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Black Soldier Fly Bioconversion: Waste Management System
Montaña de Luz
Prepared by:
Kevin Everson
Thomas Gullo
Marissa La...
2
Table of Contents
Team Members.............................................................................................
3
Table of Figures
Figure 1: Final Bin Design................................................................................
4
Team Members
Kevin Everson – Project Organizer
everson.47@osu.edu – (513)-225-1238
Thomas Gullo – Construction Specialis...
5
Montaña de Luz and created technical solutions to them. At the orphanage, a pressing matter to
consider is the manner in...
6
all surfaces of the bin. This process will keep the larvae healthy and reduce the growth of anaerobic
bacteria. By incor...
7
Figure 2: Outside components
The bin contains angled ramps from the bottom of the bin (where the flies consume the organ...
8
Drainage Component
This drainage component consists of a layer of galvanized mesh to support the waste in the bin and tw...
9
Deliverables
The main component of the project provided to MdL was the black solider fly system itself (Figure 1).
A sec...
10
 Cleaned the system to rid it of the ant infestations
 Added another layer of fly screen to prevent larvae falling th...
11
After the project was completed, there were a few things that could have been done differently to
improve the design, c...
12
Acknowledgements
Thank you Dr. Edgar Casale, Isa Fernandez-Puentes, Ruth DeYoe, Dr. Chris Ratcliff, Jorge Vallecillo, O...
13
Appendix A: Construction Photo Gallery
14
15
Appendix B: Bill of Materials
Table 1: Bill of Materials
Material Quantity Total Estimated Price
Purchased in the Unite...
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Project Notebook_BSF.docx

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Project Notebook_BSF.docx

  1. 1. Black Soldier Fly Bioconversion: Waste Management System Montaña de Luz Prepared by: Kevin Everson Thomas Gullo Marissa Lauer Submitted to: Dr. Edgar Casale Isa Fernandez-Puentes April 29, 2016
  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents Team Members.......................................................................................................................................4 Executive Summary.................................................................................................................................4 Background .............................................................................................................................................4 Problem Statement .................................................................................................................................5 Objectives ...............................................................................................................................................5 Final Bin Design.......................................................................................................................................6 Drainage Component...........................................................................................................................8 BSF Entry Holes and Egg Traps .............................................................................................................8 Project Work ...........................................................................................................................................8 Construction........................................................................................................................................8 Implementation of Waste and Flies .....................................................................................................8 Challenges and Limitations ..................................................................................................................8 Deliverables ............................................................................................................................................9 Bill of Materials .......................................................................................................................................9 Schedule .................................................................................................................................................9 Sustainability.........................................................................................................................................10 Cultural Connections .............................................................................................................................10 Retrospective Thoughts.........................................................................................................................10 Recommendations ................................................................................................................................11 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................................11 Acknowledgements...............................................................................................................................12 References ............................................................................................................................................12 Appendix A: Construction Photo Gallery................................................................................................13 Appendix B: Bill of Materials..................................................................................................................15
  3. 3. 3 Table of Figures Figure 1: Final Bin Design.........................................................................................................................6 Figure 2: Outside components.................................................................................................................7 Figure 3: Inside components....................................................................................................................7
  4. 4. 4 Team Members Kevin Everson – Project Organizer everson.47@osu.edu – (513)-225-1238 Thomas Gullo – Construction Specialist gullo.9@osu.edu – (614)-886-1993 Marissa Lauer – Design Coordinator lauer.102@osu.edu – (440)-537-2913 Executive Summary The basis of this project was to create a system to manage the organic waste at the Montaña de Luz orphanage using the black soldier fly species. A similar system was already in place at the facility, but certain components, including the lack of an effective drainage system and clumsy bin design, made this system less than optimal. The team created a more sophisticated waste management system, largely made of wood panels and beams, with the goal of reducing food waste, decreasing feed costs, and producing usable fertilizer. The system was designed from January to early March, and construction and installation took place over the course of a week in March. During the first three days of the week, the system was constructed using wood panels, wooden beams, brackets, and various other common construction components, totalling $352.54. During the latter half of the week, the system was moved to its permanent home, and organic waste from the kitchen, as well as black soldier fly larvae, were introduced into the bin. The system was subsequently observed, and any roadblocks or complications were dealt with. Within the constraints of the budget, the team wanted to create a system which was highly robust and effective in its purpose, as well as sustainable, by adding measures to protect the wood and providing a maintenance manual to the staff at the orphanage. While the team has a few retrospective ideas for improvement that would make a future system even better, they still learned much about the engineering process and about working in a developing country. Background Since 2000, Montaña de Luz has worked to provide a home for children in rural Honduras, in a region east of the capital city of Tegucigalpa. While the orphanage has been able to serve a large number of children since opening, limited resources have hindered the effectiveness of the facility to care for the children. In order to alleviate some of the road blocks and challenges that the orphanage faces, engineering students at Ohio State have examined the issues experienced by the staff and children at
  5. 5. 5 Montaña de Luz and created technical solutions to them. At the orphanage, a pressing matter to consider is the manner in which they manage their waste, which is relatively simple, leaving room for improvement in efficiency and conversion of waste. By examining the waste management system already in place at the facility, and poring through the recent techniques and technologies in the waste management world, such as bioconverters for fuel and basic worm composting, a more effective solution can be reached. Problem Statement In all areas of the world, finding a solution to managing waste, both organic and inorganic, can be a challenging but important task. Countless systems exist that attempt to combat this challenge, but finding a system that works best for the particular job is critical in creating a sustainable system. Before the group’s trip, Montaña de Luz (MdL) was using a small-scale waste management system involving black soldier flies. Black soldier flies (BSF) are used similarly to a worm composting process, breaking down waste and creating a nutrient-rich soil to be reused in places such as a garden. Unlike worm composting, the BSF larvae decompose massive amounts of waste in little time and then can be harvested as an animal feed. While the small-scale system at MdL was fully functional, the system had room for improvement in order to efficiently manage all of the orphanage’s daily food waste. The engineering team designed and created a larger, more robust system with a proper drainage system in addition to other advancements for harvesting the larvae. Larvae from the bin can be then be used as feed for animals at the orphanage. The new system was intended to have features able to control the anaerobic bacteria and displeasing odors that come with it. Self-sustaining, inexpensive, and low- maintenance, the improved food waste converter will be highly beneficial for the orphanage. Objectives The bulk of the project was a black soldier fly bin which serves to digest the majority of the facility’s organic waste. The black soldier fly larvae consume the solid organic waste at a highly efficient rate. The bin’s basic purpose is to contain the waste so that the larvae can readily consume it. They are known to be able to eat twice their body weight in one day (Wikipedia, Hermetia illucens). Fortunately enough, relatively little organic material in the bin is converted into liquid waste, or frass, that is excreted from the larvae during the conversion process (Wikipedia, Hermetia illucens). However, the frass that does get left behind from the flies after they consume the organic material is a concern. This liquid waste combined with other organic waste can create a moist layer of compact mud and compost at the bottom of the bin, which potentially leads to the growth of foul-smelling anaerobic bacteria (Wikipedia, Hermetia illucens). For this reason, the bin has a drainage component at the bottom to clear out the undesired liquid from the bin. Another area of concern was the manner in which the pupae (or adult larvae) are extracted from the bin once ready to transition into adult fly form. Because the black soldier fly larvae consume organic waste at such a high rate, the bin can be filled with organic waste the orphanage produces daily (except for when the waste will be diverted to the worm composting bin). The bin will also unavoidably become dirty and may produce rotting odors after extended use, so it is recommended to be cleaned out as needed. To do this, the bin should first be cleared out manually with shovels and/or gloves. Then, a hose should be used to thoroughly spray down
  6. 6. 6 all surfaces of the bin. This process will keep the larvae healthy and reduce the growth of anaerobic bacteria. By incorporating this clean-out procedure, the unwanted smells caused by the anaerobic bacteria will also be reduced. The lid which was installed on the bin is also intended to reduce the spread of odor. Final Bin Design The final product delivered to MdL is pictured in Figure 1 below. The product was modeled after a similar design posted on a BSF online forum that met all of the group’s desired design criteria (Black Solider Fly Farming- Composting with Black Soldier Flies, n.d.). Figure 1: Final Bin Design The main bin section contains the organic waste from a single day’s meals, where it is consumed by the larvae. The drainage system is located at the bottom of the bin system, where the liquid frass excreted by the larvae can pass through and directly into the bucket below the bin. Additionally, a bucket was placed at each end of the ramps for collection of the larvae (Figure 2). The design has a lower base of 2 feet, height of 1 foot, an upper base of 5 feet, and a depth 2 feet. Prior to the trip, it was calculated that there would be roughly 20 pounds of food waste per day from the orphanage, based on the number of people at the orphanage and average food waste numbers from around the world (United States Committee for FAO).
  7. 7. 7 Figure 2: Outside components The bin contains angled ramps from the bottom of the bin (where the flies consume the organic material) to the top of the bin where the pupae climb and fall off into a bucket via PVC “chutes” (Figure 2 and Figure 3). At this point, the pupae in the bucket are conserved for use as livestock feed. Figure 3: Inside components Waste bin Drainage component Pupae collection bins Pupae exit ramps Egg traps Fly entry hole
  8. 8. 8 Drainage Component This drainage component consists of a layer of galvanized mesh to support the waste in the bin and two layers of fly screen to allow liquid to pass through. In addition, a thin sheet of tarp with a hole cut in the middle was affixed under the fly screen to act as a funnel and direct all liquid into a bucket underneath the bin. BSF Entry Holes and Egg Traps The group incorporated entry holes and egg traps to maintain black soldier fly larvae presence in the system. The two egg traps were constructed out of corrugated cardboard and extra PVC pipe. They were screwed to the inside panel for the females to release their eggs after entering the bin through the holes (Figure 3). Project Work Construction The construction of the BSF bin took place over the course of three days at MdL, whereas the rest of the time was allotted for testing and sightseeing. First, the side panels and ramps of the bin were cut to size and screwed together. The lid was also cut and multiple coats of treatment were applied to the wood. Then, the frame of the drainage component to which the bin would sit in was constructed using the treated lumber. The lid was attached to the bin with hinges. Holes were cut in the bin for the entry of adult flies as well as for the PVC connections using a large drill spade. A handle was added for ease of use as well as a cable to hold the lid open. A mesh/fly screen combination was stapled to the bottom of the bin. Lastly, a final layer of polyurethane was added to complete the project’s construction. Implementation of Waste and Flies On March 17th, the BSF system was moved into its permanent home in the chicken coop. Meanwhile, food waste from the biodigester was placed into a wheelbarrow. The team members searched through this waste with shovels to find around one hundred larvae to kick start the system. Challenges and Limitations The main challenge that arose when creating this bin was an ant infestation during initial testing. The ants were eating the food waste and potentially the larvae as well. To fix this issue, the group filled the bottom portions of four old bleach buckets with a small brick and water (to the level of the brick) and placed them under each leg of the system. Each leg was also sprayed each leg Raid. The next day, there were no ants present in the system. Some other minor problems the group ran into included small larvae accidentally falling through the mesh layers as well as incorrectly sized PVC pipes and drill bits. Extra layers of mesh were added to prevent the larvae from falling and a trip to the local hardware store solved the sizing issues.
  9. 9. 9 Deliverables The main component of the project provided to MdL was the black solider fly system itself (Figure 1). A second deliverable to MdL included a troubleshooting manual translated in both English and Spanish. This manual was written by the creators of the bin and includes all potential issues that the workers of MdL may face while using the bin. Additionally, the manual includes the group’s contact information so that if any unforeseen problems arise, MdL will be able to reach out for assistance. Bill of Materials See Table 1 in the Appendix for the complete Bill of Materials. The materials for the project can be divided into two categories: those which were bought domestically and those which were bought in Honduras. Most small items were bought here in the United States: drill bits, screws, nuts, bolts, tarp, mesh, etc. This group of items totaled $157.19. Bigger items, such as wood panels and 2" x 4" beams could not be transported on the airplane, and were purchased near Montaña de Luz, and these were $195.19. The total cost of the project $352.24. Schedule See Appendix A for chronological photographs of the construction phase. The group planned to complete construction during the first few days of the week. The final days were designated for testing, observation, and troubleshooting of the system. Monday, 3/14  Constructed the walls of the bin using wood panels and brackets  Cut the lid of the bin from a wooden panel Tuesday, 3/15  Continued construction, including the frame below the bin and holes on each ramp  Applied layers of Maderol and caulk to the walls, lid, and edges of the bin Wednesday, 3/16  Finalized construction, applied polyurethane, connected PVC pipes and elbows, and connected the lid with hinges Thursday, 3/17  Moved the system into the chicken coop, added food waste and larvae  Checked on the system intermittently throughout the day Friday, 3/18
  10. 10. 10  Cleaned the system to rid it of the ant infestations  Added another layer of fly screen to prevent larvae falling through the system  Created a system to prevent further ant infestations Saturday, 3/19 - Sunday, 3/20  Observed system in action, ensured that bleach buckets still have water Sustainability Sustainability was a large focus in the group’s design of the black soldier fly bin. In order to create a highly sustainable bioconversion system, the group created a bin that required very little maintenance. Numerous layers of Maderol and polyurethane were added to the untreated wood panels to prevent water damage or rotting. It was important for the group to design a system that can potentially last the orphanages decades without maintenance or repair to its core components. Next, the group found the design to be self-sufficient due to quick BSF larvae bioconversion rates and mixing. MdL staff will not be required to mix the waste around inside the bin. However, if MdL staff do feel that a clean-out is necessary, the system is easy to be hosed clean. In addition to low maintenance, the system was relatively inexpensive to create (roughly $350). The waste management system’s final product, black soldier fly pupae, are able to act as animal feed after eliminating the orphanage’s food waste and act as a sustainable solution to lowering animal feed costs. Lastly, the liquid released from the system can be used as fertilizer for fruit trees and continue a nutrient cycle. Cultural Connections There are many unforeseen roadblocks that can arise when working in a foreign, developing country. The main issue was that there were limited resources. For example, the electricity went off a few times, so power tools were rendered useless for some time. When a trip to the hardware store was needed, there were not many options or variations of a desired component, so either the only option had to be purchased, or a makeshift alternative was needed. This lack of options and resources encouraged improvisation and making use of scrap parts. This was beneficial in that innovation was encouraged, but it may have impacted the quality of the final product. Language barriers were also an issue, but when working with physical objects, it is simple to act out what needs to be done. The professors were also helpful at translating for the students, but the importance of communication was shown through this problem. Retrospective Thoughts
  11. 11. 11 After the project was completed, there were a few things that could have been done differently to improve the design, construction, and testing of the BSF bin. More research on food waste amounts would have been beneficial, as we may have underestimated the amount of food waste that the orphanage produces based on numbers from a website. The most accurate way to know food waste amounts would be to ask MdL directly, yet this was never done due to believing that the workers would not be able to provide accurate measurements. Another consideration not taken into account was wildlife in Honduras. A large ant infestation was the biggest problem that arose, and it was never thought to ask MdL about this. There was too much material purchased as well, and this was due to careless calculations. Before purchasing the products, the sizes and amounts should have been double and triple checked to help cut costs and make sure enough is purchased at the same time. Most of these issues could have been solved with simple communication to MdL. It was difficult to get in contact with the workers there throughout the design stages, but the information they have is the most valuable information available. More of an effort should have been made to get in contact with them to make the project as successful as it could be. Recommendations For any future modifications to the black soldier fly bin, it is recommended and asked that the team contacts the group that created the bin before making any changes. The group has extensive prior knowledge that a future team will not due to design, construction, and in-country experience. Conditions, location, wildlife, and resources are just a few of the aspects of this project that are very specific to Honduras. Additionally, it is recommended that more wood treatment is applied to the BSF system if a team returns to MdL in order to lengthen the life of the project. Replacing the corrugated cardboard in the fly traps, removing unwanted trash, and monitoring the larvae population would be beneficial to the performance of the bin as well. Conclusions A functional BSFL bin and manual was successfully delivered to MdL in a timely fashion such that the orphanage can benefit fully from its potential. Once the larvae populations are thriving, there should be gratuitous amounts of food for the chickens. This should eliminate or cut chicken feed costs for MdL. The compost collector should help the fruit tree population thrive, and the food waste amounts should decrease. The team will continue to check in with MdL to determine the status of the system. This project is still in the testing stages, so if problems should arise, the team will consult with each other and determine the next action. Working in a foreign country has challenged this project with many hurdles, but the product was created almost exactly as it was designed. The importance of a solid preliminary design was demonstrated, although improvisation was needed in order to overcome the limited resources offered. Overall, the project has been a success so far, and hopefully it will continue to function properly throughout the years based on the sustainable design.
  12. 12. 12 Acknowledgements Thank you Dr. Edgar Casale, Isa Fernandez-Puentes, Ruth DeYoe, Dr. Chris Ratcliff, Jorge Vallecillo, OSU teams and the entire staff and children at Montaña de Luz. References Black Solider Fly Farming- Composting with Black Soldier Flies. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.blacksoldierflyfarming.com/ United States Committee for FAO. (n.d.). World Food Day USA. Retrieved from http://www.worldfooddayusa.org/ Wikipedia. (2016, March 10). Hermetia illucens. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermetia_illucens
  13. 13. 13 Appendix A: Construction Photo Gallery
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Appendix B: Bill of Materials Table 1: Bill of Materials Material Quantity Total Estimated Price Purchased in the United States PVC Pipe 4 feet $4.55 Silicone Caulk + Caulk Gun 2 bottles $22.44 Nuts and Bolts 1 box $3.97 Galvanized Mesh 1 $18 Fiberglass Fly Screen 1 $6.10 Hinges (Small) 1 pack $8.35 Brackets 8 $3.18 Plastic tarp 1 $2.98 Dowel Rod 1 $4.18 Drill Bit Set 1 $9.98 Power Saw 1 $42.48 Circular Saw Blade 1 $5.98 Trowel 1 $3.98 Gorilla Glue 1 $3.68 Staples 1 pack $2.78 Paint Brush 3 $4.18 Work Gloves 1 $5 Safety Glasses 3 $5.38 Total United States $157.19 Purchased in Honduras Wooden Panels 4 $121.95 Severe Weather Treated Lumber 2 $18.97 5-gallon Bucket with Lid 4 $20.21 Polyurethane Spray 3 cans $19.22 Maderol 1 gallon $14.80 Total Honduras $195.19 Total $352.34

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