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Thermodynamics

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Heat and Temperature

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Thermodynamics

  1. 1. Heat and Temperature (Specific & Latent Heat)
  2. 2. HISTORY
  3. 3. The ancients viewed heat as that related to fire.
  4. 4. Heraclitus “flux and fire”
  5. 5. As early as 460 BC, Hippocrates postulated that: “Heat, a quantity which functions to animate, derives from an internal fire located in the left ventricle.”
  6. 6. He discovered latent heat. Joseph Black
  7. 7. Thomas Newcomen and James Watt allowed the invention and development of the steam engine. James WattThomas Newcomen
  8. 8. •American physicist and mathematician. J.W. Gibbs is considered one of the founders of modern thermodynamics and of statistical mechanics. •In 1896 he formulated the "Gibbs Phase Rule". “phlogiston” Johann Becher Josiah Willard Gibbs
  9. 9. Antoine Lavoisier proposed the caloric theory. British Physicist. Prof. in Aberdeen, London and Cambridge. Creator of modern electrodynamics and the electrodynamic theory of light (Maxwell- Theory).He was also involved in the development of the kinetic gas theory. James Clerk Maxwell
  10. 10. •French engineer and physicist. Developed the physical elements of the steam engine using a thought- experiment (Carnot cycle). •He conceived that heat is a result of the movements of small particles and calculated (a long time before R. Mayer) the mechanical equivalent of heat.Nicholas Léonard Sadi Carnot
  11. 11. The work of Joule and Mayer demonstrated heat and work were equivalent forms of energy, and led to the statement of the principle of the conversation of energy by Hermann Von Helmholtz in 1847. James Prescott Joule Hermann Von HelmholtzRobert Julius Mayer
  12. 12. First & Second Law of Thermodynamics Rudolf Julius Clausius •German physicist. R. Clausius was professor in Zürich, Würzburg, Bonn and was one of the founders of statistical mechanics. •He formulated the second law of thermodynamics and introduced the entropy as equation of state.
  13. 13. “Heat is not a substance, but a dynamical form of mechanical effect.” William Thomson
  14. 14. Heat is a type of energy transferred due to a temperature difference or that generated by friction.
  15. 15. The amount of energy produced by the sun in a 2 week period equals the combined stored energy of all the coal, iron and natural gas reserves known to man. [Source: The People's Almanac #2] Jupiter radiates more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. [The Nine Planets]
  16. 16. The Rise of the Temperature Scales • Fahrenheit is the standard used for measuring temperature in the United States. • Swedish Astronomer Anders Celcius came out with his temperature scale. • Lord Kelvin of Scotland chimed in with his temperature gauge in 1848 known as the Kelvin scale. He based it on the idea of absolute temperature, a theoretical temperature at which all substances have no heat energy.
  17. 17. 10/3/2015 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit William John Rankine Anders Celcius Lord Kelvin
  18. 18. Temperature is a measure of the amount of energy possessed by the molecules of a substance. It is relative measure of how hot or cold a substance is and can be used to predict the direction of heat transfer. The symbol for temperature is T. The common scales for measuring temperature are the Fahrenheit, Rankine, Celcius, and Kelvin temperature scales.
  19. 19. Definition of Terms Calorie Conduction Convection Heat Change Heat Energy Heat Flow Insulation Radiation
  20. 20. CONCEPT
  21. 21. Celsius C = ( F - 32) x 5/9 Fahrenheit F = C × 9/5 + 32 Kelvin K = C + 273 Rankine Ra = F + 459.67
  22. 22. Convert 37⁰C to ⁰F Given: 37⁰C Find: ⁰F Formula: ⁰F=9/5 (⁰C+32) Solution: ⁰F=9/5 (⁰C+32) ⁰F=66.6+32 ⁰F=98.6
  23. 23. Convert 98⁰F to ⁰C Given: 98⁰F Find: ⁰C Formula: ⁰C=5/9 (⁰F-32) Solution: ⁰C=5/9 (⁰F-32) ⁰C=5/9(98⁰F-32) ⁰C=5/9(66) ⁰C=36.66
  24. 24. Convert 60⁰F to ⁰C to K Given: 60⁰F Find: ⁰C and K Formula/s: a.) ⁰C=5/9 (⁰F-32) b.) K=⁰C+273 Solution: a.)⁰C=5/9 (⁰F-32) ⁰C=5/9(60⁰F-32) ⁰C=5/9(28) ⁰C=15.56 b.) 15.56⁰C+273 K=288.56
  25. 25. Convert 175.5K to ⁰C Given: 175.5K Find: ⁰C Formula: ⁰C=K-273 Solution: ⁰C=K-273 ⁰C=175.5K-273 ⁰C=-97.5
  26. 26. 00 The red or orange color of the rising or setting sun is caused by the increased distance through our atmosphere its rays must pass before reaching our eyes. Our thick impurity-laden lower atmosphere only allows the red tones to pass through it. As the sun rises higher in the sky, its light passes through a shorter distance of thick atmosphere. It loses its redder tone and takes on its characteristic yellow color. The amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface is 6,000 times the amount of energy used by all human beings worldwide. The total amount of fossil fuel used by humans since the start of civilization is equivalent to less than 30 days of sunshine.
  27. 27. Heat is energy to transit. The transfer of energy as heat occurs at the molecular level as a result of a temperature difference. It is capable of being transmitted through solids and fluids by conduction, through fluids by convection, and through empty space by radiation. The symbol for heat is Q. Common units for measuring heat are British Thermal Unit (BTU) in the English system of units and the calorie in the SI system (International System of Units).
  28. 28. Specific Heat
  29. 29. Specific Heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. Q = mcΔT McCcΔTc = MtCtΔTt Unit: J/(g°C)
  30. 30. How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 5 kg of water 10 K? Given: m = 5 kg ΔT = 10 K C = 4186 J/kgK Q = ? Solution: Q = mcΔT Q = (5 kg) (4186 J/kgK) (10 K) Q = 209 300 J
  31. 31. What is the mass of the water if it at 85⁰C is added to 0.3kg of water at 15⁰C in a polystyrene cup? Given: ΔThot = 85⁰C+273=358K ΔTcold = 15⁰C+273=288K mhot =? mcold =0.3kg C = 4180 J/kgK Solution: mhotCΔThot = mcoldCΔTcold mhot (4186 J/kgK) (358 K) = (0.3 kg) (4186 J/kgK) (288 K) mhot = 361670.4 J/1498588 Jkg mhot = 0.2kg
  32. 32. Latent Heat
  33. 33. Latent Heat – the quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing to water or water to steam, at constant temperature and pressure. Q = ml Unit: Jkg-1 or J/kg
  34. 34. How much heat energy is needed to change 2.0 kg of ice at 0°C to water at 0°C? Given: Solution: m= 2.0kg
  35. 35. How much heat does a refrigerator need to remove from 1.5 kg of water at 20.0 °C to make ice at 0°C? Given: m= 1.5 kg ΔT = 20.0 °C Solution:
  36. 36. LLL Application
  37. 37. Applied Fields Geology
  38. 38. Industries Industrial uses for thermal storage Manufacture of Aerated concrete Concentrated Solar Power Plant with energy storage system.mp4 Aerated Concrete - Cellular lightweight Concrete Blocks- panels Production contact 0091 93252 17177.mp4
  39. 39. Domain Thermodynamics Temperature Pressure Volume
  40. 40. Hydro Electric Dam Infrared Thermometer Solar Roadways
  41. 41. QUIZ
  42. 42. In Geology, thermodynamics relates to the stability of rocks and minerals under varying heats and pressures. Geologists study these principles, which have applications to a number of geology specialities.
  43. 43. It is a relatively new, multi-disciplinary research area, which examines the relationship between economic activities, society and nature. It applies principles of ecology to contemporary society, treating society like an ecosystem with a defined boundary, inputs, outputs, components, regulators, internal flows, transformations and feedbacks of energy and materials.
  44. 44. Psychometrics is a term used to describe the field of engineering concerned with the determination of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures.
  45. 45. In thermodynamics, thermoeconomics is duel-meaning term originally defined as use of the science of economics in the improvement and study of the cost efficiencies of thermodynamical processes, but more recently meaning the use of the science of thermodynamics in the study of economies.
  46. 46. It is the study of physical properties in low temperature situations, far below temperatures experienced on even the coldest regions of the Earth. An example of this is the study of superfluous.
  47. 47. It is the study of the physical properties of “fluids,” specifically defined in this case to be liquid and gases.
  48. 48. It is the study of physics in extremely high pressure systems, generally related to fluid dynamics.
  49. 49. It is the physics of the weather, pressure systems in the atmosphere, etc.
  50. 50. It is the study of matter in the plasma state.
  51. 51. Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.
  52. 52. It infers temperature from a portion of the thermal radiation sometimes called blackbody radiation emitted by the object being measured.
  53. 53. it works by using semiconductors to absorb light and create a flow of electrons, which can power any number of electrical devices. Just as one simple example, it's probably safe to assume that most everyone has used a solar- powered calculator at one point or another.

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