Gic2012 aula2-ingles

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Gic2012 aula2-ingles

  1. 1. Information & Knowledge Management - Class 2Knowledge Management vs Knowledge Engineering Marielba Zacarias Prof. Auxiliar DEEI FCT I, Gab 2.69, Ext. 7749 mzacaria@ualg.pt http://w3.ualg.pt/~mzacaria
  2. 2. SummaryKnowledge ManagmentKnowledge Engineering
  3. 3. Knowledge Managementin Organizational andManagement Sciences
  4. 4. Types of knowledge“The Tacit Dimension”, M. Polanyi, 1966Tacit Individual knowledge embedded in experience and involves opinions, instincts, judgements and valuesExplicit Knowledge shared via oral or written means (for some, information)
  5. 5. Types of KnowledgeEmpirical: Conceptual:Tacit knowledge from Explicit knowledgeexperience articulated through language, symbols and imagesSkill & “know-how”,Atention, love and trust Designs, models, concepts aboutEnergy, passion and stress artifactsRoutines: Sistemic:Tacit knowledge routinized Explícit knowledgethrough work practices standardized, distributed and packagedKnow-how about daily Documents, Specifications,operations, organizational manuals, data bases, patentsroutines and culture and licences
  6. 6. Knowledge creation process (SECI)
  7. 7. Knowledge Chaininternal awareness know core skills and competencesinternal responsiveness explore and exploit them in value actionsexternal responsiveness capacity to satisfy market needsexternal awarenessability of perceiving how the market values product andservices
  8. 8. Chain dynamics Internal Internal AwarenessResponsiveness
  9. 9. Wrong chaininternal awareness external responsiveness extensive use of graphics, no feedback loops with management through clients, few predictive efforts memos, no knowledge sharing, static procedures external awareness and policies. Focus on product lines slow distribution channels, standardinternal responsiveness products, long innovation cycles, new ideas drowned by excessive focus on the hierarchical and excessively internal rate of return departamentalized structures
  10. 10. Right Chaininternal awareness external responsiveness awareness of strenghts and reduction of filters to access weaknesses, experiences are the market and capacity of openly communicated, focus creating partnerships with on compentencies and skills clients and competitors, proactive thinking and not on products behaviorinternal responsiveness external awareness ability of organizing competencies based on focus on service client internl awareness and market and using knowledge as needs a value-creating product
  11. 11. KM Processes (Frapaiolo)Intermediation link knowledge-person from provider to consumerExternalization link knowledge-knowledge store in repository organize within classification system
  12. 12. KM Processes II (Frapaiolo)Internalization link knowledge-query extraction & filtering by consumerCognition link knowledge-process application of knowledge in organizational activity
  13. 13. A model for KM
  14. 14. Another model KM Influences Govern Learning Recognition of Triggers KME, Achievement ofKnowledge need Knowledge Activities Projection Available for processing in Knowledge Resources
  15. 15. Another model Competition Fashion Markets KM Influences Technology Time Govern GEPSE climate Learning Recognition of Triggers KME, Achievement ofKnowledge need Knowledge Activities Projection Available for processing in Knowledge Resources
  16. 16. KM Activities 1 External Sources AcquiringUsing Internalizing
  17. 17. KM Activities 1 External Sources Identifying knowledge in the environment and transforming it into a representation for usage and/or internalization Acquiring Identifying CapturingUsing Organizing Transferring Internalizing
  18. 18. KM Activities 2 External Sources Acquiring Knowledge ResourcesUsing Selecting Internalizing
  19. 19. KM Activities 2 External Sources Participants’ knowledge Artifacts Culture Strategy … Acquiring Knowledge ResourcesUsing Selecting Internalizing
  20. 20. KM Activities 2 External Sources Participants’ knowledge Artifacts Culture Strategy Identifying knowledge within … the organization’s KR and providing it in an appropriate Acquiring representation to an activity that needs it Knowledge ResourcesIdentifying Using SelectingCapturingOrganizingTransferring Internalizing
  21. 21. KM Activities 3 External Sources Acquiring Knowledge ResourcesUsing Selecting Internalizing
  22. 22. KM Activities 3 External Sources Acquiring Knowledge Resources Using Selecting Internalizing Incorporating knowledge into the organization. Culminating activity in organizational learningAssessingTargetingStructuringDelivering
  23. 23. KM Activities 3 External Sources Acquiring Knowledge Resources Using Selecting Generating Internalizing ExternalizingExternal Targets
  24. 24. KM Activities 3 External Sources GeneratingApplying existing knowledge to generate new (or not new) knowledge Acquiring Monitoring Knowledge Resources Evaluating Using Selecting Producing Transferring Generating Internalizing Externalizing External Targets
  25. 25. KM Activities 3 External Sources GeneratingApplying existing knowledge to generate new (or not new) knowledge Acquiring Monitoring Knowledge Resources Evaluating Using Selecting Producing Transferring Generating Externalizing Internalizing Externalizing Making some knowledgeavailable in an outward form Targeting Producing External Targets Transferring
  26. 26. Knowledge ManagementActivities that we do not do in IMsocialize synthesizeinternalize designexternalize learncombine sharing“sensemaking” tomar decisõescreate
  27. 27. Knowledge Managementin Computer Science
  28. 28. Knowledge Management (Laudon & Laudon)Capture, Codification and Discovery Expert Systems, Neuronal networks, fuzzy logic, data mining, genetic algorithms, intelligent agentsCreation CAD, Virtual Reality, Investment workstationsSharing Tools supporting individual and collaborative work (e- mail, groupware, intranets)Distribution word processing, worksheets, publishing tools
  29. 29. CommonKADSMethodology to carry out structuredknowledge Management, KnowledgeAnalysis and Knowledge-intensivesystem developmentProduct from Artificial Intelligence
  30. 30. CommonKADS PremisesKnowledge is a valuable assetKnowledge engineering lies at the heartof development, distribution andmaintenance of knowledge assets
  31. 31. Knowledge in CommonKADSData, information and knowledgeslightly different meaningsData is uninterpreted signalsInformation is data with meaningData and information that people bringabout to practical use in action
  32. 32. Knowledge Engineering Discipline devoted to the analysis, design and implementation of knowledge systems knowledge systems = expert systems, knowledge-based systems, knowledge-intensive information systems
  33. 33. First Architecture ofKnowledge Systems Reasoning Mechanism Domain Knowledge (facts, rules)
  34. 34. Knowledge Engineering Principles Constructing different aspect models of human knowledge Modeling activity First concentrate on the conceptual structure of knowledge, leave programming details for later Knowledge has a stable structure analyzable through knowledge types and roles Knowledge Project must be managed in a controlled “spiral” way (iterative and incremental)
  35. 35. CommonKADS Model Suiteorganization task model agent model model knowledge communication model model design model
  36. 36. Organizational & Task ModelsMayor features of an organization todiscover problems and opportunities,feasibility and impact of knowledgesystemsTask layout. Inputs and outputs, pre-conditions, performance criteria, neededresources and competences
  37. 37. Agent & Knowledge ModelsHuman and automated agents.Competences, authority and constraintsto act. Communication links amongagents.Knowledge Types and Structures in alanguage understandable by humans.Vehicle of communication with expertsand users about problem-solving aspects
  38. 38. Knowledge RepresentationSemantic Networks, FramesConceptual mapsClass diagramsTopic MapsGraphsRules, Scripts....
  39. 39. Communication and Design ModelsCommunicative transactions Language-Action Perspective modeling approachesTechnical specifications in terms ofarchitecture, implementation platformand software modules based on the previous models
  40. 40. CommonKADS rolesKnowledge provider/expertKnowledge engineer/analystKnowledge-system developerKnowledge userProject ManagerKnowledge Manager architecture + management issues

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