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reading and writing skills.pptx

  1. Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Which of the following is not a property of a well – written text? A. Coherence and Cohesion B. Organization C. Paragraphing D. Writing Mechanics 2. It is one of the clearest indicators of a well-written text; it enables writers to communicate ideas without confusing the reader effectively. A. Organization B. Language use C. Writing mechanics D. Coherence and Cohesion
  2. 3. Which property of a well – written text constitutes proper paragraphing and logical order of presentation of ideas? A. Organization B. Language use C. Cohesion and coherence D. Writing mechanics 4. Which property of a well – written text constitutes features that facilitate textual continuity? A. Organization B. Language use C. Cohesion and coherence D. Writing mechanics
  3. 5. Which property of a well – written text refers to the appropriate language used in writing/speaking? A. Organization B. Language use C. Cohesion and coherence D. Writing mechanics
  4. WHAT IS COHERENCE AND COHESION?? Coherence – This means that the sentences are arrange in a logical manner , making them easily understood by the reader. Cohesion – Is a connection of ideas at sentence level and it is focuses on the “grammatical “ aspects of writing.
  5. HOW CAN WE ORGANIZE THE DETAILS OF A PARAGRAPH??
  6. Coherence and Cohesion A. Arrangement of details according to….. 1. Chronological Order 2. Spatial Order 3. Emphatic Order
  7. Chronological Order • the details are arranged in the order in which they happened. Example : • 1937: The book was written and published. ( Beginning) • 1960: The author died; the book was out of print. ( Middle) • 1978: The book was reprinted. ( End)
  8. SPATIAL ORDER • The sentences of a paragraph are arranged according to geographical location, for example left-to-right, up- to-down, etc. Example: the inside of Bill’s was horrible. On the top shelf was a three week old carton of milk. Next to it sat a slice of a melon that had started to get moldy. To the right of the melon that had started to get a macaroni and cheese dinner that had been served a week earlier. On the shelf below was a slice of a cake from his sister’s birthday party. Through there was food, none of it was edible.
  9. EMPHATIC ORDER • is when information found in a paragraph is arranged to emphasize certain points depending on the writer’s purpose. • The coherence of the paragraph is established in one of two ways: (a) from least to most important, or (b) from most to least important
  10. Example: After looking at all the brochures and talking to several salesmen, I decided to purchase an SLR camera. For several years I had been dissatisfied with the results I was getting from my point-and-shoot camera. The framing was imprecise and the focus was not always accurate. I had planned a vacation to an area that promised many fabulous photo opportunities, and I wanted to capture each one with accuracy. But the most important reason I decided on the SLR camera was the great versatility it offered.
  11. B. Signal Devices 1. Transitions 2. Repetitions A. Time 3. Synonyms B. Sequence 4. Pronouns C. Space D. Illustration E. Comparison F. Contrast G. Cause and Effect H. Conclusion
  12. B. Signal Devices - Words that give readers an idea of how the points in your paragraph are progressing. Examples: 1) Transitions (words that connect one idea to another, in order for our ideas to flow smoothly) a) Time (first, immediately, afterward, before, at the same time, after, earlier, simultaneously, finally, next, in the meantime, later, eventually, then, meanwhile, now, subsequent, etc.) b) Sequence (moreover, furthermore, next, also, finally, last, another, first, second, third, besides, additionally, etc.) c) Space (above, next to, below, behind, beside, etc.) d) Illustration (for instance, specifically, for example, namely, in this case, to illustrate, etc.) e) Comparison (similarly, also, in the same way, still, likewise, in comparison, too, etc.) f) Contrast (but, despite, however, even though, yet, on the other hand, although, on the contrary, otherwise, conversely, etc.) g) Cause and effect (because, as a result, consequently, then, so, since, etc.) h) Conclusion (thus, therefore, in conclusion, in short, etc.)
  13. 2. Repetitions (repetitions of main ideas keep continuity and highlight important ideas) – it could be a word, a phrase, or a full sentence, or a poetical line repeated to emphasize its significance in the entire text. Examples: 1. If you think you can do it, you can do it. 2. The boy was a good footballer, because his father was a footballer, and his grandfather was a footballer. 3. The judge commanded, stamping his mallet on the table, “Order in the court, order in the court.” 4. The president said, “Work, work, and, work,” are key to success. 3. Synonyms (these are words similar in meaning to important words or phrases that prevent tedious repetitions) 4. Pronouns (words that connect readers to the original word that the pronouns replace)
  14. CALL TO ORDER !!! Number the sentences in an appropriate order to form a coherent and cohesive paragraph. Do this on a separate sheet of paper. I will give you 5 minutes to do this activity. 1. _____a. Therefore, I wake up two hours before leaving for work _____b. Otherwise I wouldn’t be well enough rested _____c. I dislike being stressed in the morning _____d. This means having to go to bed very early in the evening. 2. _____a. The set, sounds, and actors in the movie captured the essence of horror films. _____b. The sounds, too, were appropriate; especially terrifying was the hard, hollow sound of footsteps throughout the film. _____c. The set was ideal: looming shadows of large and unlighted houses, deserted streets, trees dipping their branches over the sidewalks, and mist hugging the ground. _____d. But the best feature of the movie was its actors, all of them, tall, pale and extremely thin.
  15. • Complete the text below with the words in the box Also, for keeping, because In addition first of all
  16. Read and analyze the given sentence in each item. Put a check (√) in the sentence which follows logically from the first sentence. Do this activity on a separate answer sheet. 1. Studying when you’re older should not be a problem. ____a. In fact, some say that the additional experience older people have is a plus. ____b. Despite this, there are many benefits to being a mature student 2. Colleges recognize that not everyone can physically attend a course of study. ____a. For instance, online courses are now very popular. ____b. For this reason, many now offer study-at-home courses. 3. Going back to studying after a long gap can be problematic. ____a. As a result, people can greatly improve their job prospects. ____b. mature students often have family commitments as well as academic difficulties. 4. Distance learning has been greatly helped by the interne ____a. Due to its popularity, television soon became a popular medium for education. ____b. Advantages such as real-time communication make it much more effective than using the radio, television or the postal service. 5. Subjects such as philosophy and sociology are popular choices at degree level. ____a. Nevertheless, these subjects do not lead directly to a job. ____b. In addition, it is difficult to find work with a degree in either of these.
  17. ASSIGNMENT. Create a 200-word essay that employs effective writing techniques. Write it on a whole sheet of paper.
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