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HLTH_SW4440 Lesson 11 Caring for Individuals in the Criminal Justice System

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HLTH_SW4440 Lesson 11 Caring for Individuals in the Criminal Justice System

  1. 1. Lesson 11: Caring for Individuals in the Criminal Justice System Week: Eleven (of Thirteen) Overview Thiseleventhlessonservestointroduce youtothe relationshipbetweenmentalhealthissuesand involvementinthe criminal justice system. Keycomponentsof assessmentof individualswithcriminal justice involvementwill alsobe discussed. Keycomponentsof reportingandtreatmentrequirements relatedtocriminal behaviourwill be reviewedaswell. Finally,thislessonwill orientyoutothe core skillsandbehavioursthatsupportthe highqualitycare of individualsinvolvedwiththe criminaljustice system,includingtheirfamilies. Topics Lesson11 isdividedintofourtopics: • The relationshipbetweenmentalhealthissuesandinvolvementinthe criminal justice system • Keycomponentsof assessmentof individualswithcriminal justice involvement • Keycomponentsof reportingandtreatmentrequirementsrelatedtocriminal behaviour • Core skillsandbehavioursthatsupporthighqualitycare of involvedwiththe criminaljustice systemandtheirfamilies Learning Outcomes Whenyouhave completedthislessonyoushouldbe able to: • Identifythe relationshipbetweenmental healthissuesandinvolvementinthe criminal justice system • Identifythe keycomponentsof assessmentof individualswithcriminaljustice involvement • Identifykeycomponentsof reportingandtreatmentrequirementsrelatedtocriminal behaviour • Identifythe core skillsandbehavioursthatsupporthighqualitycare of individualsinvolvedwith the criminal justice systemandtheirfamilies
  2. 2. Activity Checklist Here is a checklistof the learningactivitiesyouwill be completinginLesson11.You may findituseful for planningyourwork. Lesson11 Activities Activity 11.1 Journal Entry: Watch the videosrelatedtothe AshleySmithCase provided,answerthe questionsthatfollow inyourlearningjournal. Please incorporate appropriate resourcesintoyourresponsesasnecessarytohelpsupportyouranswers. ‘’’’ Activity 11.2 ForensicMental HealthDiagram: Using the information provided in this lesson create a diagram indicating the process of progressing through the forensic mental health system, including the various outcomes that are possible throughout same. Please define any outstandingtermsusedinthe forensicmental healthsystem. Readings Readthe documents,takingnotesinyourlearningjournal of keypointsasyouread. • Mental illnessandthe criminal justice system, byMacPhail,A.& Verdun-Jones,S. (InternationalCentre forCriminalLaw ReformandCriminal Justice Policy)(2013): http://icclr.law.ubc.ca/sites/icclr.law.ubc.ca/files/publications/pdfs/Mental%20Illness%20a nd%20the%20Criminal%20Justice%20System%20%5BFinal%20VS%5D.pdf • CIT Toolkit:CriminalizationFacts,bythe National Alliance onMental Health(2008): http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CITHYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/Cont entDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465"&HYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/Cont entDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465"Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm HYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/Cont entDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465"&HYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/Cont entDisplay.cfm&ContentID=57465"ContentID=57465 • PublicHealthandCriminal Justice –Promotingand protectingoffenders’mentalhealthand wellbeing.CenterforMental Health,bySeymour,L.(2010), p.1 – 14: http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/pdfs/Public_health_and_criminal_justice.pdf
  3. 3. • TransitioningBetweenSystemsof Care:MissedOpportunitiesforEngagingAdultswith SeriousMental IllnessandCriminal Justice Involvement,byPope,L.G.,Smith,T.E.,Wisdom, J.P.,Easter,A.,& Pollock,M. (2013), in BehavioralSciencesand the Law, 31, p. 444 - 456. • What HappensInside the ForensicMental HealthSystem?,byCenterforAddictionand Mental Health(2012): http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system _in_ontario/Pages/forensic_mhontario_whathappens.aspx • MentallyDisorderedAccusedandthe Justice SysteminBritishColumbia,bythe Governmentof BritishColumbia –Ministryof AttorneyGeneral (2003): http://www.ag.gov.bc.ca/prosecution-service/pdf/mentallyaccusedWEB.pdf • Aboutthe Not CriminallyResponsibledue toa Mental Disorder(NCRMD) Populationin Canada,by the Mental HealthCommissionof Canada(2013): http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/system/files/private/document/MHLaw_ NCRMD_Fact_Sheet_FINAL_ENG.pdf • Mental HealthStrategyfor CorrectionsinCanada,byCorrectional Service Canada(2010) – sectionon Treatment,Services,and Supports,p.1 - 13: http://www.csc- scc.gc.ca/health/092/MH-strategy-eng.pdf • Chapter14: ForensicAssessment,byKlassen,P.&Wright,P.in PsychiatricClinical Skills – RevisedFirstEdition,editedbyGoldbloom, D.S.(2010) • EthicsGuidelinesforthe Practice of ForensicPsychiatry,bythe AmericanAcademy of Psychiatryandthe Law (2014): http://www.aapl.org/ethics.htm • Ethical IssuesinConductingForensicEvaluations,byKalmbachK.C.& Lyons,P.M. (2006): http://www.apcj.org/documents/2_3_Ethics_foren.pdf • What makesa QualityTherapeuticRelationshipinPsychiatric/Mental HealthNursing:A Reviewof the ResearchLiterature,byDziopa,F.&Ahern,K.J. (2009), in InternetJournalof Advanced Nursing Practice,10 1: 7-7. • The RecoveryParadigminForensicMental HealthServices,bySimpson,A.I.F.,Penney,S. R., in(2011), CriminalBehaviourand MentalHealth. Vol:21,p. 299 – 306, DOI: 10.1002/cbm.823 • The Social Reintegrationof OffendersandCrime Prevention,bythe Governmentof Canada, section - Mentally Ill Offenders:http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/scl- rntgrtn/index-eng.aspx#s13 • Mental Healthand Criminal Justice PolicyFramework,bythe CenterforAddictionand Mental Health(2013), Section:PrinciplesforaComprehensive Canadianapproachto
  4. 4. Mental Healthand Criminal Justice,p.11 – 13: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/influencing_public_policy/Documents/MH_ Criminal_Justice_Policy_Framework.pdf Topic 1: The Relationship between Mental Health Issues and Involvement in the Criminal Justice System Introduction “Although the majority of people with mental health conditions rarely come into contact with the criminal justice system, mental health-related emergencies do occur. In most cases, 911 is dialed and police,by virtue of their role as emergency responders, are called upon to assist in the crisis. Criminal and non-criminal situations can arise from these police interactions” (Canadian Mental Health Association, 2014). ‘Forensicmental healthservices’are those inwhichthe mental healthsystemandcriminal justice systeminteract. Interaction betweenthese twosystemsoccurswhenanindividual withaserious mental healthissue comesincontactwiththe law as a resultof eithercommittingacrime,experiencing a mental healthcrisisina publicspace,and/orwhenanindividual ispresentingas a riskto self or public. In topictwowe will explore infurtherdepththe processthatindividualswithmental healthissuesgo throughuponenteringthe criminal justicesystem,fromapprehensiontoassessmentandsentencing. The majorityof people livingwithmental healthissuesnevercome intocontactwiththe criminal justice systemandare infact “more likelytobe victimsof violence thanperpetrators”(Mental Health Commissionof Canada,2012). Yet individualswithmentalhealthissuesrepresentadisproportionate numberof those involvedinthe criminaljustice system(Mental HealthCommissionof Canada,2012). Exact percentagesof these populationsremainsunknown,however“anestimated31percentof women and 14.5 percentof menin jailshave aserious mental illness…[and] seventypercentof youthinthe juvenilejustice system”were foundtobe experiencingsome formof mental healthcondition(NAMI, 2008). Table 1 outlinesestimatesof mental healthissuesthatoccurwithinthe prisonpopulation comparedto the general population - locatedatthe endof thissection. The overrepresentationof individualswithmental healthissues isalsothoughtto be increasingover- time; between“1997 and 2010, symptomsof seriousmental illnessreportedbyfederal offendersat admissionincreasedby61% formalesand71% for females”(Sorenson,2010). While manyoffenders enteringthe criminal justice systemarrive withmental healthissues,“some developsuchissuesasa resultof imprisonment”, due toexperiencesof overcrowding,separationfromsocial networks/ supports,andbeingina highstressenvironment(Dupuis,T.,MacKay,R., Nicol,J.,p.5, 2013). The general consensusinthe researchcommunityismostpeople leave the criminal justice system“worse
  5. 5. off and withfeweroptionsforgettingneededtreatmentandservices”(NAMI,2008). Thissectionwill outline the relationshipbetweenmentalhealthissuesandthe involvementinthe criminal justice system,includingexperiencesof clientswithinthe forensicsystem. Althoughthe majorityof individualswithmental healthissuesdonotcome intocontact withthe criminal justice systemthroughouttheirlifetime,manyare subjectedtosocial factorsthatincrease their likelihoodof beinginvolvedwithsame. Researchindicatessocial factors(suchaspoverty,trauma, substance use/abuse,homelessnessandinadequate housing) cansignificantlyincrease one’sriskand negativelyimpactone’smental healthstanding(CenterforAddictionandMental Health,p.2, 2013). Researchhasfurtherindicatedthatthe majorityof individualswithmental healthissueswhocome into contact withthe criminal justice systemcommitlow-level,non-violentoffenses(suchaminortheftor trespassing–acts usuallystemmingfromanattempttosurvive) (Ministryof HealthServicesBC,p.6, 2005). Inthissectionwe will reviewvaryingsocial factorsthatmaycontribute tooffendingbehaviours that precipitate contactwiththe criminal justicesystem.How these socialriskfactorsare associated withmental healthissueswillalsobe reviewed. A final aspectthatwill be discussedintermsof the relationshipbetweenmental healthissuesandthe criminal justice systemincludesinteractionsbetweenpolice officersandindividualswithmentalhealth issues. Asnotedbythe CanadianMental Health Association,aresearchstudycompletedbythe VancouverPolice Departmentin2008 “foundthat more than one-thirdof all callsforVancouverPolice involve people withmental healthissues.Inthe DowntownEastside,itincreasestoalmostone inevery twocalls… withover30% of people [coming]…intocontactwithpolice duringtheirfirstexperience tryingto accessmental healthcare in BC” (CanadianMental HealthAssociation,2012). Many police officersexpress“concernaboutthe difficultiestheyencounterinprovidingassistance tothispopulation and have indicatedthattheydonot feel adequatelytrainedorwouldlikeadditional trainingineffective response”(Watson&Angell,2007). Althoughthe majorityof police interactionsinvolvingpeopleliving withmental healthissuesare positive“afew are negative anda veryfew are tragic” (CanadianMental HealthAssociation,2012). The followingisanexcerptfroma reportcompletedbythe Mental Health Commissionof Canada(2014), whichhelpsoutlinethislesson’sapproachtointeractionsbetween mental healthissuesandpoliceofficers. “The literature is clear that people with mental illnesses are over-represented in the criminal justice system including, of course, policing; they are more likely to be arrested, more likely to have informal encounterswithpolice, and are more likely to be subject to use of force. The reasons are complex—and many are not related to the behaviour of police personnel or police organizations but to a variety of other issues including general societal attitudes toward mental illness, the inaccessibility of more appropriate resources for [individuals with mental health issues]…, as well as legislation which gives police specific powers—and, therefore, specific responsibilities—in regard to [individuals with mental health issues]…. But regardless of the reasons, it is inarguable that police officers often continue to be the front line of the mental health system, and interactions between police and people with mental illnesses are common” (Coleman, T. & Cotton, D., p.12, 2014).
  6. 6. Variouspolice basedinterventionmodelscontinue tobe establishedinordertoimprove responsesand interventionsof those withmentalhealthissues,aimedatultimatelyreducingthe overrepresentationof people livingwithmentalhealthissuesinthe criminal justicesystem. Althoughthe majorityof interactionsbetweenindividualswithmental healthissuesandthe police are notnegative,the occurrence of abuse that continuestobe experiencedatvaryinglevelsof contactwiththe criminal justice systemmustbe acknowledgedandaddressed. Inthissectionwe will review the conceptof criminalizationregardingindividualswithmental healthissues. We will alsoreviewthe AshleySmith case inthe activitiessection,withquestionsthatfollow. Table 1: Mental health problems in prison and the general population Mental health issue Prevalence amongprisoners (16+ years) Prevalence in general population (16-64 years) Psychosis 8% 0.4% Personality disorder 66% 0.4% Depression and anxiety 45% 17.6% Drug dependency 45% 3.4% Alcohol dependency 30% 5.9% (Source:McManus et al.,2009) LearningActivities Readings Take notesin yourlearningjournal of keypointsrelatedtothe relationshipbetweenmentalhealth issuesandinvolvementinthe criminal justice. • Mental illnessandthe criminal justicesystem,byMacPhail,A.& Verdun-Jones,S.(International Centre forCriminal LawReformandCriminal Justice Policy) (2013): http://icclr.law.ubc.ca/sites/icclr.law.ubc.ca/files/publications/pdfs/Mental%20Illness%20and% 20the%20Criminal%20Justice%20System%20%5BFinal%20VS%5D.pdf • CIT Toolkit:CriminalizationFacts,bythe National Alliance onMental Health(2008): http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CITHYPERLINK
  7. 7. "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDi splay.cfm&ContentID=57465"& HYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDi splay.cfm&ContentID=57465"Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfmHYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDi splay.cfm&ContentID=57465"& HYPERLINK "http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=CIT&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDi splay.cfm&ContentID=57465"ContentID=57465 • WhenMental Illnessandthe Justice SystemIntersect, byLangille,J.(2014),in Canadian Nurse, 110(5), 28-30. Readthe followingarticlesprovided.Take notesrelatedtothe interactionsbetweenpolice andwith offendersandnon-offenderswithmentalhealthissues,the criminalizationof mental healthissues, assumptionsof violence relatedtomental healthissues,includingthe relationshipbetween homelessness,mentalhealthissuesandcriminal justice involvement. • Mental Illnessandthe Criminal JusticeSystem:A review of Global PerspectivesandPromising Practices,byButler,A.(2014), p.5 - 14 : http://icclr.law.ubc.ca/sites/icclr.law.ubc.ca/files/publications/pdfs/Mental%20Illness%20and% 20the%20Criminal%20Justice%20System_Butler_ICCLR_0.pdf Take noteson the range of social factorsthat affectthose involvedinthe criminal justicesystemand howthese social factorscontribute tothe occurrence of mental healthissues. • PublicHealthandCriminal Justice –Promotingandprotectingoffenders’mentalhealthand wellbeing.CenterforMental Health,bySeymour,L.(2010), p.1 – 14: http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/pdfs/Public_health_and_criminal_justice.pdf Readthe followingarticle takingnotesrelatedtobarriersexperiencedbyindividualswithseriousmental healthissuesinvolvedinthe criminal justice system, includingtheirhealthcare professionals. • TransitioningBetweenSystemsof Care:MissedOpportunitiesforEngagingAdultswithSerious Mental IllnessandCriminal Justice Involvement,byPope,L.G.,Smith,T.E.,Wisdom, J.P.,Easter, A.,& Pollock,M.(2013), in BehavioralSciencesand the Law, 31, p. 444 - 456. Activity10.1 Journal Entry:
  8. 8. Introduction As notedabove,approximatelyone thirdof all callsforVancouverPoliceinvolveindividualswithmental healthissues(CanadianMental HealthAssociation,2012). Althoughthe majorityof interactions betweenindividualswithmentalhealthissuesandthe criminal justice systemare notnegative,the occurrence of abuse that continuestobe experiencedatvaryinglevelsof contactmustbe acknowledgedandaddressed. A highproportionof offendershave mental healthneedsandthe criminal justice system“isnotalwayswellplacedtohandle the complex problemsthatthiscancreate” (SainsburyCenterforMental Health,2009, p. 8). Ensuringthat individualswithmental healthissues “whoenterthe criminal justice systemare identifiedanddirectedtowards appropriate mentalhealth care, particularlyasan alternative toimprisonment”iscentral toprovidingthe ethical treatmentof offendersandforensicclientsalike (SainsburyCenterforMental Health,2009, p.8). Instructions Watch the videos related to the Ashley Smith Case provided, answer the questions that follow in your learning journal. Trigger warning: abuse, physical restraint, yelling, swearing. Please incorporate appropriate resourcesintoyourresponsesasnecessarytohelpsupportyouranswers. Title:Ashley Smith,19, prison inmate commitssuicide… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tP-k47rIIyA Title:Disturbing video released of Ashley Smith in custody https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXdpR-GEz4k Questions: 1. Were youaware of thiscase? Were yousurprisedatthe treatmentof AshleySmith? Whyor why not? 2. Eventhoughthiscase isa minorityintermsof experiencesforindividualswithmental healthissues inthe criminal justice system,whydoyouthinksuchtreatmentoccurred? Whatare some individual and systemicfactorsthatcontributedtosuch treatment? 3. What are some suggestionsorsolutionsyouwouldrecommendtokeepsuchasituationfrom occurringagain? Topic2:Key ComponentsofAssessmentofIndividualswithCriminalJusticeInvolvement Introduction Variousassessmentscanbe orderedbythe court in orderto evaluate whetheranindividual isUnfitto StandTrial or NotCriminallyResponsibleonaccountof a mental healthissue. Accordingtothe Criminal Code of Canada, “NotCriminallyResponsible on Accountof Mental Disorder”(NCRMD) isa legal defense
  9. 9. available forindividualswhowere sufferingfromacute mental healthissuesthat"made themincapable of understandingtheiractionsatthe time theycommittedthe criminal offense"(CenterforAddiction and Mental Health,p.6,2013). Individualsdeemed“NotCriminallyResponsible onAccountof Mental Disorder”(NCRMD) are providedtreatmentthroughforensicmental health,ratherthanbeingpunished for theiractionsthroughthe prisonsystem. Asnotedabove,notall individualswithmentalhealth issuesare judgedtobe “Not CriminallyResponsible onAccountof Mental Disorder” (NCRMD),infact onlya verysmall portionof criminal actsare deemedtohave beencausedbyone’smental healthissues - 0.001% (equatingtoapproximately250to 280 personsperyearin Ontario) (CenterforAddictionand Mental Health,p.6,2013). In thissectionwe will exploreinthe processthatindividualswithmental healthissuesgothroughuponenteringthe criminal justice systemandthe legal defenseof “Not CriminallyResponsible onAccountof Mental Disorder”(NCRMD),fitnesstostandtrial,includingthe compositionof the B.C.ReviewBoardanditsfunctions. In the followingreadings,youwill alsobecome familiarwithcore assessmentpracticesandskillsin regardsto forensicclients. Youwill gainknowledge relatedtospecificcontentissues(suchasclients presentingwithahistoryof violentbehaviours,dissimilation,orsexual misbehavior),obtainingcollateral informationandauxiliaryinvestigationswill alsobe explored. The role of the forensicpsychiatricnurse will be exploredinthissectionaswell. Suicide assessmentandriskassessmentare essential forthese populations,forpersonalandclientsafety. Suicideisthe mostcommoncause of deathincorrectional facilitieswithsuicide attemptratesinthe federalcorrectionssystembeing“seventimesgreaterthan the national average”(WHO,2007) (CenterforAddictionandMental Health,p.7, 2013). For reviewof riskassessmentandsuicide assessment,alongwithde-escalationtechniques,pleasereferto HLTH/SW4420’s Lesson5: Emergency Assessmentand Treatment. LearningActivities Readings Readthe followinglinkrelatedtothe processthatindividualswithmental healthissuesexperience withinthe forensicsystem,includingaspectsof the forensicassessment. • What HappensInside the ForensicMental HealthSystem?,byCenterforAddiction andMental Health(2012): http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ ontario/Pages/forensic_mhontario_whathappens.aspx Readthe followingarticles,takingnotesrelatedtothe processof beingfoundNon-Criminally Responsible onAccountof Mental Disorder(NCRMD),FitnesstoStandTrial,includingaccesstoservices. • MentallyDisorderedAccusedandthe Justice SysteminBritishColumbia,bythe Governmentof BritishColumbia–Ministryof AttorneyGeneral (2003): http://www.ag.gov.bc.ca/prosecution- service/pdf/mentallyaccusedWEB.pdf
  10. 10. • Mental Illnessandthe Law,by JohnHowardSocietyof BritishColumbia(2013): http://www.johnhowardbc.ca/images/jhsbc-factsheet-mental-illness.pdf • Mental Healthand Criminal Justice PolicyFramework,byThe Centre forAddictionandMental Health(2013), p. 1 - 10: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/influencing_public_policy/Documents/MH_Crim inal_Justice_Policy_Framework.pdf Readthe followingarticle,takingnotesinyourlearningjournal relatedtothe recidivismratesof the Non-CriminallyResponsibleonaccountof Mental Disorder(NCRMD) populationinCanada. • Aboutthe Not CriminallyResponsibledue toa Mental Disorder(NCRMD) PopulationinCanada, by the Mental HealthCommissionof Canada(2013): http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/system/files/private/document/MHLaw_NCR MD_Fact_Sheet_FINAL_ENG.pdf Readthe followingchapterinyourassignedtextbook,focusingonthe skillsrelatedtoforensic assessmentandhowtoconduct same. • Chapter14: ForensicAssessment,byKlassen,P.&Wright,P.in PsychiatricClinical Skills – RevisedFirstEdition,editedbyGoldbloom, D.S.(2010) Readthe followingarticle relatedtoscreeningandassessment,suicide andself-injuryprevention/ managementof individualswithmentalhealthissuesinvolvedinthe criminal justice system. • Mental HealthStrategyfor CorrectionsinCanadabyCorrectional Service Canada –sectionon Screening and Assessment,p.12 includingsectionon Suicideand Self-Injury Prevention and Managementp.14: http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/health/092/MH-strategy-eng.pdf Readthe followinglinktakingnote of the screeningandassessmentof drugtreatmentinthe criminal justice system. • Drug Treatmentinthe Criminal Justice System:The CurrentState of Knowledge,bythe Urban Institute (2003),Chapter2. ScreeningandAssessmentforDrugTreatmentinthe Criminal Justice System,p.6 – 9: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/410618_NIDA1_KnowledgeRpt.pdf Activity10.1 ForensicMental HealthDiagram: Introduction
  11. 11. Understanding how the forensic mental health system functions is central to providing care for offendersinanyareaof the criminal justice system. Instructions Using the information provided in this lesson create a diagram indicating a step by step process of progressing through the forensic mental health system as a client, including the various possible outcomes – such as fitness to stand trial and Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder. Please define any outstanding terms used in the forensic mental health system. This resource will be a helpful resource foryouandyourcareerwithinmental health. Topic 3: Key Components of Reporting and Treatment Requirements related to Criminal Behaviour Introduction All federal,provincialandterritorial correctional jurisdictionsinCanadaare responsibleforproviding “essential healthcare,includingmedical,dentalandmental healthcare,andreasonable accesstonon- essential mental healthcare thatwill contribute tothe inmate’srehabilitationandsuccessful reintegrationintothe community”(CorrectionsandConditionalRelease Act[CCRA],1992,c.20, s.86). It followsthatcorrectionsingeneral are responsible forthe appropriate care andtreatmentof those experiencingmental healthissuesintheirfacilities. Safeguardsforindividualsincorrectional systems are putintoplace to “ensure theyare providedwithaccesstoessential servicesandsupports” (Correctional Service Canada,p.6,2010). We will review the treatmentrequirementsthatare necessary for individualsinvolvedinthe criminal justicesystem. As healthcare professionalswe are legallyandethicallyobligatedtomaintainpatientprivacyand confidentiality. Beingaware of issuesrelated toprivacyandconfidentiality,includinglegislature that reinforcesthe protectionof patientprivacy,remaincentral toprovidingcare forthose involvedinthe criminal justice system. However,itisalsoessentialtobe aware of whenone islegallyobligatedto breachconfidentialitywithinforensicmental health,forexamplewhenapatientpresentsasa suicide and/orhomicide risk,discussingsexual misbehaviororsubstance use. Please refertoHLTH-SW4420’s Lesson2: Collaboration and TeamWorkin Clinical and Community Settings formore informationon patientconfidentiality. Inthis sectionwe will alsoreview keycomponentsof reportinginrelationto criminal justice populationsandhowconfidentialityappliestosame. LearningActivities Readings Readthe followinglink. Take notesinyourlearningjournal of keypoints relatedtotreatment requirementsof individualsinvolvedinthe criminaljustice system.
  12. 12. • Mental HealthStrategyfor CorrectionsinCanada,byCorrectional Service Canada(2010) – sectionon Treatment,Services,and Supports,p.1 - 13: http://www.csc- scc.gc.ca/health/092/MH-strategy-eng.pdf Readthe followinglink, takingnotesinyourlearningjournal relatedto substance use treatmentin criminal justice populations. • Principlesof DrugAbuse TreatmentforCriminal Justice Populations –A ResearchBasedGuide, by the National InstituteonDrugAbuse (2014): http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-abuse-treatment-criminal-justice- populations/principles • Drug Treatmentinthe Criminal Justice System:The CurrentState of Knowledge,bythe Urban Institute (2003),Chapter3. Drug Treatmentinthe Criminal Justice System, p.10 – 13: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/410618_NIDA1_KnowledgeRpt.pdf Readthe followinglink, takingnotesinyourlearningjournal relatedto consent,confidentiality,forensic evaluation,andduty toreport/protect. • EthicsGuidelinesforthe Practice of ForensicPsychiatry,bythe AmericanAcademyof Psychiatry and the Law (2014): http://www.aapl.org/ethics.htm • Ethical IssuesinConductingForensicEvaluations,byKalmbachK.C.& Lyons,P.M. (2006): http://www.apcj.org/documents/2_3_Ethics_foren.pdf Readthe followingdocumentprovided,takingnotesonthe strategyof diversionandthe mental health obligationsof the CorrectionalServiceof Canada. • CurrentIssuesinMental HealthinCanada: Mental healthandthe Criminal Justice System,by Dupuis,T.,MacKay, R., & Nicol,J.(2013): http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2013-88-e.pdf Topic 4: Core Skills and Behaviours that Support High Quality Care of Individuals Involved with the Criminal Justice System and their Families Introduction Individualsinvolvedinthe criminal justice systemdeserve accesstoqualitycare thatis non- discriminatoryinpractice. Havinganon-discriminatoryapproachiscentral toprovidingcare forthose in the criminal justice systemwhohave committedseriouscriminaloffenses(suchas:abuse,sexual misbehaviour,sexual contactwithaminor,animal torture). Itisnormal howevertofeel emotionally
  13. 13. triggeredbysuchbehavioursandisthusimportantto recognize one’striggersandreactionsinworking withthese populations. Forskillsrelatedtotherapeuticconnectionforindividualspresentingwith antisocial behaviours(suchasactive self-reflection,enhancingempathy,professionalboundarysetting and counter-transference) pleaserefertoHLTH-SW4420’s Lesson11: Caring for individualswith personalitydisordersand theirfamilies to review strategies. Inthissectionwe willreview afew commontherapeuticcommunicationstrategiesthatcanbe utilizedwithforensicclientsingeneral. We will alsoreview the importance of earlyinterventionandcrime prevention,socialreintegration,andthe recoverymodel forthose involvedinthe criminaljustice system. The standardsof practice for forensic mental healthnursingwillalsobe exploredinthissection. Providingsupportandeducationforfamily membersremainsvital foracomprehensive integrated mental healthsystemforindividualsinvolvedin the criminal justice systemandcontinuestobe emphasized. LearningActivities Readings Readthe followingdocument. Take notesinyourlearningjournal of keypoints relatedtotherapeutic communicationtechniquesforforensicmentalhealthnursingasyouread. • What makesa QualityTherapeuticRelationshipinPsychiatric/Mental HealthNursing:A Review of the ResearchLiterature,byDziopa,F.& Ahern,K.J.(2009), in InternetJournalof Advanced Nursing Practice,10 1: 7-7. Readthe followingarticle provided,takingnotesregardingthe applicationof the recoveryparadigmin forensicmental healthservices. • The RecoveryParadigminForensicMental HealthServices, bySimpson,A.I.F.,Penney,S.R.,in (2011), CriminalBehaviourand MentalHealth. Vol:21,p. 299 – 306, DOI: 10.1002/cbm.823 Readthe followinglink,takingnotesrelatedtothe social integrationof individualsinvolvedinthe criminal justice system. • The Social Reintegrationof OffendersandCrime Prevention,bythe Governmentof Canada, section- Mentally Ill Offenders:http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/scl- rntgrtn/index-eng.aspx#s13 Readthe followingdocument takingnotesinyourlearningjournalof keypoints relatedtothe standards of practice forforensicmental healthnursingasyouread. • ForensicMental HealthNursing - Standardsof Practice 2012: http://www.forensicare.vic.gov.au/assets/pubs/Nursing%20Standards%202012.pdf
  14. 14. • Mental Healthand Criminal Justice PolicyFramework,bythe CenterforAddictionandMental Health(2013), Section:PrinciplesforaComprehensive CanadianapproachtoMental Healthand Criminal Justice,p.11 – 13: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/influencing_public_policy/Documents/MH_Crim inal_Justice_Policy_Framework.pdf Readthe followinglinks,takingnotesrelatedtoinformationforfamilymembersandfriendsof those involvedinthe forensicmental healthsystem. • Family,Friendsandthe ForensicMental HealthSystem, byCenterforAddictionandMental Health(2012): http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ ontario/Pages/forensics_mhont_friendsfamily.aspx • ForensicPsychiatricServices:InformationforFamilies,byBCMental Health& AddictionServices (2011): http://www.bcmhsus.ca/includes/download.php?file=../content/318/BCSS_FPS_FamilyInformat ionBooklet15NOV11.pdf Lesson Summary Thislessonintroducedyoutothe relationshipbetweenmentalhealthissuesandthe criminal justice system,alongwiththe forensicmentalhealthsystem. Itconsideredsome of the complexitiesthatexist inassessingindividualsinvolvedinthe criminal justice system, alongwithkeycomponentsof reporting. Treatmentrequirementsrelatedtocriminal behaviourwere alsoreviewed. Thislessonalsodiscussed core skillsandbehavioursthatsupportthe highqualitycare of individualsinvolvedwiththe criminal justice system,includingtheirfamilies.
  15. 15. References Campbell-Heider,N.&Baird,C. (2012). Substance abuse preventionandtreatmentwithinthe criminal justice system:Anoverview of the issues. Journalof AddictionsNursing,23,7-13. CanadianMental HealthAssociation.(2012).Mental healthandthe criminal justice system.Retrievedon September16th ,2014 from:http://www.cmha.bc.ca/get-informed/public-issues/justice CanadianMental HealthAssociation.(2014).Justice services.RetrievedonSeptember16th , 2014 from: http://ontario.cmha.ca/mental-health/services-and-support/justice-services/ CenterforAddictionandMental Health.(2012). What happensinside the forensicmental health system?RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/health_information/the_forensic_mental_health_system_in_ ontario/Pages/forensic_mhontario_whathappens.aspx Coleman,T.& Cotton,D. (2014). TEMPO: Police Interactions - A reporttowardsimprovinginteractions betweenpolice andpeoplelivingwithmental healthproblems.Mental HealthCommissionof Canada. RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/English/system/files/private/document/TEMPO%20Po lice%20Interactions%20082014.pdf Dupuis,T.,MacKay, R., & Nicol,J.(2013). Currentissuesinmental healthinCanada:Mental healthand the criminal justice system. Library of Parliament. Durbin,J.,Lin,E., & Zaslavska,N.(2010). Police-citizenencountersthatinvolvemental healthconcerns: Resultsof an Ontariopolice servicessurvey. Canadian Journalof Community MentalHealth.Vol. 29 (5), 53-71. Dziopa,FionaandAhern,KathrynJ.(2009) What makesa qualitytherapeuticrelationshipin psychiatric/mental healthnursing:A review of the researchliterature. InternetJournalof Advanced Nursing Practice,10 1: 7-7. Kalmbach,K.C. & Lyons,P. M. (2006). Ethical issuesinconductingforensicevaluations. Applied Psychology in CriminalJustice, 2(3). RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.apcj.org/documents/2_3_Ethics_foren.pdf Langille,J.(2014). Whenmental illnessandthe justice systemintersect. Canadian Nurse,110(5),28-30. McManus, S., Meltzer,H.,Brugha,T., Bebbington,P.&Jenkins,R.(2009). Adultpsychiatricmorbidityin England:Resultsof a householdsurvey.The NHSInformationCentre.RetrievedonSeptember 16th , 2014 from:www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/psychiatricmorbidity07 Mears, D. P.,Winterfield,L.,Hunsaker,J.,Moore,G.E., White,R.M. (2003). Drug treatmentinthe criminal justice system:The currentstate of knowledge.UrbanInstitute - Justice PolicyCenter.
  16. 16. RetrievedonSeptember16th , 2014 from: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/410618_NIDA1_KnowledgeRpt.pdf Mental HealthCommissionof Canada.( 2012). The facts.RetrievedonSeptember16th , 2014 from: http://strategy.mentalhealthcommission.ca/the-facts/#sthash.iB6Iz461.dpuf Ministryof HealthServicesBC.(2005). Mental disorder,substance use andcriminal justice contact – Summaryreport.RetrievedonSeptember16th , 2014 from: http://www.sfu.ca/content/dam/sfu/carmha/resources/mental-disorder-substance-use-and- criminal-justice/MD_SU_CJC_SummaryReport2005.pdf SainsburyCenterforMental Health.(2009) Diversion –A betterwayforcriminal justice andmental health. RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/pdfs/Diversion.pdf Seymour,L.(2010). Publichealthandcriminal justice –Promotingandprotectingoffenders’mental healthandwellbeing.CenterforMental Health.RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/pdfs/Public_health_and_criminal_justice.pdf Sorenson,K.(2010). Mental healthanddrug and alcohol addictioninthe federal correctional system. Reportof the StandingCommitteeonPublicSafetyandNational Security.Ottawa,Ontario: Governmentof Canada. RetrievedonSeptember16th , 2014 from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/hoc/Committee/403/SECU/Reports/RP4864852/securp04/secur p04-e.pdf The Centre for AddictionandMental Health.(2013).Mental healthand criminal justice policy framework.RetrievedonSeptember16th ,2014 from: http://www.camh.ca/en/hospital/about_camh/influencing_public_policy/Documents/MH_Crimi nal_Justice_Policy_Framework.pdf Watson,A. C.,& Angell,B.(2007).ApplyingProcedural Justice TheorytoLaw EnforcementResponse to PersonswithMental Illness. PsychiatricServices,58(6), 787-790. WorldHealthOrganization.(2007).PreventingSuicide inJailsandPrisons.Departmentof Mental Health and Substance Abuse.RetrievedonSeptember13th ,2014 from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/resource_jails_prisons.pdf

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