Thomas Newcomen and James Watt
allowed the invention and
development of the steam engine.
James WattThomas Newcomen
•American physicist and
mathematician. J.W. Gibbs is
considered one of the founders of
modern thermodynamics and of
•In 1896 he formulated the "Gibbs
Johann Becher Josiah Willard Gibbs
Antoine Lavoisier proposed the
caloric theory. British Physicist. Prof. in Aberdeen,
London and Cambridge. Creator of
modern electrodynamics and the
electrodynamic theory of light (Maxwell-
Theory).He was also involved in the
development of the kinetic gas theory.
James Clerk Maxwell
•French engineer and physicist.
Developed the physical elements of
the steam engine using a thought-
experiment (Carnot cycle).
•He conceived that heat is a result
of the movements of small
particles and calculated (a long
time before R. Mayer) the
mechanical equivalent of heat.Nicholas Léonard
The work of Joule and Mayer demonstrated heat and
work were equivalent forms of energy, and led to the
statement of the principle of the conversation of energy
by Hermann Von Helmholtz in 1847.
James Prescott Joule Hermann Von HelmholtzRobert Julius Mayer
First & Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rudolf Julius Clausius
•German physicist. R. Clausius
was professor in Zürich,
Würzburg, Bonn and was one
of the founders of statistical
•He formulated the second
law of thermodynamics and
introduced the entropy as
equation of state.
“Heat is not a substance, but a
dynamical form of mechanical effect.”
Heat is a type of energy transferred due
to a temperature difference or that
generated by friction.
The amount of energy produced by
the sun in a 2 week period equals
the combined stored energy of all
the coal, iron and natural gas
reserves known to man.
[Source: The People's Almanac #2]
Jupiter radiates more energy into space than
it receives from the Sun. [The Nine Planets]
The Rise of the Temperature Scales
• Fahrenheit is the standard used for measuring temperature in
the United States.
• Swedish Astronomer Anders Celcius came out with his
• Lord Kelvin of Scotland chimed in with his temperature gauge in
1848 known as the Kelvin scale. He based it on the idea of
absolute temperature, a theoretical temperature at which all
substances have no heat energy.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit William John Rankine
Anders Celcius Lord Kelvin
Temperature is a measure of the amount
of energy possessed by the molecules of a
substance. It is relative measure of how
hot or cold a substance is and can be used
to predict the direction of heat transfer.
The symbol for temperature is T. The
common scales for measuring temperature
are the Fahrenheit, Rankine, Celcius, and
Kelvin temperature scales.
Definition of Terms
The red or orange color of the rising or setting sun is caused
by the increased distance through our atmosphere its rays
must pass before reaching our eyes. Our thick impurity-laden
lower atmosphere only allows the red tones to pass through it.
As the sun rises higher in the sky, its light passes through a
shorter distance of thick atmosphere. It loses its redder tone
and takes on its characteristic yellow color.
The amount of sunlight reaching the earth's
surface is 6,000 times the amount of energy
used by all human beings worldwide. The
total amount of fossil fuel used by humans
since the start of civilization is equivalent to
less than 30 days of sunshine.
Heat is energy to transit. The transfer of
energy as heat occurs at the molecular level
as a result of a temperature difference. It is
capable of being transmitted through solids
and fluids by conduction, through fluids by
convection, and through empty space by
radiation. The symbol for heat is Q.
Common units for measuring heat are
British Thermal Unit (BTU) in the English
system of units and the calorie in the SI
system (International System of Units).
Specific Heat is the amount of heat
per unit mass required to raise the
temperature by one degree Celsius.
McCcΔTc = MtCtΔTt
How much heat is needed to raise the
temperature of 5 kg of water 10 K?
m = 5 kg ΔT = 10 K
C = 4186 J/kgK Q = ?
Q = mcΔT
Q = (5 kg) (4186 J/kgK) (10 K)
Q = 209 300 J
What is the mass of the water if it at 85⁰C is
added to 0.3kg of water at 15⁰C in a
ΔThot = 85⁰C+273=358K
ΔTcold = 15⁰C+273=288K
C = 4180 J/kgK
mhotCΔThot = mcoldCΔTcold
mhot (4186 J/kgK) (358 K) = (0.3 kg) (4186 J/kgK) (288 K)
mhot = 361670.4 J/1498588 Jkg
mhot = 0.2kg
Latent Heat – the quantity of heat
absorbed or released by a substance
undergoing a change of state, such as ice
changing to water or water to steam, at
constant temperature and pressure.
Q = ml Unit: Jkg-1 or J/kg
How much heat energy is needed to change
2.0 kg of ice at 0°C to water at 0°C?
How much heat does a refrigerator need to
remove from 1.5 kg of water at 20.0 °C to make ice
m= 1.5 kg
ΔT = 20.0 °C
Industrial uses for
Concentrated Solar Power
Plant with energy storage
Aerated Concrete - Cellular
lightweight Concrete Blocks-
panels Production contact
0091 93252 17177.mp4
Hydro Electric Dam
In Geology, thermodynamics
relates to the stability of rocks and
minerals under varying heats and
pressures. Geologists study these
principles, which have applications
to a number of geology specialities.
It is a relatively new, multi-disciplinary
research area, which examines the
relationship between economic
activities, society and nature. It
applies principles of ecology to
contemporary society, treating society
like an ecosystem with a defined
boundary, inputs, outputs,
components, regulators, internal
flows, transformations and feedbacks
of energy and materials.
Psychometrics is a term used to
describe the field of engineering
concerned with the determination
of physical and thermodynamic
properties of gas-vapor mixtures.
In thermodynamics, thermoeconomics
is duel-meaning term originally
defined as use of the science of
economics in the improvement and
study of the cost efficiencies of
thermodynamical processes, but more
recently meaning the use of the
science of thermodynamics in the
study of economies.
It is the study of physical properties
in low temperature situations, far
below temperatures experienced
on even the coldest regions of the
Earth. An example of this is the
study of superfluous.
It is the study of the physical properties of
“fluids,” specifically defined in this case to
be liquid and gases.
It is the study of physics in
extremely high pressure systems,
generally related to fluid dynamics.
It is the physics of the weather, pressure
systems in the atmosphere, etc.
It is the study of matter in the
Hydropower plants capture
the energy of falling water to
generate electricity. A turbine
converts the kinetic energy of
falling water into
mechanical energy. Then a
generator converts the
mechanical energy from the
turbine into electrical energy.
It infers temperature from a
portion of the thermal
radiation sometimes called
blackbody radiation emitted
by the object being
it works by using
semiconductors to absorb light
and create a flow of electrons,
which can power any number of
electrical devices. Just as one
simple example, it's probably
safe to assume that most
everyone has used a solar-
powered calculator at one point