IN HONOUR OF ANA MARÍA ARMENDÁRIZThird Generation Tests Cristina Magno firstname.lastname@example.org Marisa Hoffmann email@example.com
What is a test? A test is a sample of anindividual’s behavior/ performance , i.e.,a series of tasks (e.g., items) used toobtain systematic observationspresumed to represent attributes orcharacteristics.
A language test refers to …. Any kind of measurement, examination or technique which intends to describe the testee’s foreign language proficiency
TO CHECK THE LEARNERS ARESTUDYING?TO CHECK HOW EFFECTIVE THETEACHING HAS BEEN?AS BACKWARD OR FORWARD TOOL?
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESTo gain an overview of what students bring to new instruction and thus plan and identify potential difficulties to be faced
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto diagnose what individual learners know to determine the pace of classroom instruction
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto take better decisions about grouping students in the class
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSES to share information with boards of education, parents, and the general public through the media
BACKWARD AND FORWARD PURPOSESto measure the effectiveness of instruction and learning to help make promotion and retention decisions
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT EVIDENCE AND EVALUATION measurement evidence: differentiating degrees of a trait by description or by assigning scores Evaluation: interpretation of the description or scores “The systematic analysis of evidence” ( Shepard, 2000)
Teachers andadministrators need to haveanalysis skills to effectivelyinterpret evidence and makevalue judgments about themeaning of the results.
DIFFERENT WAYS OF MEASURING EVALUATION ASSESSMENT TESTING
EVALUATIONlooking at all the factors that influence the learning process, ex: syllabus objectives, course design, materials, methodology, teacher performance and assessment
ASSESSMENTIt involves measuring theperformance of students andthe progress that they aremaking. It helps us to be able todiagnose the problems theyhave and to provide them withuseful feedback.
INFORMAL ASSESSMENTobservation of everydayperformancecollecting data about our students’performance in normal classroom conditions intuitive assessment in all activitiesperformed in the classroom
FORMAL ASSESSMENT At the end of the course Or Along the course
FORMAL ASSESSMENT commonly administered in class by the teacher, in order to assess learning. not so formal limited to the context for purposes internal to the class assess a narrow range of language assess either objectively or subjectively to assist teaching often backward looking.
FORMAL ASSESSMENTsynonymous of “testing”1) external examinations (KET, PET, FCE, etc)2) administered to many students3) under standardized conditions4) assess a broad range of language5) marked objectively or under standardized subjective marking schemes6) administered at the end of a course.
FORMAL ASSESSMENTFormative to evaluate the effectiveness of learning at a time during the course forward looking, concerned with future language learningSummative on several contents marked as ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ Scriven (1967:43)
SELF ASSESSMENTthe students themselves assess their own progress. a) as a complement to self instruction b) to build autonomous learners c) to give learners an opportunity to reflect on their learning. Dickinson (1997)
What we test is related to ourpurpose in testing Before course Aptitude test Placement test During course Diagnostic test Progress test Achievement test After Course Proficiency test
APTITUDE TESTSto determine an individual’s ability toacquire a second or foreignlanguage.large scale tests taking a long time toadministerdifferent facet of languagealso forward-looking tests,
PLACEMENT TESTSto decide the students’placement into appropriategroupsquick to administer and to markadministered at the start of anew phase or language course
DIAGNOSTIC TESTSusually syllabus based to determine the students’areas of strength andweaknesses in relation tothe contents to be covered inthe course.
PROGRESS TESTforms part of the formativeevaluation of the courses provides continuous feedback toboth the teacher and the learnerare usually written andadministered by a class teacherlook back over recent work
ACHIEVEMENT TESTSat the end of a relatively long periodof learningthe content derives from the syllabusthat has been taught over the periodof timelarge scale tests, covering a widerange of language and skills
PROFICIENCY TESTSbased on a theory of languageproficiencyand the specific language abilities toconstitute language proficiencyoften related to specific academic orprofessional situations where English isneeded. (TOEFL, KET, PET, FCE,CAE, IELTS, etc)
DESIRABLE FEATURES IN TESTS VALIDITY RELIABILITY UTILITY DISCRIMINATION PRACTICALITY
VALIDITYThe extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure and nothing else
RELIABILITYTo provide consistent results when administered under similar conditions. it shows the consistency of the scoring of the test, both between different raters, and between the same rater on different occasions
UTILITYTo provide a lot of feedback to assist in the planning of the rest of a course or future courses.
DISCRIMINATIONThe ability to distinguish between stronger and weaker students.
PRACTICALITYHow efficient the test is in physical terms. in equipment required in time to set, administer in time mark …
THE LINGUISTIC APPROACH WE TAKE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING WILL DETERMINE THE GENERATION OF THE TEST
FIRST GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE GRAMMAR TRANSLATION APPROACH FOCUS ON ACCURACY DEVOID OF CONTEXT SUBJECTIVE SCORING
SECOND GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE STRUCTURALIST APPROACH FOCUS ON DISCRETE LANGUAGE THEMATIC ORIENTED OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT
Are these samplessuitable for communicativepurposes? Do you feel any areas aremissing in these examples? If so,which?
OLLER (1973)The primary function of language is COMMUNICATION Thus, language should be tested in terms of communicative abilities
BACHMAN (1990) Communicative ability Learners´competence + capacity for implementing + executing that competence in CONTEXTUALIZED communicative language use.
Candlin (1985)Creating meaning“a coming together of organized knowledge structures with a set of procedures for adapting this knowledge to solve new problems of communication that do not have ready-made and tailored solutions.”
Bachman & Palmer (1996) Language is multicomponentialFactors other than language should be put to test employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in interrelated areas.
THIRD GENERATION TESTSREFLECT THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Authentic material Contextualized Global and discrete items
WEST (1990) Tension between principles of language testing COMPETENCE vs. PERFORMANCE USE vs. USAGE INDIRECT TESTING vs. DIRECT TESTINGRECEPTIVE SKILLS vs. PRODUCTIVE SKILLS DISEMBODIED LANGUAGE vs. CONTEXTUALIZED LANGUAGE
BEAR IN MINDBACKWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENT vs. FORWARD LOOKING ASSESSMENTNORM REFERENCED ASSESSMENT vs. CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENT
. THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF BENCHMARK SYSTEMS AND FRAMEWORKS THAT TAKE AN ASSET-BASED APPROACH TO LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT FOCUSES MAINLY ON WHAT THE LEARNER “CAN DO”
Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB)Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
3 G TESTS COMBINEDISCRETE POINT APPROACHES + INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES AUTHENTIC DISCOURSE + RECEPTIVE SKILLS
SO AS TO COMPLY WITH THE SYLLABUSINCLUDE DISCRETE POINT TENCHNIQUES (GR + VOC) To measure the range and degree of masteryESTABLISH PRODUCTIVE SKILLS related to objectives and contents
HUERTA-MACIAS (1995) HMAYAN (1995) Through techniques on a daily classroom routine basisemulate real-life tasks which aim at evaluating what learners CAN produceintegrate rather than recall and repeat
Pappamihiel & Walser (2009)“Traditional ways of assessing language acquisition are inadequate in today’s world”
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ISA COMPLEX, NONLINEAR AND COMMUNICATIVE ENDEAVOUR
AS TEACHERSWE NEED TO ASK OURSELVES How do I help them grow from I AN Y where they are C W PM ? now?” HO EL ILS H P PU
It means recognizing students’ abilities to understand, use and produce language in a variety of forms, for a variety of purposes
IT MEANS GIVING GRAMMATICAL ITEMS, VERBS AND VOCABULARY LISTS LESS IMPORTANCE THAN THEY HAVE BEEN HOLDING SO FAR.
IT MEANS BALANCING STRUCTURE AND MEANINGNon Pre- Communicative Structured Authenticcommunicati communication language communication communicationve learning language practice practiceFocusongramma-tical Focus onaccurac meaningy
SUGGESTION OF A THIRD GENERATIONACHIEVEMENT TESTING
THE TEXTpublished in December 2009 by the World Health Organization which is available at http://www.who.int/features/factf iles/climate_change/en/ as the triggering element
THE SUBJECTS a group of young adults at upper intermediate course in reading.
Designed to be taken in a situation where the learners have completed an eighty hour course where the following topics and grammatical items have been covered.
TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSGLOBALIZATION Revision of tenses and verb forms Narrative tenses: past simple and continuous; Past perfect simple and continuous; The future in the past.
TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSEnviroHealth Connections: Food/Nutrition Noun phrases. Plural expressions in compound adjectives, compound nouns; prepositional phrases, participial clauses. Modals to express probability, obligation, permission, ability and willingness. Abstract nouns and relative clauses.
TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMSMind, body and spirit Adjectives and adverbs. Patterns with comparatives and superlatives. As: as versus like; as…as for comparisons.Use and non-use of passive forms. Particles which add meaning to verbs.
TOPIC GRAMMATICAL ITEMS21st Century lifestyles. Adjective order. The position of adverbs. Adverbs and expressions of opinion. Verb patterns: reported speech. Verb patterns. Conditional sentences: mixed conditionals; tense usage for fact versus non-fact. Hypothesizing (I wish/ if only; as if/though; It’s
Strategies to understand the gist of thepassage and/or get detailedunderstanding such as: predicting and anticipating, skimming and scanning, locating key words and topic sentences, recognizing grammatical and lexical cohesive devices, inferring meaning of unknown words from context and relating them to their morphology and their position in the sentence.
MEASURING CRITERIA for the reading section1. Reading for comprehensionand application of readingstrategies2. Use of reading strategies3. Critical reading
MEASURING BANDSThis correction and marking criterion makes the instrument more trustworthy especially in terms of inter- and intra- rater reliability and, on the other hand, gives the task the necessary validity component to make sure we are testing what we intend to test
Band scalesInclude a number of divisions, or “bands”, of possible student performance, and descriptors for each bandThey assure some degree of reliability in assessments of student performance
Reading for comprehension andapplication of reading strategiesBand 1-2 Can get the gist of a multipurpose authentic text1 pointBand 3-4 Can understand main ideas, and some important2 points details of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 5-6 Can understand main ideas, and most important details3 points of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 7-8 Can understand main ideas, secondary ideas and4 points almost all details of a multipurpose authentic text.Band 9-10 Can understand main ideas, secondary ideas and all5 points details of a multipurpose authentic text as well as identify the purpose of the text.
Use of reading strategies1-2 point 1-2 Can do search, skimming and scanning pointsBand 2 3-4 Can use low-level inference and handle some points ambiguity.Band 3 5-6 Can guess the meaning of an unknown word, phrase points or idiom from the context.Band 4 7-8 Can use inference to locate and integrate several points specific pieces of abstract information across paragraphs or sections.Band 5 9-10 Can search through information and use high level points inference to locate and integrate several specific pieces of abstract information (explicit and implied) from various parts of text.
CRITICAL READINGBand 1-2 Can make a general comment or give an opinion on an1 point authentic textBand 3-4 Can sufficiently grasp the meaning of text to paraphrase or2 points summarize key points.Band 5-6 Can paraphrase or summarize key points and draw3 points conclusions.Band 7-8 Can synthesize and critically evaluate various pieces of4 points abstract information.Band 9-10 Can interpret, compare and evaluate both the content and5 points the form of written text.
MEASURING CRITERIA FOR WRITING1. Task accomplishment andorganization2. Grammar and range ofstructure3. Spelling, punctuation andrange of vocabulary
Task accomplishment and organizationBand 1 2 point Can write full sentences related to the topic requested but does not integrate them cohesively.Band 4 points Can convey information related to the topic requested and link2 sentences to conform coherent and cohesive paragraphs but does not respect text type conventions.Band 3 6 points Can write the text type requested accordingly responding to conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive wayBand 4 8 points Can write an effective, stylistically complex text responding to conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive way.Band 5 10 Can write an effective, stylistically complex text responding to points conventions and organization in a coherent and cohesive way and is aware of audience.
Grammar and range of structuresBand 2 point Can write simple sentences in which the extent of grammatical1 mistakes hinders comprehension and exhibits word order difficultiesBand 4 points Can write correct though relatively simple sentences and2 shows difficulties regarding word order.Band 6 points Can write complex sentences containing mistakes not related3 to earlier stages where the order is reasonable.Band 8 points Can write complex sentences using the target structures4 appropriate to this level and to this task though not in completely accurate wayBand 10 Can write complex sentences using the target structures5 points appropriate to this level and to this task accurately. Makes use of the appropriate tone and register.
Spelling, punctuation and range ofvocabularyBand points1 2 Can write choppy sentences very simple vocabulary which does not relate to the topic. The text presents several spelling and punctuation mistakes. Register is not appropriate.2 4 Can write choppy sentences with simple vocabulary vaguely related to the topic. There are several spelling and punctuation mistakes.3 6 Can write fluent sentences with vocabulary thematically related though quite simple. There are a few spelling, punctuation and register mistakes.4 8 Can write fluent sentences with adequate and correctly used vocabulary. There are minor spelling but does not respect register. Punctuation is almost correct.5 10 Can write fluent sentences with a fairly wide range of vocabulary appropriate to the topic, text type and register. Punctuation is correct and there are not spelling mistakes.
Description of this testDivided into Before reading While reading Global understanding Detailed understanding After reading
Before reading: Have a look at the titles, the pictures and the name of the source where this text was taken from and do these exercises: Matchthe pictures to the corresponding paragraph.
BEFORE READING: Statethe effects global warming is having on the world. Why do you suppose the World Health Organization is worried about/involved in global warming?
WHILE READING Global understanding State the five consequences mentioned Where do you suppose this article was published? What is its purpose? Is the passage complete? Yes/ No. Why?/ Why not?
WHILE READING Detailed understanding Read the passage carefully Which is the correct option? Multiple choice questions1- The burning of fossil fuelsa) has increased in a 30%b) traps heat in the lower atmospherec) causes the temperature to increased) changes patterns of infectious diseases.
Match the meaning of thesewords 1. Scarcity a. Is likely to catch 2. Crop yields b. General 3. Lessen c. Economic position 4. Trapping d. Not enough 5. Overwhelming e. Organization in the house 6. Outbreaks f. Impossible to control 7. Vulnerability g. Catching 8. Livelihood h. Episode 9. Households i. Reduce 10. Overall j. Harvest collected
AFTER READINGWriting Your school has become involved in a project to raise awareness about the dangers of global warming in health in influential business men in the city where you live. Write the speech you would give.Bear in mind the audience that you would like them to react in some way that you should sound convincing
Essential elements inherent to third generation test“The processing of realistic discourse since authenticity is of vital importance concerning the use of language in the activities proposed and in the relationship between the language which is being tested and the language of the real world” (Chalhoub-Deville,2001: 214-217 in Brown,2004: 101)
Essential elements inherent to third generation testThe performance of tasks which will enable the learners to make use of language in a context which resembles real life situations.
Essential elements inherent to third generation testThe tasks learners are expected to carry out aim at taking into account a multilayer scheme dealing with
levels of analysis related to both use and usage of the target language: situational, pragmatic, functional, semantic levels, andthe connection with the text texture and the paratext information
Essential elements inherent to third generation testand addressing syntax: the range of structures, cohesive devices, lexical issues, special vocabulary and lexical cohesion and the use of linguistic and non- linguistic resources.
CONCLUSIONSWhich do you consider are some of the benefits to using third generation tests?
CONCLUSIONSIt allows learners To view what they have learnt as a significant whole To map their knowledge of the language in specific areas of syntax, lexis, pragmatics, pronunciation To show an array of linguistic and paralinguistic features which they are expected to put to use in a concrete task.
CONCLUSIONSThird generation tests enable learners to integrate these different aspects into a meaningful task following a problem solving scheme which resembles real life situations.
CONCLUSIONSFrom the teachers’ standpoint It allows viewing students’ performance and their learning process in a more holistic manner which is much more consistent with CLT techniques.
Testing is an ongoing process whereby not only the pupils show the assimilation of what they have been exposed to but also the teachers’ performance as well as the evaluator’s expertise is put to test.
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