of education. Problem – Inability of the patient to meet his daily dietary requirements. The study is limited to the status and problems encountered by the nursing students as to their Related Learning Experience Program. It’s does not include the financial issues and other problems of the institution.J. DEFINITION OF TERMS This section facilitates understanding of the study by defining the terms or variables according to their contextual use.Reasons for Defining the Variables: a. To guide and direct the researcher in quantifying and qualifying the variables. b. To ensure clarity of the meaning of variables and minimize the reader’s misconceptions.Types of Definitions1. Conceptual Definition  It is universal definition of a term understood by people.  A general statement of properties or qualities common to a number of examples. _________________________________________  This is also known as subjective or theoretical meaning of the word. References: 1. Venzon. 2004. Introduction to Nursing Research: Quest for Quality2. Operational Definition Nursing, 1st ed. Philippines: C&E Publishing Inc. 2. Barrientos-Tan. 2006. A Research Guide in Nursing Education, 3rd  The researcher’s own definition of terms as used in ed. Philippines: Visual Print Enterprises. 3. Reyes & Layug. 2009. Comprehensive Reviewer for the Nurse the study. Licensure Exam, Philippines: East West Educational Specialists,  It is concrete and measurable, based on observable C&E Publishing Inc. characteristics of what is being defined within the 4. Brink & Wood. 2001. Basic Steps in Planning Nursing Research, 5th ed. Philippines: Jones and Bartlett Publisher Inc. context of the phenomenon being investigated. 5. Burns & Grove. 2007. Understanding Nursing Research : Building  This is also refers to the objective or an Evidence-Based Practice, 4th ed. China; Elsevier, Health practical/functional meaning of the word. Sciences.  Types of Operational Definitions: 6. LoBiondo-Wood & Haber. 2006. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 6th ed. USA: Mosby Denotative Definition Inc. Example: 7. Polit & Beck. 2008. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Father – a male parent Evidence for Nursing Practice, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Nurse – one who cares for people sick or wellResearch Process Abejo