Secondary 2 Geography-Case Study-How Singapore Protects Its Environment
How Singapore Protect
• The environment is monitored by the Ministry of the
Environment and Water Resources. The 2 statutory boards
under the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources, They
are the National Environment Agency and the Public Utilities
National Environment Agency
• It was set up in 2002
• It was set up to safeguard air, land and water resources in
• It ensures that public health are kept to high standards and also
encourages the citizens to take good ownership of air, land and
Public Utilities Board
• It was set up to ensure an effective, an enough and an
environmental supply of water for Singapore.
• It aims to increase the quality of fresh potable water and also to
reduce the price of water so that we can afford it.
• The Public Utilities Board was awarded to Stockholm Water
Price for how excellent it is in the efforts of conserving,
protecting the world’s water resources and improving it’s
quality that will help in the health and the welfare of humans
and the environment in 2007.
• Since Singapore achieve independence, it have been going
through urbanization and industrialization rapidly. In 1968,
Singapore had announced it’s main importance which is to
make the country a garden city which was a clean and green
• It was aimed to increase the quality of living environment for
all the citizens of Singapore by using environmental-friendly
• In the late 1980s, Singapore was known as a garden city.
• However, global environmental problems was a serious
problem that the world faced. Singapore presented the
Singapore Green Plan to balance needs in the country
• The Green Plan was presented during the Earth Summit held at
Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. It plans to make Singapore a
green city by 2000. Singapore would be able to plan using it’s
natural resources carefully to achieve economic growth to meet
the needs of the people
• The Green Plan was reread in 1999 to overcome new problems
and other problems occurred since 1992. The reread Green Plan
was completed in 2002 and was known as the Singapore Green
Plan 2012. It aims to move Singapore towards the ideas of
developing sustainable materials which are resources that meet
human needs and also conserving the environment beside being
a clean and green city.
• The Singapore Green Plan 2012 had an extensive reread in
2005 and this involved 17000 people from different zones
• The reread was even carried out in the internet and was
launched in 2006
• The country’s main goal was to develop sustainable methods
• The amount of waste disposed in 1970 was 1300 tonnes daily. It
increased to 7000 tonnes in 2006 because of the population
explosion. The recycling rate was 51% in 2006.
• The 2 methods that Singapore established to dispose non-
recyclable waste is by landfill and incineration.
• Pulau Semakau was located 8 km away to the South of
Singapore. The Semakau Landfill is located at the eastern part
of of Singapore. This is Singapore’s only landfill site.
• It was calculated that the landfill site will be full in 2031 to
• The first incineration plant was built in 1979 at Ulu Pandan.
The 4 incineration plant in Singapore have reduced the waste to
10%. When the waste are burnt, smoke is released and thus, it
needs to be taken away before the waste are released. The waste
will then be buried in the landfills
• The country also aim to increase the recycling rate to 60%
through the ‘zero landfill’ and ‘close the waste loop’ campaign
• If the recycling rate was increased to 60%, Semakau Landfill
may be full beyond 2055.
• The transport system is improving which made more public
• Singapore has been using stringent emission standards for
• The strict enforcement of EURO II emission standards will
restrict the air quality from reaching beyond the international
• The government encourage using natural gas to produce electric
power from power plants
• More vehicles are now being powered by compressed natural
gas which will reduce the release of harmful gas. This can also
reduce air pollution.
• The country also aim to reduce the Pollutant Standards Index
below 85%, the good range, throughout the year
• Water is a planned resource for Singapore. The country’s goal is
to have enough water supply for the country
• In the Green Plan, Singapore will increase water catchment area
in order to increase fresh water supply. It cover about 2/3 of the
• The newest reservoir built is the Marina Barrage which was a
dam built across the mouth of the Marina Channel that keep out
seawater and turn it into fresh water
• It also recycle used water and desalinate water in order to meet
• More advanced technology is developed to produce high-