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An Introduction to Web 2.0 and the Social Web


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Presentation given at MLA Social Web workshops November 2009 - March 2010

Published in: Education, Technology
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An Introduction to Web 2.0 and the Social Web

  1. 1. UKOLN is supported by: An Introduction to Web 2.0 and the Social Web MLA Marieke Guy, UKOLN Email: Twitter: Blog: Acceptable Use Policy Recording of this talk, taking photos, discussing the content using email, instant messaging, blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. This work is licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 licence (but note caveat) Resources bookmarked using ‘mla-social-web-workshop' tag
  2. 2. So…What is Web 2.0? <ul><li>Marketing term (derived from observing 'patterns') rather than technical standards - “an attitude not a technology” </li></ul>Web2MemeMap, Tim O’Reilly, 2005 <ul><li>Characteristics Of Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network as platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always beta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean URIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remix and mash-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syndication (RSS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs & Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social tagging (folksonomies) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust and openness </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Social Web: “ tools that enable people to create, share and connect with each other ”
  4. 5. Note the focus on the individual rather than the institution
  5. 6. Benefits of Web 2.0 <ul><li>Delivery Mechanisms (“network as platform”): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global outreach : maximise impact of and engagement with ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourced services : allowing organisations to focus on their strengths and small institutions to engage on more equal terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploits infrastructure : the standards (e,g. RSS) & services (Google, Amazon, ..) now in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User can create content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can comment on other’s content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users no longer passive consumers of content </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Blogs Flickr:
  7. 8. About Blogs <ul><li>About blogs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Web log/online diary (and more!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professionals are increasingly using blogs to describe what they are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key characteristics are openness, collaboration and syndication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There’s a need for information professionals to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand blogging and related technologies (e.g. RSS, blog rolls) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be able to find resources in the 'Blogosphere‘ (e.g. use blog search tools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore how to use blogs to support business functions (support users, staff & organisation) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Why Blog? <ul><li>Reasons for blogging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of museum, archive or library professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long tradition of sharing experiences and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New issues – need to find new communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs can be a timely way to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer advice and commentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make new connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record discussion over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a different view to email discussion threads </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Reading Blogs <ul><li>There are lots of dedicated blog readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based e.g. Google Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email apps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can sign up for RSS feeds to be alerted to changes </li></ul>
  10. 11. Library Blogs <ul><li>Lots of Individuals creating blogs: Phil Bradley’s, Peter Scott, Technobiblio, Library Techtronics, Shifted Librarian, Free Range Librarian, DIY Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of themed blogs: Going Green at your library, Librarians for Human Rights, The ‘M’ Word - Marketing Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of branch specific blogs: i Know Gateshead Libraries, Oxford University Library, Manchester Lit List </li></ul><ul><li>Some subject specialist and medical blogs, moving more towards library teams </li></ul><ul><li>British Librarian Bloggers list (lis-bloggers) </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Stuff 2.0 – great list of library blogs (over 800) collated by Dave Pattern </li></ul>
  11. 12. Museum blogs <ul><li>Lots of Individuals creating blogs: Dan Cull, mjwrites, electronic musuem, Museum blogging, Fresh and Newer - Powerhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of themed blogs or group blogs: Liverpool stories, Museum 2.0, Design blog, Kids in museums </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of specific blogs for a particular museum: National Museums Liverpool, Walker Art Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Some specific area blogs (e.g for a collection): Natural History museum conservation blog, V&A’s beach art blog, Henry VIIIth blog </li></ul><ul><li>Museums Computer Group </li></ul><ul><li>Museum blogs – great directory of museum and museum-related blogs and aggregator. Sister site to museums podcasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture 24 collates museum details and blog details </li></ul>
  12. 13. Manchester Lit List -
  13. 14. Joeyanne Libraryanne -
  14. 15. British Toy Making -
  15. 16. Fresh and Newer -
  16. 17. Using Blogs <ul><li>Blogs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very interconnected : (trackbacks to see who has linked to you; ‘Google juice’; etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can help to provide feedback; measure impact; engage in discussions; etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blog realtime search tools (e.g. Google, Technorati) can help find recent blog posts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter can automatically post blog updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The comments field can allow you to engage in discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time for you to establish a blog? </li></ul><ul><li>Note UKOLN briefing docs on planning blogs </li></ul>
  17. 18. by Nina K Simon
  18. 19. Ideas For Blogs <ul><li>A News Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redevelopment blog, user services, service changes, opening hours, event info </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the Librarian’s Desk or from the Curator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging about your daily work, provides transparency and openness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special collections, object of the week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as a ‘try it out’ experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professional Development Blog </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronicle daily activities, identify progression, use for annual appraisal </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Issues To Consider <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Issues – e.g. Can you have a corporate voice, do you want one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Issues – e.g. what software? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to making the decision to blog e.g. do you want all ideas to be accessible to all? What about an internal blog? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barriers to getting started: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining momentum e.g. many blogs are little read & become abandoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping your momentum e.g. Will you be able to come up with new ideas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right person for the job! </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Gaining Momentum <ul><li>Participate: embed yourself in the community, social networks e.g. Ning, Facebook (need to be aware of privacy issues, ownership of data, dangers of data lock-in) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and follow other blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Get a feed reader like Google Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Link, a lot, especially to other blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Comment, and use your URL when you do </li></ul><ul><li>Be fairly shameless in self-promoting: “I like what you’re saying but over on our blog we’ve taken a different approach..” </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the URL around </li></ul>
  21. 22. Keeping Momentum <ul><li>Use Technorati, Google Blog search, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Embed usage in regular workflows </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you post regularly, and consistently: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t post because you haven’t for a while </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do post when you’ve something to say </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you’re losing momentum, is there a reason? </li></ul><ul><li>Do some evaluation of your blog: ask readers </li></ul><ul><li>Look for co-authors & guest posts. </li></ul><ul><li>if it’s getting stale, try some alternative approaches (interviews, podcasts, videos, surveys or polls, …) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Wikis Flickr:
  23. 24. About Wikis <ul><li>Wikis are collaborative Web-based authoring tools –read state and write state </li></ul><ul><li>They can be used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>team work and collaborative papers (avoiding emailed MS Word file around) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note-taking & social discussions at events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a way to set up a group Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A great e-learning tool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to compare previous versions of a page, revert back and track who edited the page </li></ul><ul><li>Many allow users to discuss issues prior to making changes </li></ul>
  24. 25. Wikipedia <ul><li>Easy to modify </li></ul><ul><li>Provides high-profile information (Google-friendly) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the community to enhance and develop content </li></ul><ul><li>Is time your library had an entry? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will edit it? </li></ul>
  25. 26. “Britain Loves Wikipedia” <ul><li>Launched on 31 January 2010 and will run throughout February </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to get UK museums to throw open their doors (and ideally their stores) to Wikipedians </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to allow them to take photographs of out-of-copyright works in their Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to enrich the photographic record of your collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Say that you’re working with Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images will be used to create articles on Wikipedia - which will drive more traffic to your site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interested? Contact the Collections Trust </li></ul>
  26. 27. Wiki Issues <ul><li>Vandalism, spam </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Searching (tagging needed), archiving (ephemeral), organisation of pages </li></ul><ul><li>Stopping your wiki from becoming an unmaintained storehouse of out-of-date information! </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Culture - freedom to move away from usual design, protocols, habits </li></ul><ul><li>Resources - Staff training, time, costs </li></ul><ul><li>How will librarians add wikis and blogs to their collections? </li></ul>
  27. 28. The Potential of Wikis <ul><li>“ At their best, they can become true community resources that can position the library as a an online hub of their local community ” Meredith Farkas </li></ul><ul><li>Reviews of collections, objects or books, FAQs </li></ul><ul><li>Comments section, suggestion box </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly asked questions (reference or general) </li></ul><ul><li>Local history, personal stories </li></ul><ul><li>Course collaboration, e-portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Project work, input for research work </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul>
  28. 29. Social Web
  29. 30. Social Networks <ul><li>Sharing and community are key aspects of Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous networks are MySpace, Facebook, delicious and Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Library, ‘museum’ and ‘archive’ are social network in themselves! </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging – allows users to add keywords: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by groups/communities who are the resource users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language – common understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No hierarchy, feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSS Feeds </li></ul>
  30. 31. Sharing – Flickr <ul><li>Web 2.0 includes community-building </li></ul><ul><li>You can help support your community-building by making it easy to share photos at events (e.g. this seminar) </li></ul><ul><li>Simply suggest a tag and encourage delegates to upload their photos with this tag </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr Commons </li></ul> /
  31. 32. Flickr and Museums <ul><li>Example of a museum making using Flickr: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content embedded on organisation Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of rich 3 rd party user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content also surfaced content in places people visit and comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Sharing – Delicious <ul><li>Another aspect of sharing is sharing bookmarks </li></ul><ul><li>This can be used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your bookmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow others to contribute resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow lists of bookmarks to be repurposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out impact analysis </li></ul></ul> Who else has bookmarked this resources? What are their interests? (I may have similar interests) How many have bookmarked my resource?
  33. 34. Sharing - Slideshare <ul><li>Many other resources can be shared e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Facebook <ul><li>The Facebook platform provides access to (a) Skype (b) Twitter micro-blogging service (c) mini-questions </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A social networking Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had the largest number of registered users among college-focused sites with over 30 million members worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranked between top 10–20 Web sites </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Facebook <ul><li>Facebook: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A social networking Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had largest number of registered users among college-focused sites (over 30m members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In top 10–20 Web sites </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Facebook and Museums <ul><li>Example of a museum making using Facebook: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content in places people visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows visitors to be ‘fans’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to access on mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Follow Alex
  38. 39. Twitter Flickr:
  39. 40. What is Twitter? <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best known micro-blogging application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created in 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web app with desktop & mobile clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMS of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the 50 most popular Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do you use it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users sign up for accounts and can then begin posting tweets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction is through the act of following others and being followed </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Tweets <ul><li>Tweets are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text-based posts up to 140 characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include URL and/or link to image (Tweetpic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How they work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All followers of a user will receive their tweets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can reply to others (with other users able to follow conversation) or contact each other directly </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Why use Twitter? <ul><li>Community-building </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing (retweets) </li></ul><ul><li>Support from your peers </li></ul><ul><li>Friend/subject groups </li></ul><ul><li>Answers to questions </li></ul><ul><li>Surveying feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Quick surveys </li></ul><ul><li>The service's (API) allows other Web services to integrate with Twitter easily </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Twitter can provide tangible benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in discussions at events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote participation at events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding our what they’re saying about you </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Twitter – Delivering a Service The Historic Royal Palaces used Twitter for Henry VIII’s 500 th anniversary – picked up by the Telegraph
  44. 45. Hashtags <ul><li>About hashtags: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words or phrases prefixed with a # </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-driven convention for adding additional context to your tweets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topics / events can have a Twitter stream (e.g. #cilip2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users can see tweets collated through use of a hashtag by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using site such as hashtags e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running a Twitter search for a term and then subscribing to RSS feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using an application such as Twemes or Twitterfall </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Twitter at Events <ul><li>Organisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity & general information (like RSS feed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alert followers to important occurrences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisers can create a generic Twitter account </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delegates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can sign up for the event Twitter account </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tweet during the event using the hashtag (Twitter 'back channel‘) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote attendees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can still participate by asking questions and getting a good feeling for the event atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain a better understanding of audience's knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use as a way to ask the crowd and for feedback </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Twitter & User Engagement Museums & heritage bodies are now following tweets and responding. Being user-focussed & innovative or spooky? See <>
  47. 48. Flickr: Openness
  48. 49. Mashups <ul><li>Web 2.0 provides valuable opportunity to provide mapping & location services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedding Google maps on your Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing rich services using this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing location metadata / microformats which can be processed by simple browser tools </li></ul></ul>Web 2.0 workshops/webmaster-2007/maps/
  49. 50. Creative Commons <ul><li>Creative Commons offers copyright holders licences to assign to their work </li></ul><ul><li>The licences aim to clarify the conditions of use and avoid many of the problems current copyright laws pose when attempting to share information. </li></ul><ul><li>CC maximises impact of work </li></ul>Web 2.0 Openess is a key aspect of Web 2.0: open source; open standards and open content can all help to bring benefits through maximising usage of services
  50. 51. Podcasts <ul><li>Podcasts are syndicated MP3 files </li></ul><ul><li>New items in a podcast can appear automatically in your Podcast client (e.g. iPod) or RSS reader </li></ul><ul><li>Resources can be accessed via iTunes </li></ul>Web 2.0 The University of Bath won a European award for its podcasts from guest lecturers, etc. We can regard this as maximising impacts of the ideas and promoting the University, at little cost
  51. 52. NLW Example (1) <ul><li>National Library of Wales “ Shaping the future: The Library’s strategy 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 ”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We propose taking advantage of new online technology, including … Web 2.0 services … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is expected that the Library itself will provide only some specific services on its website. Instead, the intention is to promote and facilitate the use of the collections by external users, in accordance with specific guidelines.” </li></ul></ul>Example of use of Web 2.0 services embedded within a Welsh Assembly Government funded project
  52. 53. NLW Example (2) <ul><li>Use of Web 2.0 at the National Library of Wales including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of YouTube </li></ul></ul>Examples from guest blog post by Paul Bevan on UK Web Focus blog / Bridging Worlds 2008 paper, National Library of Singapore
  53. 54. NLW Example (3) <ul><li>Use of Web 2.0 at the National Library of Wales including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of YouTube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Flickr </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. NLW Example (4) <ul><li>Use of Web 2.0 at the National Library of Wales. Wales, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of YouTube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Flickr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a community Wiki </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Safe Experimentation <ul><li>Are you interested in using Web 2.0 in your organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>Worried about corporate inertia, power struggles, etc? </li></ul><ul><li>What you need is a deployment strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing business needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-hanging fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging the enthusiasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain experience of the browser tools – and see what you’re missing! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address areas you feel comfortable with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Starter for 10! <ul><li>RSS feeds, create them and use them </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Slideshare </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmarks - Delicious, citeulike, connotea </li></ul><ul><li>Librarylookup – Library mashups </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies – different ways of organising information </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube – video, streaming of video </li></ul><ul><li>OPACs - Think of your library system as “an interlocking set of functional components rather than a monolithic black box” – Plinkit (Public Library Interface Kit) </li></ul>
  57. 58. Conclusions The future is exciting - but Curator Sapiens will need to address the challenges. Acknowledgments to Michael Edson for the Web Tech Guy and Angry Staff Person post / comic strip
  58. 59. Any Questions?