Preventing stroke


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Preventing stroke

  1. 1. What Is A Stroke? 0 Contributing Author: Guy Slowik FRCS 0 A stroke occurs when the blood flow to a part of the brain is disrupted. Not enough blood reaches the affected part of the brain. The cells in the part of the brain affected do not get enough oxygen and begin to die. 0 Damage to the brain can cause loss of speech, vision, or movement in an arm or a leg, depending on the part of the brain that is affected.
  2. 2. There are two main types of stroke: 1. Stroke caused by a blockage in the artery supplying blood to a particular region of the brain (called cerebral infarction). This is the most common type of stroke. 2. Stroke caused by bleeding within the brain (called intracerebral hemorrhage). In addition, some people experience brief warning signals that a major stroke is going to happen in the future. The medical term to describe these symptoms is transient ischemic attack or TIA. Sometimes called "mini-strokes", TIAs are exactly like a stroke, but they last only a few minutes (or sometimes as long as an hour) and leave no disability. In many cases, a stroke will affect only one side of the body: A stroke that damages the right side of the brain will affect the left side of the body. A stroke that damages the left side of the brain will affect the right side of the body.
  3. 3. 1. Stroke Caused By Blocked Blood Flow (cerebral infarction) About 85 percent of all strokes happen because not enough blood gets to the brain. Blood flow stops when an artery carrying blood to the brain becomes blocked. The technical name for this type of brain attack is cerebral infarction. It is also called ischemic stroke. "Ischemic" refers to a condition caused by a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part .The blockage can be caused either by a blood clot that forms in an artery in the brain, or by a blood clot formed elsewhere in the body that travels through the bloodstream to the brain. If this clot becomes stuck in an artery in the brain, a stroke can result. Clots are more likely to form in arteries that are damaged by atherosclerosis, also called "hardening of the arteries," due to the build up of cholesterol and other thick, rough, fatty deposits in the arteries.
  4. 4. The blockage also can be caused by a small piece of tissue, usually a blood clot, that has travelled through the bloodstream from elsewhere in the body. In ischemic stroke, one of two major arteries is usually involved: • The carotid artery (most commonly involved site) • The basilar artery The carotid arteries start at the aorta (just above the heart) and lead up through the neck, around the windpipe, and into the brain. The basilar artery is formed at the base of the skull from the arteries that run up along the spine, and branches off in the brain.
  5. 5. 2. Stroke Caused By Bleeding In The Brain( intracerebral hemorrhage) The other 15 percent of strokes happen when an artery carrying blood to the brain bursts suddenly. The bursting can happen because of a weak spot in the wall of an artery called an aneurysm. This type of brain attack is called a hemorrhagic stroke. Two kinds of stroke are caused by bleeding in the brain: • A subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel on the brain bursts and bleeds into the fluid-filled space between the brain and the skull. This type of stroke can happen at any age. • An intracerebral hemorrhage occurs when an artery bursts inside the brain, flooding the surrounding brain tissue with blood. This type of stroke is often associated with high blood pressure.
  6. 6. What Are "MiniStrokes"? A "mini-stroke" is exactly like a stroke, but it lasts only a short time and leaves no disability. The term for this event is transient ischemic attack or TIA A TIA happens when a blood clot clogs an artery temporarily, cutting off blood flow and, consequently, the supply of oxygen to cells. But the difference between a TIA and a stroke is that, with TIA, the blood clot dissolves on its own and blood flow is restored before permanent damage to the brain can occur.
  7. 7. What Are The Signs Of A Stroke? The warning signs of stroke are: Sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm, and leg on one side of the body Sudden loss of vision or dimmed vision, particularly in one eye Loss of speech, or trouble talking or understanding speech Sudden, severe headaches with no apparent cause Unexplained dizziness, unsteadiness, or sudden falls, especially if accompanied by any of the previous symptoms Most severe headaches are not a sign of stroke. Migraine, which can cause quite severe and sometimes alarming headaches, is very common and affects about one in five people.
  8. 8. • Age - The older a person gets, the What Increases The Risk For A Stroke? Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed: • • • • • greater the risk of stroke. Sex - Men are more likely to have a stroke than women are. Race - Blacks have a greater risk of stroke than whites do. Diabetes- People with diabetes mellitus are more at risk. A history of migraine headachesRecent studies indicate that women who experience migraines are at higher risk for ischemic stroke (stroke caused by a blockage in a blood vessel). A prior stroke -Someone who has had a stroke has a slightly increased risk for another.
  9. 9. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed With Medical Treatment • High blood pressure- High blood pressure has no warning signs, so regular blood pressure checks are important. The condition can be easily and successfully controlled with medication. • TIAs, or "mini-strokes" - A surprising number of people ignore the symptoms of TIAs, which are warning signs that a stroke may be about to happen. But people who have had TIAs can take steps to help prevent a major stroke. Berry aneurysms - These are small, sac-like areas within the wall of a cerebral artery. Some people are born with berry aneurysms. They occur most often at the junctures of vessels at the base of the brain. Berry aneurysms may rupture without warning, causing bleeding within the brain. • Cardiovascular disease - Certain disorders of the heart and/or blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation, can produce blood clots that may break loose and travel to the brain. •
  10. 10. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed By Lifestyle Modifications
  11. 11. 1.Control high blood pressure. Work closely with your health care provider. Have a healthy diet, exercise daily, quit smoking, reduce salt intake, and watch your weight. Check your blood pressure on a normal
  12. 12. 2.Control diabetes Diabetics are at a higher risk of having a stroke. Reduce your risks of getting diabetes by managing your diet and exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight
  13. 13. 3.Don't smoke. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of strokes.
  14. 14. 4.Control high blood cholesterol. Eat a diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol and high in fiber. Maintain healthy body weight, and exercise regularly. Have your cholesterol levels checked every 4-5 years (more often if you know it is high).
  15. 15. 5.Watch the alcohol use. Overindulgence of alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of high blood pressure. Drink in moderation
  16. 16. 6.Maintain a healthy weight Eat less, eat healthy foods, and exercise more. If you are obese or have trouble sticking to a diet, talk to your doctor. Consult a nutritionist or join a weight loss group for support.
  17. 17. 7.Be aware that if you suffer from atrial fibrillation (an irregular and rapid heart rhythm) your risk for a stroke is highly increased. Atrial fibrillation can create clots which can lead to a stroke. Your doctor can provide you with the proper care and medication.
  18. 18. NICE TO KNOW Atrial fibrillation is a heart disorder in which the heart beats quickly and in an irregular manner. As a result, the heart's chambers do not completely empty themselves of blood. Blood that remains in these chambers can become stagnant, and clots can form. These clots can then travel in the bloodstream to the brain and cause a stroke. Individuals with atrial fibrillation often need to take anticoagulant drugs ("blood-thinners"). These medications help prevent the formation of blood clots. Atherosclerosis is also called "hardening of the arteries." Cholesterol plaque and other fatty substances build up on the inner walls of arteries, causing them to narrow. Pieces of plaque from deposits on the inner walls of arteries can break off and travel throughout the body. They can cause a stroke if they block blood flow to the brain. Atherosclerosis can be especially dangerous if it affects the arteries in the neck, called the carotid arteries, because any clots that might break off will not have far to travel before reaching the brain.
  19. 19. Prevention is better than cure. Take good care of our health.