Journalism and the media: the cartoon controversy: Why were they published?


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The Danish ‘Mohammed Cartoon’ crisis;
Classification in Hallin & Mancini’s media system;
Power relations between media and politics

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  • Mijn vraagstelling luidt: In hoeverre vraagt ‘online nieuwsverwerking’ en een een direct contact met ‘users’ andere vaardigheden van de betrokken journalisten en welke gevolgen heeft deze ontwikkeling voor hun (sociale) positie binnen de kranten organisatie en de samenleving als geheel? In mijn onderzoeksverslag probeer ik deze vraag te beantwoorden door middel van een aantal deelvragen. Om deze onderzoeksvraag te beantwoorden zijn er een zestal deelvragen die we zullen beantwoorden: Wat is het verschil tussen de informatie die op het net en die in de krant wordt overgebracht? 2. Wat voor invloed heeft deze vorm van nieuwsvergaring op de ‘inhoud’ van het nieuws? Wat is het verschil tussen hoe de burgers via het internet bij de ‘inhoud’ van het nieuws worden betrokken en bij ‘normale’ nieuwsverwerking (kranten / TV)? 3. Kent digitale nieuwsverwerking een andere ‘media logic’? En zo ja, wat voor eisen stelt deze aan de organisatie van die nieuwsverwerking in vergelijking met betrekking tot hoe die tot nu toe binnen de traditionele krantenbedrijven is georganiseerd? 4. In hoerverre wordt (in Nederland) de snelheid van de veranderingen in de nieuwsverwerking geremd door de denk- en werkwijze en door het gebrek aan technische vaardigheden van de bestaande (c.q. dominante) groep journalisten? 5. Reageren journalisten in meerderheid ‘traditioneel’ (beschermen van de eigen positie) of ‘vernieuwend’ (actief stimuleren van eigen inbreng lezers) op deze nieuwe mogelijkheden, en wat voor verklaringen zijn daarvoor te geven? 6. Leidt de ontwikkeling van digitale nieuwsgaring tot een veranderende positie van de ‘traditionele kranten’ in het sociaal - economisch en politiek krachtenveld binnen de Nederlandse samenleving? (Porter, 1992).
  • Reactie Condaleeza Rice: Protesten georganiseerd door de overheden. Anderen: Cartoons zouden logischerwijs leidden tot protesten in de moslimwereld en waren daarmee bedoeld de intolerantie van dit geloof aan te tonen. Bill Clinton: attacking the cartoons, describing them as “totally outrageous” and comparing European Islamophobia today with pre-war anti-Semitism
  • Journalism and the media: the cartoon controversy: Why were they published?

    1. 1. Journalism and the media: the cartoon controversy Research Team E Mark Boukes Liza de Leeuw Femke de Koning Jan Peters Yasemin Smit
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>The Danish ‘Mohammed Cartoon’ crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Classification in Hallin & Mancini’s media system </li></ul><ul><li>Power relations between media and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Danish newspaper published cartoons depicting Islamic Prophet Mohammed <ul><li>Motivation for publishing: Flemming Rose </li></ul><ul><li>Public Protests </li></ul><ul><li>Reprinted in newspapers in fifty other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Protests across the Muslim World </li></ul>Danish cartoon crisis
    4. 4. Al Qaeda’s glossy’s Death list Danish cartoon crisis
    5. 5. Supporters of the Cartoons <ul><li>“ This publication is a legitimate exercise of </li></ul><ul><li>the right of free speech” </li></ul><ul><li>South Park is ‘showing’ Mohammed </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Danish cartoon crisis
    6. 6. North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model (1) - Political <ul><li>Political history: Tensions with the Muslim minority since 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly consensus Government: Monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Organized pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Role of state: strong welfare state </li></ul><ul><li>Important development: shift from social democratic to more liberal  reasons for this development: economic crisis & unemployment </li></ul>Hallin & Mancini
    7. 7. North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model (2) - Media system <ul><ul><li>Newspaper industry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two big newspaper concerns (Politiken / Berlinske) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>both informational / conservative and right-orientated/sensational newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>informational / conservative have a lower circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jyllands-Posten’s circulation is increasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social-democratic newspaper’s circulation is decreasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political parallelism </li></ul><ul><li>Professionalization </li></ul><ul><li>Role of state in media system: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong protection of press-freedom in Denmark </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong public broadcasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high press-subsidies </li></ul></ul></ul>Hallin & Mancini
    8. 8. Official response from PM Rasmussen Denmark to ambassadors Islamic countries <ul><li>The freedom of expression has a wide scope and the Danish government has no means of influencing the press </li></ul><ul><li>Danish legislation does not allow acts or expressions of blasphemous or discriminatory nature: the offended party may bring such acts or expressions to court, and it is for the courts to decide in individual cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Rasmussen replied: &quot;Even a non-judicial intervention against Jyllands-Posten would be impossible within our system“. </li></ul>Politics and media
    9. 9. Prosecutor found no basis for concluding that the cartoons constituted a criminal offence <ul><li>The article concerns a subject of public interest </li></ul><ul><li>Danish case law which extends editorial freedom to journalists when it comes to a subject of public interest </li></ul><ul><li>Stated was that the right to freedom of speech must be exercised with the necessary respect for other human rights (protection against discrimination, insult and degradation) but no apparent violation of the law had occurred. </li></ul>Politics and media
    10. 10. International publications Politics and media
    11. 11. International publications and protests in the Muslim world Politics and media
    12. 12. Western Governments in defence of publication the cartoons <ul><li>Belgium: a resolution of parliament to defend the freedom of speech and to support Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Czech : necessary for them to publish the pictures so that the readers get the full information and expressed solidarity with Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>France (NS): “prefer an excess of caricature to an excess of censorship” </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden, Netherlands, US: Support the freedom of speech. But stresses that with this comes a certain responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>EU: underscore the sanctity of freedom of speech while also apologizing for unintended insulting behaviour, but condemn violent reactions </li></ul>Politics and media
    13. 13. Western Governments that were reluctant in publishing the cartoons <ul><li>Great-Britain: praises British newspapers for their &quot;considerable responsibility and sensitivity&quot; in not printing the cartoons </li></ul><ul><li>Poland / Ireland: considers the cartoons to be an unnecessary provocation </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand: publication of the cartoons was condemned, though decisions to print were up to newspaper editors </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa: prevent newspapers from publishing the cartoons </li></ul><ul><li>Finland: illegal to ‘disturb religious peace’  cartoons published on web sites, not in mainstream media </li></ul>Politics and media
    14. 14. Non-Western Governments: reactions against the publication of the cartoons <ul><li>Algeria, Jordania, Malaysia, Yemen: Newspapers that published the cartoons were closed and editors arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey: Caricatures of prophet Muhammad are an attack against spiritual values. There should be a limit of freedom of press </li></ul><ul><li>Iran: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ordered contracts to be cancelled with all countries where media have published the cartoons. Followed by other Arabian countries. Result: potential loss of 11,000 jobs in Denmark. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as a reaction organized a holocaust cartoon competition. Jyllands-Posten agreed to print, but backed down after seeing the results. </li></ul></ul>Politics and media
    15. 15. Media’s reactions <ul><li>Der Tagesspiegel: “In a democratic and secular society, showing decency and respect for other cultures does not mean adopting their religious dogmas”. </li></ul><ul><li>La Republica: ‘The media must be free in the name of freedom to publish all news, also that which is inconvenient to the power holder”. </li></ul><ul><li>Douai (2007): </li></ul>Politics and media
    16. 16. Double standards? <ul><li>A dopting laws that outlaw Holocaust denial </li></ul>The AEL was fined by a Dutch Court for placing this cartoon. Politics and media
    17. 17. Self censorship <ul><li>Perhaps there is no official censorship, however threatening from outside the government can lead to self censorship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Der Tagesspiegel (February 1 2006): “When a society allows itself to be guided only by the ‘feelings’ of a group of people, then it is no longer free”. (….) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yale University Press: “The press has a long history of defending free expression, but the risk of violence in this case, outweighed the benefit of including the images, which can easily be found on the Internet” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview Kurt Westergaard (1.40-3.07): </li></ul>Politics and media
    18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>Should cartoonists and journalist be protected by their own governments? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, how can it best be done? </li></ul>Discussion