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Tecnicas Secas

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Presentación sobre las principales técnicas pictóricas secas para educación plástica de 4º de ESO.

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Tecnicas Secas

  1. 1. Técnicas secas Educación Plástica y Visual. 4º ESO
  2. 2. Lápiz de grafito <ul><li>Es el instrumento más básico para el dibujo. </li></ul><ul><li>Está compuesto por un barra de madera, normalmente hexagonal, que contiene en su interior la mina de grafito. </li></ul><ul><li>El grafito es un material mineral que se mezcla con arcilla para crear las minas de los lápices. Según la proporción de arcilla y grafito se obtienen minas más duras o más blandas. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lápiz de grafito <ul><li>Fabricación de lápices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Durezas del lápiz <ul><li>Lápices duros : son los que llevan la letra H o números altos (3, 4, 5...). La mina es seca y grisácea. </li></ul><ul><li>Lápices blandos : se identifican con la letra B o números bajos (0, 1, 2). La mina es más aceitosa, frágil y oscura. </li></ul>
  5. 10. Carboncillo <ul><li>Se llama carboncillo al carbón vegetal que se obtiene normalmente de la madera del bonetero, sauce o nogal. Esta madera se somete a la carbonización en un horno sin aire y se obtiene el carbón vegetal. </li></ul><ul><li>El carboncillo que se utiliza para el dibujo tiene forma de palillos cilíndricos. </li></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li>La ventaja del carboncillo es que se puede borrar muy fácilmente por lo que se utiliza mucho para bocetos y estudios preparatorios. </li></ul><ul><li>Además permite conseguir valiosos efectos de luces y sombras mediante el difumino. Es muy empleado en estudios de claroscuro. </li></ul>
  7. 15. <ul><li>El carboncillo ha sido la técnica más utilizada para dibujos de estatua o dibujo del natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Debido a que es un material muy frágil, los trabajos necesitan recubrirse con tratamientos fijadores. </li></ul>
  8. 16. <ul><li>El carboncillo se borra con gomas especiales de miga de pan o con un trapo de algodón. </li></ul>
  9. 21. Lápiz compuesto <ul><li>El lápiz compuesto tiene la mina del carbón mezclada con un aglutinante que le da mayor fijeza sobre el papel. </li></ul><ul><li>La combinación de las dos técnicas, carboncillo y lápices compuestos, puede dar resultados excelentes a la obra. </li></ul>
  10. 24. <ul><li>Retrato de Durero a su </li></ul><ul><li>Madre Bárbara Holper. </li></ul>Manchas de carbón
  11. 25. Sanguina <ul><li>La sanguina es una barrita de pigmentos secos en polvo de un color rojizo, por el que le viene el nombre. </li></ul><ul><li>Es una variante del pastel. Su diferencia es que el pigmento de la sanguina es un óxido de hierro (hematites). </li></ul>
  12. 28. <ul><li>Este material se suele mezclar con otros como la creta (pigmento de calcio blanco). Mezclado con carboncillo o con otros tonos pastel. </li></ul>
  13. 29. Pastel <ul><li>El nombre de esta técnica deriva de la palabra pasta, la masa que se forma al mezclar los pigmentos en polvo con la goma que los aglutina. </li></ul><ul><li>El pastel surge como medio para potenciar los volúmenes y acercarse un poco más a la realidad mediante el color . </li></ul>
  14. 31. <ul><li>Niña con un gato de </li></ul><ul><li>Jean-Baptiste. </li></ul><ul><li>National gallery </li></ul>Retrato en pastel sobre papel Canson
  15. 32. Otras características <ul><li>Los colores del pastel pueden superponerse porque no se mezclan con facilidad. Se difuminan para crear sombras y luces. </li></ul><ul><li>Se emplea en la pintura desde el siglo XV. Pero sobre todo fue utilizado en el siglo XVIII para hacer retratos. </li></ul>
  16. 33. <ul><li>Niño dormido. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Cassat, 1910. </li></ul>
  17. 34. Notas <ul><li>Algunas imágenes pertenecen a ilustraciones del libro: </li></ul><ul><li>Hayes, C: Guía completa de pintura y dibujo. Técnicas y materiales. </li></ul><ul><li>Otras imágenes han sido descargadas de Internet. </li></ul>

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