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patterns odf paragraph development.pptx

  2. 1. Development by Description -it is the commonly used method of writing a paragraph -its purpose is to present image or a picture -it must present a careful selection of ideas, an accurate choice of word and logical order of details
  3. TIPS in Writing Description 1. Be alert with your senses. 2. Decide a single impression you will emphasize. 3. Select details that will help convey the desired description. 4. Don’t catalog. 5. Put things first. 6. Be brief but accurate. 7. Use vivid accurate words. 8. Use comparisons. 9. Use transitional devices as guideposts .
  4. 2. Development by Narration -most difficult to write -it is also spiced up with picture words so that it will not only appeal to the emotion of the reader but also his intellect. - it must arranged according to the chronological order and should be related. - It must have transitional devices.
  5. Key Terms - Vivid description of Details - Consistent point of View - Consistent Verb Tense - Well- defined point or significance - Flash back -Time Stretch - Time Summary - Flash forward - Dialogue
  6. TIPS in Writing Narration 1. Know what to write. 2. Develop a strong topic sentence. 3. Choose your materials. 4. Organize the events. 5. Consider your audience. 6. Use dialogue. 7. Use figurative language. 8. Use narrative details.
  7. 3. Development by Comparison and Contrast -shows how something or someone resembles or differs from one another. - it is used when writer wants to write an unbiased discussion about the topic or to persuade the reader in believing in a particular perspective.
  8. REMINDERS in Writing Comparison and Contrast 1. Things compared should belong to the same class. Ex: Students from rural and students from urban 2. Comparison should be on the same set of measurement. Ex: Earthquake in the Philippines and earthquake in Japan 3. Dangling comparisons should be avoided. Ex: Reading is easier Reading is easier than writing. 4. Use the comparative degree in comparing two persons, places or things. Ex: Better, softer, more complex 5. The superlative is used for emphasis only when no comparison is intended, especially in a formal and informal speech Ex: This is a critical moment.
  9. Most Common Techniques Used in Writing Comparison and Contrast 1. Analogy- it is the use of foreign or abstract concept comparing to a more tangible or familiar terms Ex: Just as sword is the weapon of a writer, a pen is the weapon of the writer. 2. Simile- is done when there is a direct comparison between and among objects. Uses words “like” and “as.” Ex: Charlene’s eye is as bright as the stars in the night. 3. Metaphor- is done when there is an indirect comparison between or among objects. Ex: Time is gold. 4. Personification- is done when non-humans are assigned in human characteristics. Ex: Love is blind. 5. Oxymoron- happens when two seemingly opposite terms are juxtaposed next to or near- each other Ex: deafening silence, clearly confused.
  10. 4. Development by Definition - gives a satisfactory explanation of the meaning of a word and may point out special limitations to its meaning. 2 Types of Definition 1. Denotation- is the primary, explicit definition of a word. 2. Connotation- is the secondary meaning of the word. It is how people understand a word.
  11. Techniques that can be used in Definition 1. Analysis- process of breaking down concept in a constituent part. 2. Collocation- means that there are words or expressions that are usually almost related immediately with the concept you are trying to define. Ex: Love and Lust 3. Comparison- is associating the word or expression you are trying to define with something else not necessarily synonymous with it. 4. Etymology- History of the word. 5. Exemplification and Illustration Exemplification- defining by giving examples Illustration- is giving an example and focusing on it to elaborate the concept you are trying to define 6. Synonyms
  12. 5. Development by Classification - it is almost any act of noting relationships -it is the act of locating a specimen of any different kinds of objects which possess a given characteristic - it is the systematic arrangement of thing that are related and is based on the principles or basis in order to come up with a well-organized data.
  13. General Principles in Giving Classification 1. Classification places related items into categories or groups. 2. Only plural subjects can be classified. 3. The categories should be coordinated, parallel and must be in the same rank in the grammatical form and in content. 4.The categories must not overlap.
  14. 6. Development by Cause and Effect In here the writer explains how certain causes produce result or effect. A writer using this type may start from the cause to the effect or vice versa. Cause- what prompted something to happen. Effect- what was yielded after something took place.
  15. 7. Development by Analogy Analogy points out similarity between things. Analogy compare 2 things from different classes but bearing fundamental similarities.
  16. 8. Development by Question and Answer It is used in argumentations and explanations. Sometimes, a series of questions make up a paragraphs or paragraphs. However, the questions are made unanswered.
  17. 9. Development by Example This method presents examples to support and make clear the topic sentences. When the topic sentence states a general fact, examples are used to develop it.
  18. 10. Development by Process Analogy This explains how an operation is done, therefore, involves instructions or directions in doing a process with the help of transitional words or devices.
  19. 11. Development by Problem and Solution It is where an information is presented as a problem or issue and a solution that can be done to solve that issue.