IN HONOUR OF ANA MARÍA ARMENDÁRIZThird Generation       Tests                      Cristina Magno                 cmagno@u...
What is a test?             A test is a sample of anindividual’s behavior/ performance , i.e.,a series of tasks (e.g., ite...
A language test refers to ….  Any kind of measurement,  examination or technique  which intends to describe the  testee’s ...
WHEN DO YOU   TEST?
BEFORE A COURSE STARTS?DURING THE COURSE?WHEN THE COURSE FINISHES?
WHY DO YOU TEST?
TO CHECK THE LEARNERS ARESTUDYING?TO CHECK HOW EFFECTIVE THETEACHING HAS BEEN?AS BACKWARD OR FORWARD TOOL?
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESTo gain an overview of what students bring to new instruction and thus plan and identify pote...
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto diagnose what individual learners know  to determine the pace of classroom instruction
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto  take better decisions about grouping students in the class
BACKWARD AND FORWARD         PURPOSES to share information with boards      of   education, parents, and the general publ...
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto measure the effectiveness of instruction and learning to help make promotion and retent...
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT EVIDENCE           AND EVALUATION  measurement evidence:  differentiating degrees of a trait by ...
Teachers andadministrators   need to haveanalysis skills to effectivelyinterpret evidence and makevalue judgments about th...
DIFFERENT WAYS OF    MEASURING    EVALUATION   ASSESSMENT      TESTING
EVALUATIONlooking at all the factors that  influence the learning process,  ex: syllabus objectives, course  design, mater...
ASSESSMENTIt involves measuring theperformance of students andthe progress that they aremaking. It helps us to be able tod...
ASSESSMENT1) Informal assessment2) Formal assessment (testing)3) Self assessment
INFORMAL ASSESSMENTobservation       of        everydayperformancecollecting data about our students’performance in normal...
FORMAL ASSESSMENT At the end of the course            Or     Along the course
FORMAL ASSESSMENT commonly administered in class by the  teacher, in order to assess learning. not so formal limited to ...
FORMAL ASSESSMENTsynonymous of “testing”1) external examinations (KET, PET, FCE, etc)2) administered to many students3) un...
FORMAL ASSESSMENTFormative to evaluate the effectiveness of learning at a time during the course forward looking, concerne...
SELF ASSESSMENTthe students themselves assess their  own progress.  a) as a complement to self  instruction  b) to build a...
What we test is related to ourpurpose in testing  Before course    Aptitude test                   Placement test  During ...
APTITUDE TESTSto determine an individual’s ability toacquire a second or foreignlanguage.large scale tests taking a long t...
PLACEMENT TESTSto decide the students’placement into appropriategroupsquick to administer and to markadministered at the s...
DIAGNOSTIC TESTSusually syllabus based to determine the students’areas of strength andweaknesses in relation tothe content...
PROGRESS TESTforms part of the formativeevaluation of the courses provides continuous feedback toboth the teacher and the ...
ACHIEVEMENT TESTSat the end of a relatively long periodof learningthe content derives from the syllabusthat has been taugh...
PROFICIENCY TESTSbased on a theory of languageproficiencyand the specific language abilities toconstitute language profici...
DESIRABLE FEATURES IN TESTS     VALIDITY     RELIABILITY     UTILITY     DISCRIMINATION     PRACTICALITY
VALIDITYThe extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure and nothing else
RELIABILITYTo provide consistent results when  administered      under    similar  conditions. it shows the consistency of...
UTILITYTo provide a lot of feedback to assist in the planning of the rest of a course or future courses.
DISCRIMINATIONThe ability to distinguish between stronger and weaker students.
PRACTICALITYHow efficient the test is in physical terms. in equipment required in time to set, administer in time mark …
THE LINGUISTIC APPROACH WE TAKE ON LANGUAGE       LEARNING   WILL DETERMINE THE GENERATION OF THE TEST
FIRST GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE   GRAMMAR TRANSLATION        APPROACH FOCUS ON ACCURACY DEVOID OF CONTEXT SUBJECTIVE SCO...
SECOND GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE STRUCTURALIST APPROACH FOCUS ON DISCRETE LANGUAGE THEMATIC ORIENTED OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT
Are these samplessuitable for communicativepurposes?            Do you feel any areas aremissing in these examples? If so,...
OLLER (1973)The primary function of language is           COMMUNICATION  Thus, language should be tested in  terms of comm...
BACHMAN (1990)      Communicative ability      Learners´competence                 +    capacity for implementing         ...
Candlin (1985)Creating meaning“a coming together of organized  knowledge structures with a set of  procedures for adapting...
Bachman & Palmer (1996) Language is multicomponentialFactors other than language should be put to test employing both quan...
Metacognitive strategies    Grammatical knowledge    Textual knowledge    Pragmatic knowledge    Topical knowledge    Back...
THIRD GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE      COMMUNICATIVE        APPROACH Authentic material Contextualized Global and discrete...
WEST (1990) Tension between principles of language testing     COMPETENCE vs. PERFORMANCE              USE    vs. USAGE  I...
WHEN CREATING    TESTING MATERIAL
BEAR IN MINDBACKWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENT            vs. FORWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENTNORM REFERENCED ASSESSMENT            vs....
.                 THE DEVELOPMENT AND    IMPLEMENTATION     OF     BENCHMARK    SYSTEMS AND FRAMEWORKS THAT TAKE    AN   A...
Canadian Language Benchmarks            (CLB)Common European Framework of   Reference for Languages
3 G TESTS COMBINEDISCRETE POINT APPROACHES            + INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES  AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE           +    RECEPTI...
SO AS TO COMPLY WITH THE        SYLLABUSINCLUDE DISCRETE POINT TENCHNIQUES     (GR + VOC) To measure the range and degree...
HUERTA-MACIAS (1995)        HMAYAN (1995)  Through techniques on a daily classroom  routine basisemulate real-life tasks w...
Pappamihiel & Walser (2009)“Traditional ways of assessing  language acquisition are  inadequate in today’s world”
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION             ISA COMPLEX, NONLINEAR AND  COMMUNICATIVE ENDEAVOUR
NEW TRENDS
AS TEACHERSWE NEED TO ASK OURSELVES                How do I help                them grow from           I        AN Y    ...
It means recognizing students’  abilities to understand, use  and produce language in a  variety of forms, for a variety  ...
IT MEANS GIVING GRAMMATICAL  ITEMS, VERBS AND  VOCABULARY LISTS LESS  IMPORTANCE THAN THEY HAVE  BEEN HOLDING SO FAR.
IT MEANS BALANCING STRUCTURE                AND MEANINGNon           Pre-          Communicative   Structured      Authent...
SUGGESTION OF A THIRD GENERATIONACHIEVEMENT TESTING
THE TEXTpublished in December 2009 by the World Health Organization which is available at http://www.who.int/features/fact...
THE SUBJECTS  a group of young adults at upper  intermediate course in reading.
Designed to be taken in a situation where the learners have completed an eighty      hour   course    where   the followin...
TOPIC           GRAMMATICAL ITEMSGLOBALIZATION   Revision of tenses and                verb forms                Narrative...
TOPIC                   GRAMMATICAL ITEMSEnviroHealth Connections: Food/Nutrition                       Noun phrases. Plur...
TOPIC                   GRAMMATICAL ITEMSMind, body and spirit   Adjectives and adverbs.                        Patterns  ...
TOPIC                      GRAMMATICAL ITEMS21st Century lifestyles.   Adjective order. The position                      ...
Strategies to understand the gist of thepassage and/or get detailedunderstanding such as:  predicting and anticipating, sk...
MEASURING CRITERIA for the reading section1. Reading for comprehensionand application of readingstrategies2. Use of readin...
MEASURING BANDSThis correction and marking criterion  makes      the    instrument       more  trustworthy especially in t...
Band scalesInclude a number of divisions, or  “bands”, of possible student  performance, and descriptors for  each bandThe...
Reading for comprehension andapplication of reading strategiesBand 1-2      Can get the gist of a multipurpose authentic t...
Use of reading strategies1-2 point   1-2      Can do search, skimming and scanning            pointsBand 2      3-4      C...
CRITICAL READINGBand   1-2      Can make a general comment or give an opinion on an1      point    authentic textBand   3-...
MEASURING CRITERIA FOR       WRITING1. Task accomplishment andorganization2. Grammar and range ofstructure3. Spelling, pun...
Task accomplishment and organizationBand 1 2 point    Can write full sentences related to the topic requested but         ...
Grammar and range of structuresBand 2 point   Can write simple sentences in which the extent of grammatical1              ...
Spelling, punctuation and range ofvocabularyBand   points1      2        Can write choppy sentences very simple vocabulary...
Description of this testDivided into     Before reading     While reading       Global understanding       Detailed unders...
Before reading: Have a look at the titles, the pictures and the name of the source where this text was taken from and do ...
BEFORE READING: Statethe effects global warming is having on the world. Why do you suppose the World Health Organization ...
WHILE READING          Global understanding State  the five consequences  mentioned  Where do you suppose this article wa...
WHILE READING        Detailed understanding Read the passage carefully   Which is the correct option? Multiple choice   qu...
 Match the meaning of thesewords     1. Scarcity        a. Is likely to catch     2. Crop yields     b. General     3. Les...
AFTER READINGWriting  Your school has become involved in a project to  raise awareness about the dangers of global  warmin...
Essential elements inherent to third          generation test“The processing of realistic discourse  since   authenticity ...
Essential elements inherent to     third generation testThe performance of tasks which will enable the learners to make us...
Essential elements inherent to third          generation testThe tasks learners are expected to carry out aim at taking in...
levels of analysis related to both use and usage of the target language:            situational,             pragmatic,   ...
Essential elements inherent to third           generation testand addressing syntax:  the range of structures, cohesive   ...
CONCLUSIONSWhich do you consider are some of the benefits to using third generation tests?
CONCLUSIONSIt allows learners   To view what they have learnt as a   significant whole   To map their knowledge of the lan...
CONCLUSIONSThird generation tests enable learners to integrate these different aspects into a meaningful task following a ...
CONCLUSIONSFrom the teachers’ standpoint             It   allows    viewing students’ performance and their learning proce...
Testing is an ongoing process whereby not only the pupils show the assimilation of what they have been exposed to but    a...
ReferencesBachman, L. F., A. S. & Palmer (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing usefullanguage tes...
Hoffmann magno testing_apiba_27_10_12
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Hoffmann magno testing_apiba_27_10_12

  1. 1. IN HONOUR OF ANA MARÍA ARMENDÁRIZThird Generation Tests Cristina Magno cmagno@ungs.edu.ar Marisa Hoffmann mhpec@hotmail.com
  2. 2. What is a test? A test is a sample of anindividual’s behavior/ performance , i.e.,a series of tasks (e.g., items) used toobtain systematic observationspresumed to represent attributes orcharacteristics.
  3. 3. A language test refers to …. Any kind of measurement, examination or technique which intends to describe the testee’s foreign language proficiency
  4. 4. WHEN DO YOU TEST?
  5. 5. BEFORE A COURSE STARTS?DURING THE COURSE?WHEN THE COURSE FINISHES?
  6. 6. WHY DO YOU TEST?
  7. 7. TO CHECK THE LEARNERS ARESTUDYING?TO CHECK HOW EFFECTIVE THETEACHING HAS BEEN?AS BACKWARD OR FORWARD TOOL?
  8. 8. BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESTo gain an overview of what students bring to new instruction and thus plan and identify potential difficulties to be faced
  9. 9. BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto diagnose what individual learners know  to determine the pace of classroom instruction
  10. 10. BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto take better decisions about grouping students in the class
  11. 11. BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSES to share information with boards of education, parents, and the general public through the media
  12. 12. BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto measure the effectiveness of instruction and learning to help make promotion and retention decisions
  13. 13. PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT EVIDENCE AND EVALUATION measurement evidence: differentiating degrees of a trait by description or by assigning scores Evaluation: interpretation of the description or scores “The systematic analysis of evidence” ( Shepard, 2000)
  14. 14. Teachers andadministrators need to haveanalysis skills to effectivelyinterpret evidence and makevalue judgments about themeaning of the results.
  15. 15. DIFFERENT WAYS OF MEASURING EVALUATION ASSESSMENT TESTING
  16. 16. EVALUATIONlooking at all the factors that influence the learning process, ex: syllabus objectives, course design, materials, methodology, teacher performance and assessment
  17. 17. ASSESSMENTIt involves measuring theperformance of students andthe progress that they aremaking. It helps us to be able todiagnose the problems theyhave and to provide them withuseful feedback.
  18. 18. ASSESSMENT1) Informal assessment2) Formal assessment (testing)3) Self assessment
  19. 19. INFORMAL ASSESSMENTobservation of everydayperformancecollecting data about our students’performance in normal classroom conditions intuitive assessment in all activitiesperformed in the classroom
  20. 20. FORMAL ASSESSMENT At the end of the course Or Along the course
  21. 21. FORMAL ASSESSMENT commonly administered in class by the teacher, in order to assess learning. not so formal limited to the context for purposes internal to the class assess a narrow range of language assess either objectively or subjectively to assist teaching often backward looking.
  22. 22. FORMAL ASSESSMENTsynonymous of “testing”1) external examinations (KET, PET, FCE, etc)2) administered to many students3) under standardized conditions4) assess a broad range of language5) marked objectively or under standardized subjective marking schemes6) administered at the end of a course.
  23. 23. FORMAL ASSESSMENTFormative to evaluate the effectiveness of learning at a time during the course forward looking, concerned with future language learningSummative on several contents marked as ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ Scriven (1967:43)
  24. 24. SELF ASSESSMENTthe students themselves assess their own progress. a) as a complement to self instruction b) to build autonomous learners c) to give learners an opportunity to reflect on their learning. Dickinson (1997)
  25. 25. What we test is related to ourpurpose in testing Before course Aptitude test Placement test During course Diagnostic test Progress test Achievement test After Course Proficiency test
  26. 26. APTITUDE TESTSto determine an individual’s ability toacquire a second or foreignlanguage.large scale tests taking a long time toadministerdifferent facet of languagealso forward-looking tests,
  27. 27. PLACEMENT TESTSto decide the students’placement into appropriategroupsquick to administer and to markadministered at the start of anew phase or language course
  28. 28. DIAGNOSTIC TESTSusually syllabus based to determine the students’areas of strength andweaknesses in relation tothe contents to be covered inthe course.
  29. 29. PROGRESS TESTforms part of the formativeevaluation of the courses provides continuous feedback toboth the teacher and the learnerare usually written andadministered by a class teacherlook back over recent work
  30. 30. ACHIEVEMENT TESTSat the end of a relatively long periodof learningthe content derives from the syllabusthat has been taught over the periodof timelarge scale tests, covering a widerange of language and skills
  31. 31. PROFICIENCY TESTSbased on a theory of languageproficiencyand the specific language abilities toconstitute language proficiencyoften related to specific academic orprofessional situations where English isneeded. (TOEFL, KET, PET, FCE,CAE, IELTS, etc)
  32. 32. DESIRABLE FEATURES IN TESTS VALIDITY RELIABILITY UTILITY DISCRIMINATION PRACTICALITY
  33. 33. VALIDITYThe extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure and nothing else
  34. 34. RELIABILITYTo provide consistent results when administered under similar conditions. it shows the consistency of the scoring of the test, both between different raters, and between the same rater on different occasions
  35. 35. UTILITYTo provide a lot of feedback to assist in the planning of the rest of a course or future courses.
  36. 36. DISCRIMINATIONThe ability to distinguish between stronger and weaker students.
  37. 37. PRACTICALITYHow efficient the test is in physical terms. in equipment required in time to set, administer in time mark …
  38. 38. THE LINGUISTIC APPROACH WE TAKE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING WILL DETERMINE THE GENERATION OF THE TEST
  39. 39. FIRST GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION APPROACH FOCUS ON ACCURACY DEVOID OF CONTEXT SUBJECTIVE SCORING
  40. 40. SECOND GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE STRUCTURALIST APPROACH FOCUS ON DISCRETE LANGUAGE THEMATIC ORIENTED OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT
  41. 41. Are these samplessuitable for communicativepurposes? Do you feel any areas aremissing in these examples? If so,which?
  42. 42. OLLER (1973)The primary function of language is COMMUNICATION Thus, language should be tested in terms of communicative abilities
  43. 43. BACHMAN (1990) Communicative ability Learners´competence + capacity for implementing + executing that competence in CONTEXTUALIZED communicative language use.
  44. 44. Candlin (1985)Creating meaning“a coming together of organized knowledge structures with a set of procedures for adapting this knowledge to solve new problems of communication that do not have ready-made and tailored solutions.”
  45. 45. Bachman & Palmer (1996) Language is multicomponentialFactors other than language should be put to test employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in interrelated areas.
  46. 46. Metacognitive strategies Grammatical knowledge Textual knowledge Pragmatic knowledge Topical knowledge Background knowledge
  47. 47. THIRD GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Authentic material Contextualized Global and discrete items
  48. 48. WEST (1990) Tension between principles of language testing COMPETENCE vs. PERFORMANCE USE vs. USAGE INDIRECT TESTING vs. DIRECT TESTINGRECEPTIVE SKILLS vs. PRODUCTIVE SKILLS DISEMBODIED LANGUAGE vs. CONTEXTUALIZED LANGUAGE
  49. 49. WHEN CREATING TESTING MATERIAL
  50. 50. BEAR IN MINDBACKWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENT vs. FORWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENTNORM REFERENCED ASSESSMENT vs. CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENT
  51. 51. . THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BENCHMARK SYSTEMS AND FRAMEWORKS THAT TAKE AN ASSET-BASED APPROACH TO LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT FOCUSES MAINLY ON WHAT THE LEARNER “CAN DO”
  52. 52. Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB)Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
  53. 53. 3 G TESTS COMBINEDISCRETE POINT APPROACHES + INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE + RECEPTIVE SKILLS
  54. 54. SO AS TO COMPLY WITH THE SYLLABUSINCLUDE DISCRETE POINT TENCHNIQUES (GR + VOC) To measure the range and degree of masteryESTABLISH PRODUCTIVE SKILLS related to objectives and contents
  55. 55. HUERTA-MACIAS (1995) HMAYAN (1995) Through techniques on a daily classroom routine basisemulate real-life tasks which aim at evaluating what learners CAN produceintegrate rather than recall and repeat
  56. 56. Pappamihiel & Walser (2009)“Traditional ways of assessing language acquisition are inadequate in today’s world”
  57. 57. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ISA COMPLEX, NONLINEAR AND COMMUNICATIVE ENDEAVOUR
  58. 58. NEW TRENDS
  59. 59. AS TEACHERSWE NEED TO ASK OURSELVES How do I help them grow from I AN Y where they are C W PM ? now?” HO EL ILS H P PU
  60. 60. It means recognizing students’ abilities to understand, use and produce language in a variety of forms, for a variety of purposes
  61. 61. IT MEANS GIVING GRAMMATICAL ITEMS, VERBS AND VOCABULARY LISTS LESS IMPORTANCE THAN THEY HAVE BEEN HOLDING SO FAR.
  62. 62. IT MEANS BALANCING STRUCTURE AND MEANINGNon Pre- Communicative Structured Authenticcommunicati communication language communication communicationve learning language practice practiceFocusongramma-tical Focus onaccurac meaningy
  63. 63. SUGGESTION OF A THIRD GENERATIONACHIEVEMENT TESTING
  64. 64. THE TEXTpublished in December 2009 by the World Health Organization which is available at http://www.who.int/features/factf iles/climate_change/en/ as the triggering element
  65. 65. THE SUBJECTS a group of young adults at upper intermediate course in reading.
  66. 66. Designed to be taken in a situation where the learners have completed an eighty hour course where the following topics and grammatical items have been covered.
  67. 67. TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSGLOBALIZATION Revision of tenses and verb forms Narrative tenses: past simple and continuous; Past perfect simple and continuous; The future in the past.
  68. 68. TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSEnviroHealth Connections: Food/Nutrition Noun phrases. Plural expressions in compound adjectives, compound nouns; prepositional phrases, participial clauses. Modals to express probability, obligation, permission, ability and willingness. Abstract nouns and relative clauses.
  69. 69. TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSMind, body and spirit Adjectives and adverbs. Patterns with comparatives and superlatives. As: as versus like; as…as for comparisons.Use and non-use of passive forms. Particles which add meaning to verbs.
  70. 70. TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMS21st Century lifestyles. Adjective order. The position of adverbs. Adverbs and expressions of opinion. Verb patterns: reported speech. Verb patterns. Conditional sentences: mixed conditionals; tense usage for fact versus non-fact. Hypothesizing (I wish/ if only; as if/though; It’s
  71. 71. Strategies to understand the gist of thepassage and/or get detailedunderstanding such as: predicting and anticipating, skimming and scanning, locating key words and topic sentences, recognizing grammatical and lexical cohesive devices, inferring meaning of unknown words from context and relating them to their morphology and their position in the sentence.
  72. 72. MEASURING CRITERIA for the reading section1. Reading for comprehensionand application of readingstrategies2. Use of reading strategies3. Critical reading
  73. 73. MEASURING BANDSThis correction and marking criterion makes the instrument more trustworthy especially in terms of inter- and intra- rater reliability and, on the other hand, gives the task the necessary validity component to make sure we are testing what we intend to test
  74. 74. Band scalesInclude a number of divisions, or “bands”, of possible student performance, and descriptors for each bandThey assure some degree of reliability in assessments of student performance
  75. 75. Reading for comprehension andapplication of reading strategiesBand 1-2 Can get the gist of a multipurpose authentic text1 pointBand 3-4 Can understand main ideas, and some important2 points details of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 5-6 Can understand main ideas, and most important details3 points of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 7-8 Can understand main ideas, secondary ideas and4 points almost all details of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 9-10 Can understand main ideas, secondary ideas and all5 points details of a multipurpose authentic text as well as identify the purpose of the text.
  76. 76. Use of reading strategies1-2 point 1-2 Can do search, skimming and scanning pointsBand 2 3-4 Can use low-level inference and handle some points ambiguity.Band 3 5-6 Can guess the meaning of an unknown word, phrase points or idiom from the context.Band 4 7-8 Can use inference to locate and integrate several points specific pieces of abstract information across paragraphs or sections.Band 5 9-10 Can search through information and use high level points inference to locate and integrate several specific pieces of abstract information (explicit and implied) from various parts of text.
  77. 77. CRITICAL READINGBand 1-2 Can make a general comment or give an opinion on an1 point authentic textBand 3-4 Can sufficiently grasp the meaning of text to paraphrase or2 points summarize key points.Band 5-6 Can paraphrase or summarize key points and draw3 points conclusions.Band 7-8 Can synthesize and critically evaluate various pieces of4 points abstract information.Band 9-10 Can interpret, compare and evaluate both the content and5 points the form of written text.
  78. 78. MEASURING CRITERIA FOR WRITING1. Task accomplishment andorganization2. Grammar and range ofstructure3. Spelling, punctuation andrange of vocabulary
  79. 79. Task accomplishment and organizationBand 1 2 point Can write full sentences related to the topic requested but does not integrate them cohesively.Band 4 points Can convey information related to the topic requested and link2 sentences to conform coherent and cohesive paragraphs but does not respect text type conventions.Band 3 6 points Can write the text type requested accordingly responding to conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive wayBand 4 8 points Can write an effective, stylistically complex text responding to conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive way.Band 5 10 Can write an effective, stylistically complex text responding to points conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive way and is aware of audience.
  80. 80. Grammar and range of structuresBand 2 point Can write simple sentences in which the extent of grammatical1 mistakes hinders comprehension and exhibits word order difficultiesBand 4 points Can write correct though relatively simple sentences and2 shows difficulties regarding word order.Band 6 points Can write complex sentences containing mistakes not related3 to earlier stages where the order is reasonable.Band 8 points Can write complex sentences using the target structures4 appropriate to this level and to this task though not in completely accurate wayBand 10 Can write complex sentences using the target structures5 points appropriate to this level and to this task accurately. Makes use of the appropriate tone and register.
  81. 81. Spelling, punctuation and range ofvocabularyBand points1 2 Can write choppy sentences very simple vocabulary which does not relate to the topic. The text presents several spelling and punctuation mistakes. Register is not appropriate.2 4 Can write choppy sentences with simple vocabulary vaguely related to the topic. There are several spelling and punctuation mistakes.3 6 Can write fluent sentences with vocabulary thematically related though quite simple. There are a few spelling, punctuation and register mistakes.4 8 Can write fluent sentences with adequate and correctly used vocabulary. There are minor spelling but does not respect register. Punctuation is almost correct.5 10 Can write fluent sentences with a fairly wide range of vocabulary appropriate to the topic, text type and register. Punctuation is correct and there are not spelling mistakes.
  82. 82. Description of this testDivided into Before reading While reading Global understanding Detailed understanding After reading
  83. 83. Before reading: Have a look at the titles, the pictures and the name of the source where this text was taken from and do these exercises: Matchthe pictures to the corresponding paragraph.
  84. 84. BEFORE READING: Statethe effects global warming is having on the world. Why do you suppose the World Health Organization is worried about/involved in global warming?
  85. 85. WHILE READING Global understanding State the five consequences mentioned Where do you suppose this article was published? What is its purpose? Is the passage complete? Yes/ No. Why?/ Why not?
  86. 86. WHILE READING Detailed understanding Read the passage carefully Which is the correct option? Multiple choice questions1- The burning of fossil fuelsa) has increased in a 30%b) traps heat in the lower atmospherec) causes the temperature to increased) changes patterns of infectious diseases.
  87. 87.  Match the meaning of thesewords 1. Scarcity a. Is likely to catch 2. Crop yields b. General 3. Lessen c. Economic position 4. Trapping d. Not enough 5. Overwhelming e. Organization in the house 6. Outbreaks f. Impossible to control 7. Vulnerability g. Catching 8. Livelihood h. Episode 9. Households i. Reduce 10. Overall j. Harvest collected
  88. 88. AFTER READINGWriting Your school has become involved in a project to raise awareness about the dangers of global warming in health in influential business men in the city where you live. Write the speech you would give.Bear in mind the audience that you would like them to react in some way that you should sound convincing
  89. 89. Essential elements inherent to third generation test“The processing of realistic discourse since authenticity is of vital importance concerning the use of language in the activities proposed and in the relationship between the language which is being tested and the language of the real world” (Chalhoub-Deville,2001: 214-217 in Brown,2004: 101)
  90. 90. Essential elements inherent to third generation testThe performance of tasks which will enable the learners to make use of language in a context which resembles real life situations.
  91. 91. Essential elements inherent to third generation testThe tasks learners are expected to carry out aim at taking into account a multilayer scheme dealing with
  92. 92. levels of analysis related to both use and usage of the target language: situational, pragmatic, functional, semantic levels, andthe connection with the text texture and the paratext information
  93. 93. Essential elements inherent to third generation testand addressing syntax: the range of structures, cohesive devices, lexical issues, special vocabulary and lexical cohesion and the use of linguistic and non- linguistic resources.
  94. 94. CONCLUSIONSWhich do you consider are some of the benefits to using third generation tests?
  95. 95. CONCLUSIONSIt allows learners To view what they have learnt as a significant whole To map their knowledge of the language in specific areas of syntax, lexis, pragmatics, pronunciation To show an array of linguistic and paralinguistic features which they are expected to put to use in a concrete task.
  96. 96. CONCLUSIONSThird generation tests enable learners to integrate these different aspects into a meaningful task following a problem solving scheme which resembles real life situations.
  97. 97. CONCLUSIONSFrom the teachers’ standpoint It allows viewing students’ performance and their learning process in a more holistic manner which is much more consistent with CLT techniques.
  98. 98. Testing is an ongoing process whereby not only the pupils show the assimilation of what they have been exposed to but also the teachers’ performance as well as the evaluator’s expertise is put to test.
  99. 99. ReferencesBachman, L. F., A. S. & Palmer (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing usefullanguage tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Bachman, L. F. (1990) Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: OUP.Bachman, L. F., & A. S. Palmer,. (2010). Language assessment in practice (2nd ed.). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.Brown, J. (2004) “Performance Assessment: Existing Literature and Directions for Research” SecondLanguage Studies, 22(2), pp. 91-139.Canale, M. and M. Swain (1980) “Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second languageteaching and testing”. In Applied Linguistics 1.Canale, M. (1983). On some dimensions of language proficiency. In J. W. Oller (Ed.), Issues in languagetesting research. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Candlin, C. N. (1985) «Explaining communicative competence: the limits of testability». En Report 21 of theIInd International TOEFL Conference, ETS. Princeton: New JerseyDouglas, D. (2000). Assessing language for specific purposes: Theory and practice. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press.Hamayan, E.V. (1995). Approaches to alternative assessment. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 15,212-226.Huerta-Macias, A. (1995). Alternative assessment: Responses to commonly asked questions. TESOLJournal, 5, 8-10.Lennon, A. (2009).Assessment and Testing in the Classroom. Course material. FUNIBER.McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Oller, J. (1973). Cloze tests of second language proficiency and what they measure. Language Learning 23,105-118.Oller, J. (1979): Language tests at school, London, Longman. SPOLSKY, the problem of validation, TESOLOller, J. (editor). 1983.Issues in language testing research. In Reprint in Candlin 1986. Rowley, MA:Newbury HouseWest, R. (1990): Introduction and Principles of Language Testing. University of Manchester SEDE.

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