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Subject: Human Factors and Workplace Management

Published in: Engineering
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  1. 1. To improve ergonomic design (macro and micro) at assembly and pack- out production line at Toy Industry:- 1. Macro Ergonomics is an approach for organization design, working system and also human–machine, environment–human and user–system interaction. 2. Micro Ergonomics to improve the performance of the whole work system as well as to reduce the stress imposed on the working human being by means of analyzing the task, the working environment and the man–machine interaction DESIGN MACRO & MICRO ASSEMBLY AND PACK-OUT AT TOY INDUSTRY Prof Madya Dr Siti Zawiah Binti Md Dawal, Thamil Selvam A/L Kanniah, Ooi Hoong Chuan, Marina Binti Muhamad, Tun Mohamad Ariffin Bin Yahaya, Yim Yan Han, Ahmad Shahrazi Bin Md.Sidik Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur OBJECTIVES ERGONOMICS Macro Ergonomics Rules for the design Organization, Production & Workgroup Micro Ergonomics Rules for fit the task towards people SCOPE OF WORK Ergonomic issues at Assembly and Pack-up scope of work – (Musculoskeletal Diseases (MSD) issues): 1. Reaching problem to pick up parts 2. Space constraint 3. Cycle time PROCESS FLOW CHART CURRENT WORK PLACE DESIGN Existing Work Place design Concern as Below: 1. Multi-tasking – 10 sec per process cycle 2. Siting position – At the edge of the conveyor and far from parts (not within ergonomic reach) 3. Awkward/extreme body movement – Need to twist his/her body to pick up parts for assembly 4. Space constraint – Can lead to trip and fall ASSEMBLY & PACK-OUT PROCESS Zinc Alloy (Die Casting) Install Inside Furnace Air Pocket (Segregate Chassis) Chassis Painting Hot Stamp Sticker Assembly Pack Out (Chassis, Barbell, Interior component, Packaging, Shipping) Hot Wheels’ Process Flow Chart Incoming Material – Zinc alloy, plastic resin, paint, ink, lacquer, solvent chemical and others Die Casting Plastic Injection Molding Regrind Plastic Material Zinc Alloy Plastic Resin De-gating Tumbling Casted Parts Sorting Chassis Component Ransburg Chassis Component Paint & Solvent Tampo Printing Hands Spray Paint & Solvent Ink & Solvent Vacuum Metalizing Lacquer &Solvent Aluminium Stables Graphic Fusion Plating Chemical & Zinc Plating Plastic Injection Molding Wheel Hot Stamping Moulded Wheels Barbell Assembly FOLL AXLE WIRE Plastic Injection Molding Supplier Plastics Interiors Windows Part Finishing GoodVacuum Forming Assembly Pack Out Blister & PV rolls Body Components Decal Plastic Resin MICRO ERGONOMIC HUMAN ERROR 1. Body twisting during pick and place process 2. Reaching parts that located far from the conveyor causing muscle strains (arms, back) 3. Frequent awkward body movement MICRO ERGONOMIC PROBLEMS 1. Assembling wrong parts due to different models (limited edition) 2. Operator assuming that moving parts will correct since same task performing 3. Pressing wrong control button and damage the product 4. Bypass the task (short cuts) 5. Lost of concentration while performing tasks due to long working hours and high concentration needed. MICRO ERGONOMIC IMPACT – SAFETY & HEALTH 1. Injury – Pressing button when the process is not yet ready 2. Fatigue – Due to work load & long sitting / standing hours 3. Trip & Fall – Picking up parts which located at the far end 4. Vision Problems – Due to the tiny product assembly of toy parts 5. Stress – Due to the need of focusing and continuous task & repetitiveness MACRO ERGONOMIC PROBLEMS 1. No job rotation during prolong working hours a) Hand strain and long hour standing causing back pains b) Absenteeism – Due to back pain c) High turn over – Due to medical issue (resulting on back to home country/change job) d) Competitiveness – Leads to reduction in team work due to task completion incentives to those who finishes earlier. e) Multi-tasking in short process cycle type (10sec) 2. Safety Incident a) Lack of concentration due to continuously in task may caused the operator accidently pressing the button even the product is not assembled or placed (These will lead to accident – hand pinch) 3. Economically/Cost a) Medical payment by the company increased tremendously due to medical issue by operator b) Medical claim – reimbursement from the operator whereby the operator went to non panel clinic and specialist centre. RECOMMENDATIONS (MANAGEMENT)  Counselling  Coaching, tea-talk to identify problems with work  One-to-one session for personal issues consultation  Program on Safety Campaign  Incident early reporting system  Medical symptoms awareness programs MACRO PLANNING RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Job plan – Look at overall planning on the production request 2. Job description – Nature of Work 3. Job matching – Plan & dedicate job function to the right operator 4. Job rotation – Assigned dedicated job for certain hours and exchange with other operators (suggestion 4 for each task/cycle) 5. Job satisfaction – Reduce long hours with exercise session in the middle of cycle. 6. Work shifts – 8 to 12 hours shift works. shift can be shorten to 8hrs to eliminate absenteeism 7. Absenteeism – Motivation/counselling to reduce absenteeism due to stress 8. Safety incident – Educate operators on the importance of safety at workplace and how to report of the occurrence MICRO JOB PLANNING (DESIGN IMPROVEMENT) 1. The nature of job is operator assemble the toys spare part in an assemble & pack – Out process 2. This process are access by operator to get the parts from non ergonomic standard Solution • Design with automation – so that parts pocket cart easily reached for assembles  Employee assistance Program  Financial problem consultation, training  Good Catch Program  Workers that found the hazard will be rewarded  Recreation  Safety Improvement, Safety Hero New Design : Which is easily able to pick and place at the car on the conveyor Cost Incurred for The Automation Project → USD 120K || ROI = 2 years CONCLUSION • Micro & Macro ergonomic issues can be improved without compromising the quality of production and employees’ safety & health. • Ergonomic issues against employees (operator) are preventable without any negligence and circumstance REFERENCES 1. Tahriri, F., Dawal, S.Z.M., Tahan, Z. (2014) Multiobjective Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing Optimization Model. In: J Appl Math, vol. 2014, pp. 1-19. 2. Dawal, S.Z.M., Ismail, Z., Taha, Z. (2011) Human Factors and Ergonomics Model and Application in Automotive Industries: Focus on Job Satisfaction. In: New Trends and Developments in Automotive Industry, Prof. Marcello Chiaberge (Ed.), InTech. 3. Dawal, S.Z.M., Taha, Z. (2009) Job satisfaction model for manufacturing industry: focus on ergonomics and human factors in work design. In: IEEE Toronto International Conference on Science and Technology for Humanity, SEP 26-27, 2009, Toronto.