“No one can persuade another to change.
Each of us guards a gate of change that
can only be opened from the inside. We
cannot open the gate of another, either by
argument or by emotional appeal.”
Kurt Lewin’s Refreeze Theory
• Unfreezing the old behavior, situation
Change only happens when person, community feels
comfortable, motivated to change.
• Moving to a new level of behavior, new situation
New viewpoints needed, benefits need to be powerful
enough for individuals (WIIFM) to change way they think
about situation, behavior.
• Refreezing the behavior, situation at a new level
Integrate new behavior, situation into daily living and a
way of life.
(Bell, C.H. & French, W.L., 1999)
The Spiral Model of Change by
Prochaska, Norcross & Diclemente
• People in this stage don’t have an intention to
• People in this stage do not see the need to change a
habit – or they don’t see it as a bad habit in the first
• The easiest way to determine if others are in this
stage may be to ask them if they intend to change in
the next six months. If they say no, they are in this
• People know they have a problem.
• In this stage people are often weighing the pros
and cons of the problem and its possible
• People are thinking about how much energy it
will take for them to change and what benefits
the existing habit has.
• People are ready to change and may have made
some early efforts to change.
• People are collecting information about the habit
they want to change and are getting ready to
• People will focus on finding the most suitable
type of action to take to overcome their habit.
• People are doing things that others will
recognize as efforts to change.
• A person’s work in this stage of change is
recognized and often supported or praised by
• It’s important to have someone to talk with
during this stage.
Stages in Transition by William Bridges
Grieving loss due to
Anxiety rises and
values, new ways to
think about yourself.
May see over reaction to
People may feel
Need to be nurtured like
a plant would be.
Acknowledge losses – get People are divided –
them out in the open.
some want to move
forward, others stay the
Clarify and communicate
“It isn’t the changes that do you in, it’s the
transitions. Change is not the same as
transition. Change is situational: the new
boss, new team roles, new policy.
Transition is the psychological process
people go through to come to terms with
the new situation. Change is external,
transition is internal.”
• This stage is very important in preventing
relapse of the habit that was just changed.
• People with certain habits will stay in this stage
for the rest of their lives.
• Since threats to maintenance occur infrequently,
complacency can easily take hold.
• Some professional believe that termination is
impossible, that the most anyone can hope for is
a lifetime of maintenance.
• Four defining criteria that divide terminators
from lifetime maintainers: a new self-image, no
temptation in any situation, solid self-efficacy
and a healthier lifestyle.
Five ways to embrace change:
▫ Be open and adaptable
▫ Be enthusiastic
▫ Focus on what you can control
▫ Choose to be with positive people
▫ Find the possibilities
“You may have to fight a battle more than once to
“The only constant is change – the only strategy is
• Bridges, W. (1991). Managing Transitions, Making the Most of
Change. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
• Bell, C.H. & French, W.L. (1999). Organization Development,
Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement.
(6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
• Prochaska, J.O., Norcross, J.C. & Diclemente, C.C. (2006).
Changing for Good, A Revolutionary Six-Stage Program for
Overcoming Bad Habits and Moving Your Life Positively Forward.
New York: Harper Collins Publishers.