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@DickeyCollas
Ecosystem based management:
why try to herd cats?
Mark Dickey-Collas
Why ecosystem based management?
to promote biodiversity
conservation, and explore
consequences of trade-offs in the
management of marine ecosystems
Marshak et al. 2016
In law, e.g. USA, Russia, Canada, Norway, EU, Int. treaties etc
Ecosystem based management – key words
optimize benefits among
diverse societal goals
trade-offs
stewardship for
future generations
sustainable use
consideration of
collective pressures
management of
human activities
achievement of good
environmental status
regional
See Convention on Biological Diversity & FAO guidelines
Generalised process
Balancing human activities & environmental stewardship in a multiple use context
Pragmatic Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management
How does ecosystem based
management effect our science?
Delivery of science for management
“Place your order, drive around, and pick up the answer”
Tools – Choose them carefully
Impossible to achieve realism, precision, and generality in one model.
Model creation requires trade-off of one of these, often conflicts with
the desire of end-users.
Models are often employed without consideration of their limitations,
e.g. projecting into unknown space without generalism, or fitting
empirical models and inferring causality.
Dickey-Collas et al 2014, Hazard warning: model misuse ahead
Data – quiz time.
Who knows of the Aarhus Convention?
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/aarhus/
Aarhus Convention, in force 2001
• The right of everyone to receive environmental information
that is held by public authorities including state
assessments, policies & measures (< one month)
• Authorities have to actively disseminate information
• The right of everyone to participate in environmental
decision-making.
• The right to review procedures to challenge public decisions
Europe & central Asia
Think what that does to your approach to
data storage and provision when provided as
evidence for decision making
Open, accessible, auditable, linked, equitable
Example: ICES Vulnerable
Marine Ecosystems
http://www.ices.dk/marine-data/data-portals/Pages/vulnerable-marine-ecosystems.aspx
Transparency of data
& decision process
Holsman et al 2017 & ICES 2016
Boundaries
EBFM EBM
Prioritise pressures
http://www.ices.dk/community/advisory-process/Pages/Ecosystem-overviews.aspx
Example: EU marine strategy framework directive
Images: ICES
Objective:
Good Environmental Status
• step wise process
• ‘normative’ values
Ecosystem based management uses indicators
• To assess state
• To monitor progress towards targets
• To communicate
Rochet & Rice 2005, Jennings 2005
ICES operational indicators include…
status of fish
stocks
spatial fishing
pressure
seabed impact
vulnerable marine
ecosystem (VME)
birds
spatial weight &
value of landings
eutrophication
Developing
• Noise
• Litter
• Bycatch
• Fish size x 2
• Food web –guilds
• Zooplankton
• Sensitive species
• Fish distributions
EBM centred on people so social indicators
• Well-being
• Values
• Agency
• Inequality
UN SDG14
Hicks et al 2016
Example: Mid-Atlantic USA
State of the ecosystem
Mid-Atlantic: http://www.mafmc.org/s/Tab02_2017-04_State-of-the-Ecosystem-and-EAFM.pdf
New England: http://s3.amazonaws.com/nefmc.org/2_2016-State-of-the-Ecosystem-Report.pdf
Alaska community profile: https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/Socioeconomics/Projects/CPU.php
It isn’t so simple… with ecosystem based management
• solving challenges – wicked problems
• normative & vague objectives – Good Environmental Status
• uncertainty, values & stakes - post normal science
• science speaking to society - mode 1 and 2 science
• knowledge brokers - salient, credible, legitimate, social license
EBM
wicked problems
...thus needing
iterations &
consultations
Rittel & Webber 1973, Churchman 1976
Entering the consultation arena
Priorities for EBFM objectives, list of 26
Science Literature Fishing industry
1 Consider Ecosystem Connections Sustainability
2 Appropriate Spatial & Temporal Scales Develop Long -Term Objectives
3 Adaptive Management Stakeholder Involvement
4 Use of Scientific Knowledge Use of All Forms of Knowledge
Long et al. 2016. Key principles of ecosystem-based management: Fishers perspective
Bounded rationality in science & policy
Rationality of individuals is limited by information we have,
cognitive limitations of our minds, & finite amount of
time we have to make a decision.
Image: tellthemisaidsomething.com/2013/
Knowledge exchange among scientists and decision
makers for adaptive governance of marine resources
Voinov et al. 2016
Adaptive &
revisiting
Co-production of knowledge
Challenges of natural scientists working with stakeholders:
power dynamic, values, cost of iterations, perceived objectivity
Example: ICES economic trade-offs
Value landed when 10% of lowest fished area
removed (2012-2015)
http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/Special_requests/eu.2017.13.pdf
Spatial analysis of economic value of seabed impact
Process included exploration of
concepts with stakeholders
ICES working towards an approach
• Best available knowledge, data and tools
• Quality control & transparency of all data, knowledge and synthesis
• Engage with the users of advice to define the issues, understand
interests, ensure that advice relates to societal choices.
• Inclusive scoping process with other stakeholders
• Promote industry-science partnerships
http://www.ices.dk/explore-us/Documents/ICES%20and%20EBM.pdf
Engaging as a scientist in EBM via co-production
• It will take much longer than expected, always frustrating, may not succeed
resulting in great pain.
• The dialogue will challenge our academic training; and we must learn how to
work deliberately with what we perceive as imperfection.
• Establish equitable partnerships; listening to others underpins our capacity to
connect, build trust, adapt and evolve.
• The drive for simple communication may result in misleading answers but as
everyone is always busy, you need to reduce the workload on partners.
“We fail more often because we solve the wrong problem than
because we get the wrong solution to the right problem”
(Russell Ackoff, 1950)
Thank you!
Issue of ecosystem variability and change
• Carrying capacity & productivity
• Density effects
• Shifts in distributions & behaviour
Conservation & fisheries issues
bycatch mixed fisheries competition for space
fleet dynamics ecosystem impacts equitable processes
Knowledge creation
Framework for
interdisciplinary &
transdisciplinary
co-creation of the
knowledge castle
Mauser et al 2013
8 tenets for scientists, policy-makers, and managers
(i) engage with players early, often, and continually;
(ii) conduct rigorous human dimensions research;
(iii) recognize the importance of transparently selecting indicators;
(iv) set ecosystem targets to create a system of EBM accountability;
(v) establish a formal mechanism(s) for the review of science;
(vi) serve current management needs, but not at the expense of more integrative ocean management;
(vii) provide a venue for EBM decision-making that takes full advantage of IEA products;
(viii) embrace realistic expectations about science and its implementation.
Samhouri et al 2014
Why ecosystem based management?
Also it’s the law... e.g.
Russia Sustainable exploitation of resources that does not damage the environment or ecosystem
Federal law N 166-P3 20/12/200
USA Healthy & resilient, safe & productive, understood & treasured so as to promote the well-being,
prosperity, & security of present & future generations. Executive Order 13547
Norway Good ecosystem health & sustainable use, Regional MPs
EU Good Environmental Status, MSFD, and
ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management' means an integrated approach to managing
fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries, Common Fisheries Policy 2014
• Ecosystem based management (EBM) is a well-documented set of principles that lays
out how society thinks we should manage the ecosystem. EBM acknowledges that we
humans impact and gain benefits from the seas and should maintain them for future
generations.
• I will share my interpretation of EBM and explore the ramifications of EBM for
scientists that want to provide knowledge into the process. Successful utilisation of the
knowledge is associated with understanding the role we play in the management
framework.
• There is a skill set that the applied scientist needs to maintain when operating in the
EBM arena.
• I will discuss some of the challenges and solutions that I have encountered.
• I will use example success stories to illustrate that tangible progress is being made
across a range of scales and institutional frameworks.
• Progress can be made by prioritising EBM objectives, setting clear boundaries and
realising that knowledge production contributes to EBM, but is not the raison d'être
for EBM.
• Don’t herd cats; monitor, assess and influence their behaviour.
40 minute slot, 30ish slides

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Ecosystem based management: why try to herd cats?

  • 1. @DickeyCollas Ecosystem based management: why try to herd cats? Mark Dickey-Collas
  • 2. Why ecosystem based management? to promote biodiversity conservation, and explore consequences of trade-offs in the management of marine ecosystems Marshak et al. 2016 In law, e.g. USA, Russia, Canada, Norway, EU, Int. treaties etc
  • 3.
  • 4. Ecosystem based management – key words optimize benefits among diverse societal goals trade-offs stewardship for future generations sustainable use consideration of collective pressures management of human activities achievement of good environmental status regional See Convention on Biological Diversity & FAO guidelines
  • 6. Balancing human activities & environmental stewardship in a multiple use context Pragmatic Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management
  • 7. How does ecosystem based management effect our science?
  • 8. Delivery of science for management “Place your order, drive around, and pick up the answer”
  • 9. Tools – Choose them carefully Impossible to achieve realism, precision, and generality in one model. Model creation requires trade-off of one of these, often conflicts with the desire of end-users. Models are often employed without consideration of their limitations, e.g. projecting into unknown space without generalism, or fitting empirical models and inferring causality. Dickey-Collas et al 2014, Hazard warning: model misuse ahead
  • 10. Data – quiz time. Who knows of the Aarhus Convention? http://ec.europa.eu/environment/aarhus/
  • 11. Aarhus Convention, in force 2001 • The right of everyone to receive environmental information that is held by public authorities including state assessments, policies & measures (< one month) • Authorities have to actively disseminate information • The right of everyone to participate in environmental decision-making. • The right to review procedures to challenge public decisions Europe & central Asia
  • 12. Think what that does to your approach to data storage and provision when provided as evidence for decision making Open, accessible, auditable, linked, equitable
  • 13. Example: ICES Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems http://www.ices.dk/marine-data/data-portals/Pages/vulnerable-marine-ecosystems.aspx Transparency of data & decision process
  • 14. Holsman et al 2017 & ICES 2016 Boundaries EBFM EBM
  • 16. Example: EU marine strategy framework directive Images: ICES Objective: Good Environmental Status • step wise process • ‘normative’ values
  • 17. Ecosystem based management uses indicators • To assess state • To monitor progress towards targets • To communicate Rochet & Rice 2005, Jennings 2005
  • 18. ICES operational indicators include… status of fish stocks spatial fishing pressure seabed impact vulnerable marine ecosystem (VME) birds spatial weight & value of landings eutrophication Developing • Noise • Litter • Bycatch • Fish size x 2 • Food web –guilds • Zooplankton • Sensitive species • Fish distributions
  • 19. EBM centred on people so social indicators • Well-being • Values • Agency • Inequality UN SDG14 Hicks et al 2016
  • 20. Example: Mid-Atlantic USA State of the ecosystem Mid-Atlantic: http://www.mafmc.org/s/Tab02_2017-04_State-of-the-Ecosystem-and-EAFM.pdf New England: http://s3.amazonaws.com/nefmc.org/2_2016-State-of-the-Ecosystem-Report.pdf Alaska community profile: https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/refm/Socioeconomics/Projects/CPU.php
  • 21. It isn’t so simple… with ecosystem based management • solving challenges – wicked problems • normative & vague objectives – Good Environmental Status • uncertainty, values & stakes - post normal science • science speaking to society - mode 1 and 2 science • knowledge brokers - salient, credible, legitimate, social license
  • 22. EBM wicked problems ...thus needing iterations & consultations Rittel & Webber 1973, Churchman 1976
  • 24. Priorities for EBFM objectives, list of 26 Science Literature Fishing industry 1 Consider Ecosystem Connections Sustainability 2 Appropriate Spatial & Temporal Scales Develop Long -Term Objectives 3 Adaptive Management Stakeholder Involvement 4 Use of Scientific Knowledge Use of All Forms of Knowledge Long et al. 2016. Key principles of ecosystem-based management: Fishers perspective
  • 25. Bounded rationality in science & policy Rationality of individuals is limited by information we have, cognitive limitations of our minds, & finite amount of time we have to make a decision. Image: tellthemisaidsomething.com/2013/
  • 26. Knowledge exchange among scientists and decision makers for adaptive governance of marine resources
  • 27. Voinov et al. 2016 Adaptive & revisiting Co-production of knowledge
  • 28.
  • 29. Challenges of natural scientists working with stakeholders: power dynamic, values, cost of iterations, perceived objectivity
  • 30. Example: ICES economic trade-offs Value landed when 10% of lowest fished area removed (2012-2015) http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/Special_requests/eu.2017.13.pdf Spatial analysis of economic value of seabed impact Process included exploration of concepts with stakeholders
  • 31. ICES working towards an approach • Best available knowledge, data and tools • Quality control & transparency of all data, knowledge and synthesis • Engage with the users of advice to define the issues, understand interests, ensure that advice relates to societal choices. • Inclusive scoping process with other stakeholders • Promote industry-science partnerships http://www.ices.dk/explore-us/Documents/ICES%20and%20EBM.pdf
  • 32. Engaging as a scientist in EBM via co-production • It will take much longer than expected, always frustrating, may not succeed resulting in great pain. • The dialogue will challenge our academic training; and we must learn how to work deliberately with what we perceive as imperfection. • Establish equitable partnerships; listening to others underpins our capacity to connect, build trust, adapt and evolve. • The drive for simple communication may result in misleading answers but as everyone is always busy, you need to reduce the workload on partners.
  • 33. “We fail more often because we solve the wrong problem than because we get the wrong solution to the right problem” (Russell Ackoff, 1950) Thank you!
  • 34. Issue of ecosystem variability and change • Carrying capacity & productivity • Density effects • Shifts in distributions & behaviour
  • 35. Conservation & fisheries issues bycatch mixed fisheries competition for space fleet dynamics ecosystem impacts equitable processes
  • 36. Knowledge creation Framework for interdisciplinary & transdisciplinary co-creation of the knowledge castle Mauser et al 2013
  • 37. 8 tenets for scientists, policy-makers, and managers (i) engage with players early, often, and continually; (ii) conduct rigorous human dimensions research; (iii) recognize the importance of transparently selecting indicators; (iv) set ecosystem targets to create a system of EBM accountability; (v) establish a formal mechanism(s) for the review of science; (vi) serve current management needs, but not at the expense of more integrative ocean management; (vii) provide a venue for EBM decision-making that takes full advantage of IEA products; (viii) embrace realistic expectations about science and its implementation. Samhouri et al 2014
  • 38. Why ecosystem based management? Also it’s the law... e.g. Russia Sustainable exploitation of resources that does not damage the environment or ecosystem Federal law N 166-P3 20/12/200 USA Healthy & resilient, safe & productive, understood & treasured so as to promote the well-being, prosperity, & security of present & future generations. Executive Order 13547 Norway Good ecosystem health & sustainable use, Regional MPs EU Good Environmental Status, MSFD, and ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management' means an integrated approach to managing fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries, Common Fisheries Policy 2014
  • 39. • Ecosystem based management (EBM) is a well-documented set of principles that lays out how society thinks we should manage the ecosystem. EBM acknowledges that we humans impact and gain benefits from the seas and should maintain them for future generations. • I will share my interpretation of EBM and explore the ramifications of EBM for scientists that want to provide knowledge into the process. Successful utilisation of the knowledge is associated with understanding the role we play in the management framework. • There is a skill set that the applied scientist needs to maintain when operating in the EBM arena. • I will discuss some of the challenges and solutions that I have encountered. • I will use example success stories to illustrate that tangible progress is being made across a range of scales and institutional frameworks. • Progress can be made by prioritising EBM objectives, setting clear boundaries and realising that knowledge production contributes to EBM, but is not the raison d'être for EBM. • Don’t herd cats; monitor, assess and influence their behaviour. 40 minute slot, 30ish slides