Northern Christian College “ The Institution for Better Life” Laoag City COLLEGE OF NURSING “bites and first aid”Reporters: Rhodmark, Karen, Rox Anne, Windy, Rose Anne BSN IV-A S.Y. 2012-2013
Snake bites are punctured woundscaused by the fangs of snakes. Asfar as the treatment of the woundis concerned, it is dealt with as aminor wound. You should alwaysassume that the snake ispoisonous.
Signs The patient will tell you that he has been bitten by a snake. The punctured wounds produced by the snake’s fangs are clearly visible. The patient may show signs of poisoning. Signs of shock
Symptoms Casualty may experience disturbed vision. Casualty may feel nauseated or already be vomiting One or two small punctured wounds with sharp pain and local swelling Breathing may become difficult or fail together Symptoms and signs of shock Salvation and sweating may appear in advanced stages of venom
Treatment•Give salt water (5-6 tsp salt in 200 ml water)•Drink the salt water hourly for 6 hrs.•After taking for 6 hrs., drink salt water once in fourhourly for 6 times•This tx----- nullify the snake venom complications.Aim•Reassure the casualty•Prevent absorption of venom and•Arrange urgent removal to hospital
First aid1. Tie a piece of cloth or a tourniquet, tightly above the bite. To prevent venous blood return.2. Loosen the tourniquet for one minute in every twenty minutes.3. Keep the bitten limb hanging down.4. Treat for shock reassure, and keep the patient at rest and warm.5. Examine the wound.
6. If there is doubt, and you cannot get the patient to hospital quickly. i. Wash the wound with luke warm water, with potassium permanganate added if available. ii. Sterilize a knife or blade in a flame, and make a cut 1 cm deep in the form of a cross over the bite. iii. Suck out the liquid (poison), using a piece of plastic over your mouth to protect yourself or suck out the liquid which out of the wound and spit it out. If the bite is on arm, the patient can suck his own wound.
iv. Apply potassium permanganate crystals in cut.v. Apply a clean dressing.vi. Treat for shockvii. Refer to the nearest hospitalviii. If breathing fails, do artificial respiration.
SCORPION STINGWhat to do when you see a patient who has beenstung by a scorpion. As a rule, you will be told thatthe sting is by a scorpion because the patient orsome relative has actually seen the scorpion.Proceed as a follow:•Examine the site of the sting•Look for signs of shock, particularly in smallchildrens.
Treatment Apply a cold compress to the site of sting (or) sodium bicarbonate paste (cooking soda paste) Treat for shock Give hot drink and keep the patient warm.
Bee, wasp and hornet stings occur frequent inrural areas, especially if their nests anddisturbed. The insects have a sting which is leftat the site of puncture and has to be removed. If aperson is prone to allergies, a bee, wasp or hornetsting may be a serious condition because of theshock produced.Signs The site of the sting looks red, swollen andpainful.
First Aid Treatment1. Remove the sting with a pair of forceps2. Apply cold compresses to the site.3. A paste with sodium bicarbonate (cooking soda) or washing soda can be applied or if available antihistamine ointment.4. Treat for shock.
The large effects of Jelly Fish Sting vary from minor localreactions to large wheals, severe pain and sometimes death.First aid measures are:1. A paste of sodium bicarbonate in water2. Seek medical aid urgently if symptoms are severe3. Sting of Portugese Man of War4. The effects vary from slight stinging to cramps nausea and difficulty in breathing. The first aid is as follows:5. Swab the area with methylated spirit to which a little vinegar has been added to acidity it.6. Do not rub or apply fresh water or sand7. Remove any gelatinous strands present in the flesh using cloth or soft paper, once symptoms subside.8. Seek medical aid in severe cases.
The spine of the sea urchin can breakoff into theskin causing local burning and numbness. Thewounds heal slowly and the rate of infection ishigh.FIRST AID•Wear gloves while handling the sting.•Remove the spine.•Cover the wound with dry dressing•Get medical aid
A snail like creature is found in such shells. It injects avery potent poison through a minute hollow barhedharpoon. It can be fetal and there is no antidote. Such ashell must not be handled. In case a patient is bitten.FIRST AID:•Watch the patients pulse and respiration, and giveexternal cardiac massage and artificial respiration whennecessary.•Get medical aid urgently.
Coral is razor sharp. The cuts are large and deepand get infected readily. They heal slowly andtend to form ulcers. In case with coral cuts.FIRST AID:•Clean with methylated spirit•Remove all foreign material from the cuts•Cover the wound with sterile dressing•Arrange for medical aid.
This is a condition in which local tissues arefrozen, usually at the extremities. They becomeinjured by prolonged constriction of the surfaceblood vessels as a result of exposure to extremecold. As with heat burns the damage may be eithersurficial or deep and the affected tissues may bedestroyed. To prevent frost bit, wear adequate clothingand gloves, and leave as little skin exposed aspossible.
Symptoms and Signs1. The affected areas tip of nose, ears, fingers or toes become at first pale, then waxy whites later a mottled blue colour, and finally black.2. Blustering may occur.3. Casualty may complain of pins and needles” and intensepain, but the part gradually becomes num and pain disappears as the freezing bites deeper.4. The skin feels hard and stiff.
Aim•Warm the affected are slowly and naturally to preventfurther tissue destruction.•Arrange removal to hospital.TreatmentNote:If there are signs of accompanying hypothermia, treathypothermia before frost bite. Do not attempt to thawout a part if the casualty will later be exposed to cold ora journey, as to freeze thaw refreeze is disastrous fortissues. Simply cover the affected part in dry gauze,wool and loose bandaging, or enclose it in plastic bag.
1. At the first signs of whiteness, pain or tingling handle damaged tissues gently. Remove frozen covering carefully, together with rings or watches. Warm the part with your own hands. Alternatively, if a finger is first bitten place the casualty’s affected hand in her opposite arm pit until normal colour returns.2. Get her to warm surroundings soon as possible. She may walk on frost bitten feet before thawing out but never after wards carry her on a stretcher. If colour does not return rapidly, place the affected part in warm water, (tested first with your elbow).
3. As the part thaws out, the colour will improve and pain will return. Dry and dress the thawed area with dry gauze or wool and lightly bandage it.4. Elevate the limb to reduce swelling.5. If authorized by a doctor, give the casualty two paracetamol tablets.6. Arrange removal to hospital, transport as a stretcher case.
Do not rub the areaDo not burst blistersDo not heat the part with fires orhot-water bottlesDo not allow the casualty to smoke,
When the eyes are to glare produced by the reflection ofthe sun on snow or concrete for too long, the cornea of theeye can be injured. This painful condition can take as longas a week to subside. It can easily be prevented bywearing dark glasses.S/s:1. These normally appear sometime after exposure to glare, welding flash or radiation.2. Casualty complains of intense. Pain in the affected eyes; eyes may feel gritty.3. Affected eyes will be red, watering and sensitive light.
Aim ( Cover the eyes and seek medical aid ifinjury is severe)1. Bathe the eyes with cold water2. Lightly dress both eyes with eye pads of clean, nonfully material3. If in doubt about the severity of the injury, seek medical aid urgently.
Incubation period: 15 days to 8 monthsSymptoms in the casualty:3 stages:I. Invasion stage: increased irritation or pain in the region of bite; restlessness; insomnia; quickened pulse and slight fever are common.II. Excitement stage: restlessness becomes intense with great mental excitement; hypersensitiveness to any stimulus; sets up distressing spasms of the muscles of the throat and respirations; consciousness unfortunately remains clear.III.Paralytic stages: exhaustion; followed by heart failure; developed disease is incurable.
Symptoms in the dog:1. For domestic dogs: Hot nose’; refusal to food; restlessness ensues rapidly; the dog wanders about anxiously; accompanied by a change of expression; wrinkling of the eyebrows; and haunted look.2. Dog tears at its bedding, chews up its water tin; altered tone in the bark.
First Aid Treatment:“Prevention is everything in dealing with rabies,as the disease is always fatal.”1. Wash the whole abraded surface with soap and water whether licked, scratched or lacerated.2. If pure carbolic acid (phenyle) is available, paint carefully the abraded surface and edges of the wound by means of a match, or slip of split cane, dipped in pure carbolic acid.3. Don’t kill the dog.4. Refer to nearest hospital.