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creative commons


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Presentation given at Webinar for RSC-SW, Monday 24th June 2009

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creative commons

  1. 1. UKOLN is supported by: An Introduction to Creative Commons RSC-SW event Monday 24th June 2009 Marieke Guy Research Officer This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence
  2. 2. Copyright  Public Domain? <ul><li>Have a think about whether, based on these quotations, the people were pro-copyright or for works being in the public domain </li></ul><ul><li>“ If I have seen further it is by standing on ye shoulders of Giants.”- Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you cannot protect what you own, you don’t own anything.”- Jack Valenti, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wonder what kind of world is it where anyone can sing anyone else’s song.”- Frank McCourt, Angela’s Ashes, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The secret to creativity is knowing how to hide your sources.” - Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>“ Diffused Knowledge Immortalizes Itself.” - Sir James Mackintosh </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to UKOLN <ul><li>UKOLN is a National centre of expertise in digital information management </li></ul><ul><li>Library and cataloguing background </li></ul><ul><li>Located at the University of Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by JISC and MLA to advise UK HE and FE communities and the cultural heritage sector </li></ul><ul><li>Many areas of work including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital preservation: DCC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata, registry work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repositories: eBank, Intute, SWORD, DRIVER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination: Ariadne, International Journal of Digital Curation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eScience: eCrystals….etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction to Me <ul><li>Been at UKOLN 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>Now a remote worker </li></ul><ul><li>Member of the Community & Outreach Team </li></ul><ul><li>Currently working on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good APIs project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chair of the Institutional Web Management Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural heritage work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Previous roles/projects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC-PoWR, JISC Standards Catalogue, QA Focus, SPP Project Manager, ePrints UK project manager, Public Library Focus work, NOF-digitise, Web Magazines </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Workshop Programme <ul><li>Presentation: Introducing Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do It Yourself - A chance for you to try out some of the tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation: Creative Commons case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion/final thoughts- A chance for you to think about the challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Workshop Resources <ul><li>All resources (and more) linked with Delicious tag: </li></ul><ul><li>Slides are available at: </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to email me ( or follow me on Twitter (mariekeguy) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Copyright in the UK <ul><li>Originated in the 18th century to ensure that authors were properly remunerated for their work </li></ul><ul><li>Current UK copyright law is bound by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Act 1956 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Act 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Copyright Act 1886 and the Berne Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright comes into being as soon as the work is fixed </li></ul><ul><li>The creator usually owns the rights </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Rights of Ownership <ul><li>Copyright law gives the owner of the property certain rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who can copy the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who can adapt the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who can distribute the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only the owner of the copyright has these rights </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of copyright may provide a set of permissions in the form of a licence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set the parameters for copying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow (or not) certain forms of adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limit (or not) distribution rights etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Someone who agrees to be bound by the constraints of the licence is a licensee </li></ul>
  9. 9. So What is Creative Commons? <ul><li>Creative Commons defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright (all rights reserved) and the public domain (no rights reserved). </li></ul><ul><li>CC licenses allow creators to retain copyright, while inviting certain uses of the work, a &quot;some rights reserved&quot; copyright </li></ul>
  10. 11. Where does CC come from? <ul><li>Creative Commons is a movement that has evolved from open source software ideas and licences </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons was founded in 2001 by a group of American legal academics, creators and entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Board of Directors that includes cyberlaw and IP experts Michael Carroll, Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Lawrence Lessig, filmmakers, entrepreneurs, journalist </li></ul><ul><li>The idea was to generate a number of easy-to-use licences with which creators could share their work to the public while maintaining certain control over it </li></ul><ul><li>There are now 130 million works using CC licences (April 2009) </li></ul>
  11. 12.
  12. 13. CC Baseline Rights <ul><li>Licensors retain their copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use (fair dealing), free speech and other rights are not affected by licence </li></ul><ul><li>Licensees will have to obtain specific permission to perform one of the acts restricted by the licence </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright notices should be maintained in all copies of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Every copy of the work should maintain a link to the licence </li></ul><ul><li>Licensees cannot use Technical Protection Measures on their work </li></ul><ul><li>Licensees cannot alter any terms of the licence </li></ul><ul><li>Licences apply worldwide, last for the duration of the work’s copyright and are not revocable </li></ul>
  13. 14. CC Licence Elements <ul><li>Attribution: The work is made available to the public with the baseline rights, but only if the author receives proper credit </li></ul><ul><li>Non-commercial: The work can be copied, displayed and distributed by the public, but only if these actions are for non-commercial purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>No derivative works: This licence grants baseline rights, but it does not allow derivative works to be created from the original. </li></ul><ul><li>Share-Alike: Derivative works can be created and distributed based on the original, but only if the same type of licence is used, which generates a “viral” licence. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Derivative Work&quot; means any work created by the editing, modification, adaptation or translation of the Work in any media </li></ul>
  14. 15. Types of Licence Attribution - Non Commercial - No Derivatives by-nc-nd Attribution - Non Commercial - Share Alike by-nc-sa Attribution - No Derivatives by-nd Attribution - Share Alike by-sa Attribution - Non Commercial by-nc Attribution by
  15. 16. Other Licences <ul><li>Sampling Plus </li></ul><ul><li>Noncommercial Sampling Plus </li></ul><ul><li>Retired Licences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling Licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Domain Certification (PDC) </li></ul><ul><li>Founders Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>CC0 (worldwide) </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source licences </li></ul>
  16. 17.
  17. 18. Forms of Licence                                                                        Machine-Readable Digital Code Lawyer Readable Legal Code Human-Readable Commons Deed
  18. 20. Licence Metadata <ul><li>Resource Description Framework (RDF) metadata is used in the machine readable licence </li></ul><ul><li>Lines of code given to you with licence </li></ul><ul><li>You can also embed metadata in RSS, Audio (MP3 and Ogg), XMP (PDF, image formats), SMIL </li></ul><ul><li>Working on other formats </li></ul><ul><li>For non-Web content it is suggested you embed a link to a licence information page </li></ul><ul><li>You can embed metadata using CC tools e.g. in MP3s using ccPublisher </li></ul>
  19. 21. International CC <ul><li>CC licences originally written using an American legal model </li></ul><ul><li>The licences were popular and adopted by users all around the world </li></ul><ul><li>However, there was a possibility that there might be validity problems in some jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>iCommons - offshoot of the licensing project dedicated to the drafting and eventual adoption of jurisdiction-specific licences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52 jurisdictions have completed licences (April 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 jurisdictions licences are being developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at least 70 local jurisdiction licenses expected </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. CC in the UK <ul><li>CC-UK project started late 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Complexities of UK law meant creation of 2 set of licences </li></ul><ul><li>CC United Kingdom: England and Wales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed April 2005 (version 2.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licence ported by Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy at Oxford University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still using version 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CC United Kingdom: Scotland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed December 2005 (version 2.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licence ported by the AHRB Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law at Edinburgh University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still using version 2.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ireland licence still in draft </li></ul>
  21. 23. iCommons <ul><li>Organisation with a broad vision to develop a united global commons front </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating with open education, access to knowledge, free software, open access publishing and free culture communities around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Features projects that encourage collaboration across borders and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Organised the iSummit in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Has 50 nodes all over the world </li></ul>
  22. 24. Other CC Work <ul><li>Science Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>ccLearn </li></ul><ul><li>Tools - CC Publisher, CC lookup, browser plugins </li></ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul><ul><li>Blog, Wiki and mailing lists </li></ul><ul><li>Fundraising </li></ul><ul><li>Features on relevant artists </li></ul>
  23. 25. Wikipedia <ul><li>May 21 st 2009 - Wikipedia community votes 75% in favour of CC BY-SA </li></ul><ul><li>Vote carried out for members who had made over 25 edits to a Wikimedia site </li></ul><ul><li>Previously GNU Free Documentation Licence (GFDL) </li></ul><ul><li>Now dual licensing – users can choose which licence to use </li></ul><ul><li>This change is meant to advance the Wikimedia Foundation’s mission by increasing the compatibility and availability of free content </li></ul>
  24. 26. Searching CC Material <ul><li>CC Search </li></ul><ul><li>Content Directories </li></ul><ul><li>Google advanced search </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo advanced search </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr advanced search </li></ul><ul><li>Adding your search engine to CC Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCSearch integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCOpen Search </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefox extension </li></ul><ul><li>Finding free to use images online </li></ul>
  25. 27.
  26. 28. Do It Yourself (20 Minutes) <ul><li>Have a think about a work you’ve created and would like to create a CC licence for </li></ul><ul><li>Create a licence at: </li></ul><ul><li>Think of an image you would like to find </li></ul><ul><li>Search for CC materials at: </li></ul><ul><li>Watch some of the CC videos at: </li></ul>
  27. 29. CC Case Studies <ul><li>Roger McGuinn’s Folk Den </li></ul><ul><li>Vores Øl (Our Beer) </li></ul><ul><li>QA Focus </li></ul><ul><li>MIT’s Open Courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerando </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants Dream </li></ul><ul><li>Nine Inch Nails album </li></ul>
  28. 30. Roger McGuinn’s Folk Den <ul><li>Roger McGuinn of the Byrds established the Folk Den in 1995 as a way to use the Web to carry on the American folk music tradition </li></ul><ul><li>McGuinn publishes his own performances of traditional (public domain) songs alongside performances of his own songs </li></ul><ul><li>He posts the songs, the chords, the lyrics, images and a little story about each item </li></ul><ul><li>McGuinn makes every recording available for download under a US CC Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial 3.0 Licence </li></ul><ul><li>He shares the public domain material, but when he records a solo CD of new material it is kept in traditional copyright </li></ul><ul><li>McGuinn feels the key is spreading and preserving traditional folk songs </li></ul>
  29. 31. QA Focus #1 <ul><li>QA Focus was funded by JISC to develop a quality assurance (QA) framework which would help ensure that project deliverables funded under JISC’s digital library programmes were functional, widely accessible and interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>During the project over 70 briefing papers and over 30 case-studies were released on a variety of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>These resources are available in a number of formats from the QA Focus Web site </li></ul><ul><li>As part of the project’s exit strategy it was decided to release the documents under a licence in order to in maximise impact across the community </li></ul><ul><li>Three possibilities were considered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a bespoke licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify an existing licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an existing licence </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. QA Focus #2 <ul><li>After a review of available options the CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence was chosen for the briefing papers </li></ul><ul><li>It was decided *not* to use the CC licence on the case studies due to IPR issues </li></ul><ul><li>The briefing papers were updated to include the CC logo and text </li></ul><ul><li>The machine-readable description of the licence was embedded in RDF format on the HTML pages </li></ul><ul><li>This structured rights metadata allows search engines to provide much richer searching capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing papers continue to be added to the QA Focus Web site and are all available under a CC licence </li></ul>
  31. 34. Vores Øl (Our Beer) #1 <ul><li>“ Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech,' not as in 'free beer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Open source beer produced by a group of students from the IT University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with Superflex, an art organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Version 1.0 is a medium strong beer (6% vol) with a deep golden red colour and an original but familiar taste! </li></ul><ul><li>It has added guarana for a natural energy-boost! </li></ul>
  32. 35. Vores Øl (Our Beer) #2 <ul><li>The recipe and brand are licenced under an Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 licence </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone can use the recipe to brew the beer or to create a derivative of the recipe. Brewers can earn money from Our Beer, but have to publish the recipe under the same licence and credit the original work. </li></ul><ul><li>People can also use all the design and branding elements, and are free to change them at will provided they publish the changes under the same licence </li></ul><ul><li>The Vores Øl Web site also has a a forum for sharing sounds and music related to Our Beer called Sound Bazaar </li></ul>
  33. 36. MIT Open Courseware #1 <ul><li>In 2001 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) announced that they would be creating Open Courseware in order to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide free, searchable, coherent access to MIT's course materials for educators in the non-profit sector, students, and individual learners around the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an efficient, standards-based model that other universities may emulate to publish their own course materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pilot site went live in September 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently over 1,100 courses are available </li></ul>
  34. 37. MIT Open Courseware #2 <ul><li>The site is free and open educational resource for faculty, students, and self-learners around the world </li></ul><ul><li>It does not require any registration, but does not grant degree certificates or access to MIT faculty </li></ul><ul><li>In January 2003 the OCW initiative adopted a slightly modified version of the Creative Commons licence </li></ul><ul><li>MIT Open Courseware License Version 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>It is similar to an Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike Licence </li></ul><ul><li>‘ How to’ Web site aims to inspire other institutions to openly share their course materials </li></ul>
  35. 38. Accelerando #1 <ul><li>Charles Stross is a science fiction novelist based in Edinburgh, Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>He has published a number of novels and numerous short stories (in various SF magazines) </li></ul><ul><li>In order to put it to good use Stross released Scratch Monkey, a short novel that he finished in 1993, on his Web site under a Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 licence </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 Stross released a new Novel, titled Accelerando, as a free ebook under a Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 licence </li></ul><ul><li>The novel is available in a number of formats - plain HTML, rich Text format, PDF, Plucker e-book, Palm DOC format, ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>It is also available to buy online and from bookstores for $24.95 </li></ul>
  36. 39. Elephants Dream #1 <ul><li>3D animated short created using only Open Source tools by the Orange Open Movie Project </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by the Blender Foundation and the Netherlands Media Art Institute, Montevideo/Time Based Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Project was community-financed </li></ul><ul><li>Released on 18 May 2006 as a free and public download, by the end of May half a million downloads </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Movie project involved opening up the entire studio database for everyone to re-use and learn from </li></ul>
  37. 40. Elephants Dream #2 <ul><li>The film and production files are licensed as Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Licence </li></ul><ul><li>Use requires a proper crediting for public screening, re-using and distribution only </li></ul><ul><li>Large collection of files so information explaining what/how to credit </li></ul><ul><li>Logos and DVD cover excluded from CC </li></ul><ul><li>By June some edited versions of the film have started to appear, new soundtrack, edited images etc. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Nine Inch Nails <ul><li>In 2008 NIN released 2 albums: Ghost I-IV and Slip under a CC licence </li></ul><ul><li>Released under a US CC Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Both albums were downloaded for free and shared legally millions of times by fans under the terms of this licence </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, NIN found great financial success in selling cool, well-crafted, limited edition physical editions of both sets </li></ul><ul><li>Apparently NIN made at least $750k from CC release in just two days </li></ul><ul><li>Nominated for Grammy awards </li></ul><ul><li>Many other writers following (e.g. Radiohead, Jay Bennett) </li></ul>
  39. 42. CC Issues <ul><li>Do CC licences change the nature of copyright? </li></ul><ul><li>Do CC licences change the set of rights that may be licensed by the copyright holder, the licensor? </li></ul><ul><li>Do Creative Commons licences change the set of permissions available to the licensee? </li></ul><ul><li>No – the set of available rights remains exactly as it was and is </li></ul><ul><li>But CC is not always a green light – you still need to use your common sense </li></ul>
  40. 43. CC for Information Professionals <ul><li>Information professionals are: </li></ul><ul><li>Key participants in creative culture </li></ul><ul><li>Guardians of the commons </li></ul><ul><li>They will want to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have clear examples to hand as to how to use Creative Commons licences direction, in combination, and in conjunction with material that does not have a CC licence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consider metadata schemes for capturing licence use on a per item basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be wary of technological solutions to digital rights management as these violate the CC licence </li></ul></ul>
  41. 44. Questions?