The Political, Economic, and Development Needs


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The Political, Economic, and Development Needs

  1. 1. Nicaragua Political, Economic and Development Needs
  2. 2. Political History Settled as a Spanish colony from  Panama in the early 16th century.  Independence from Spain declared in 1821  Country became an independent republic in 1838.  British occupation of Caribbean Coast in the first half of the 19th century,
  3. 3. 1978: Violent opposition to  governmental manipulation and corruption was wide spread 1979: Marxist Sandinistas  come to power 1980’s: USA sponsor of anti-  Sandinista contra Free elections in 1990, 1996,  and 2001 - Sandinistas defeated Voting in 2006:return of  former Sandinista President Daniel Ortega Saavedra. Overall - Nicaragua's  infrastructure and economy shaken
  4. 4. Economy Nicaragua has widespread  underemployment  Third lowest per capita income in the Western Hemisphere.  Annual GDP growth has been too low to meet the country's needs  Early 2004: Nicaragua secured some $4.5 billion in foreign debt reduction under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative
  5. 5. October 2007: the IMF approved a new  poverty reduction and growth facility (PRGF) program that should allow for social spending and investment.  Energy shortages preventing growth
  6. 6. GDP: $16.17 billion (2007 est.)   GDP growth rate:4%  GDP per capita: $2,800 Industries: food  processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood Agriculture:  coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, co rn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products
  7. 7. Environment Destruction of Nicaraguan   A Pro to the Contra War •Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and Environment (Instituto de Recursos Naturales--Irena) in the 1980s •Conservation methods not permanent – soon fell to destructive power of Contra War
  8. 8. Environmental efforts   Consequences of Increasing Poverty  “Although in the 1990s Nicaragua's tropical forests were less than 1 percent the size of the Amazon rain forest in Brazil, Nicaraguan rain forests were disappearing at a rate ten times faster than that of the Amazon. If that rate continues, the Nicaraguan rain forest will have disappeared by 2010.”
  9. 9. Development Needs Better class structure needed – more even  distribution of resources Stable economy, social programs,  industries, foreign aid and government Economic growth and social reform  End of political unease – during times of  revolution, funds re-directed to national defense Nicaragua's economy saw sustained  improvements in stabilization and growth. Reducing poverty requires attention to  growth of the rural economy
  10. 10. Sources 1. http://www.acdi- 2. 129124155-NRR 3. 4. america_caribbean/nicaragua.pdf 5. bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ni0030)