Strategies To Motivate


Published on

Just some strategies to motivate your students!!!

Published in: Economy & Finance, Education

Strategies To Motivate

  2. 2. INDEX <ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of motivation and types of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to motivate: </li></ul><ul><li>Some things to have into account </li></ul><ul><li>Two interesting quotations </li></ul><ul><li>Create the appropriate motivational conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Originate initial motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain and preserve motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage positive self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget </li></ul>
  3. 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>ALLEN, E.D. The teacher as catalyst: Motivation in the classroom. In GRITTNER, F.M. Student motivation and the foreign language teacher. A guide for building the modern curriculum. Skokie, Illinois: National Textbook Company, 1974. (p. 1-10) </li></ul><ul><li>DÖRNYEI, Z. Motivational Strategies in the language classroom . Cambridge University Press, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>RICHARDS, J., PLATT, J., & WEBER, H. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics , 1985. (p. 238) </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Motivation n. the factors that determine a person’s desire to do something. In Second Language and Foreign Language learning, learning may be affected differently by different types of motivation. Two types are sometimes distinguised: a) Instrumental motivation: wanting to learn a language because it will be useful for certain “instrumental goals”, such as getting a job, reading a foreign newspaper, passing and examination. b) Integrative motivation: wanting to learn a language in order to communicate with people of another culture who speak it. (Further reading: Gardner and Lambert 1972)” RICHARDS, J., PLATT, J., & WEBER, H. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics , 1985. (p. 238)
  5. 5. TYPES OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>INTRINSIC (comes from within): “I love it!”, “It’s funny!” </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRINSIC (comes from outside): “My parents will buy me a motorbike, if I pass this subject”, “Speaking English will be helpful for my career”, “English is a compulsory subject”, “I would like to travel abroad and English will be useful” </li></ul>
  6. 6. STRATEGIES TO MOTIVATE <ul><li>SOME THINGS TO HAVE INTO ACCOUNT : </li></ul><ul><li>The attitude of the teacher is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Solve their doubts after the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Give immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Provide communication </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Good attitude towards student and subject </li></ul><ul><li>Not all the strategies will work with all the students </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ ‘ It’s a game, isn’t it, Mary Poppins?’ ‘Well, it depends on your point of view. You see, in every job that must be done there is an element of fun. You find the fun and –snap!- the job’s a game. And every task you undertake becomes a piece of cake…’” Disney motion picture: “Mary Poppins” cited in DÖRNYEI, Z. Motivational Strategies in the language classroom . Cambridge University Press, 2001. (p. 113)
  8. 8. “ ‘ Mary was a friend I had in college. Without saying much, she always made really good grades. It was a mystery to me. I wondered how she did it, so I began observing her more closely… Some of her classes were not really interesting to her, but still she wanted to learn and to make good grades. So she pretended (and then actually believed) that what the proffesors were saying was extremely interesting. Then she became excited about telling everybody about it…’” MURPHEY, T. Language Hungry: An introduction to Language Learning Fun and Self-Esteem. Tokyo: Macmillan Languagehouse, 1998. (p. 21) In DÖRNYEI, Z. Motivational Strategies in the language classroom . Cambridge University Press, 2001. (p. 113)
  9. 9. CREATE THE APPROPRIATE MOTIVATIONAL CONDITIONS <ul><li>Demonstrate enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Take learning very seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Create a good and pleasant classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sense of group </li></ul><ul><li>They are all equal (Same activities, same mistakes) </li></ul>
  10. 10. ORIGINATE INITIAL MOTIVATION <ul><li>Motivated pupil in a group = Transmit enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight aspects the students are likely to enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage them to speak </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes are permitted! </li></ul><ul><li>Look for interesting topics </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the target language (TL) community </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pen friends” </li></ul><ul><li>E-mails and international chats </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasise usefulness and advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Web page in the TL </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Increase expectancy of success </li></ul><ul><li>Mention potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>Offer assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Increase goal-orientation (Group/Individual goals) </li></ul><ul><li>Make teaching materials attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Relate topics to students’ experiences/environments </li></ul><ul><li>Tell students to outline and run part of the course </li></ul><ul><li>Make students have realistic learner beliefs </li></ul>
  12. 12. MAINTAIN AND PRESERVE MOTIVATION <ul><li>Make learning stimulating and pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Break the monotony of the lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Sporadically, do the unexpected! </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the motivational flow (Not only on the information flow) </li></ul><ul><li>Personalise tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Include original, intriguing, exotic, funny, competitive or fantasy elements </li></ul><ul><li>Raise students’ curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase students’ involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Take part in games </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Present tasks in a motivating way : </li></ul><ul><li>Explain purpose and utility of the exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Arise students’ desire = Project enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate strategies to do the task </li></ul><ul><li>Work with them at the beginning of difficult tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Provide immediate feedback and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Increase goal-orientedness : </li></ul><ul><li>Select specific, short- term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Draw up written agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Help and reward them </li></ul><ul><li>Observe students’ progress </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the details of the “contract” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Protect self-esteem and increase self-confidence : </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities of success </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust the difficulty level of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Include improvement options </li></ul><ul><li>Provide regular encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Remove/Reduce anxiety-provoking elements </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid social comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Point out that everybody makes mistakes! </li></ul><ul><li>Make tests and assessments clear </li></ul><ul><li>Offer options to improve the final mark </li></ul><ul><li>Teach learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Show communication strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them strategies to study </li></ul><ul><li>Retain a positive social image : </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid humiliation, criticism or putting students in the spotlight unexpectedly </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Make them work in teams </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account team products in assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Promote learners’ autonomy = Allow real choice </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher role : Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation among students </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between students and teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Increase self-motivating capacity : </li></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness of the importance of self-motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Share strategies (Self-reminders, ignore complexity of the activity, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to adopt, develop, and apply self-motivating strategies </li></ul>
  16. 16. ENCOURAGE POSITIVE SELF-EVALUATION <ul><li>Promote effort attributions </li></ul><ul><li>Pass along compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Provide regular feedback about progress </li></ul><ul><li>Provide regular feedback about areas they should concentrate on </li></ul><ul><li>Make progress tangible </li></ul><ul><li>Offer rewards in a motivating manner </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t overuse rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Non-material rewards should have visual representation </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Use marks in a motivating way </li></ul><ul><li>Make assessment system completely transparent </li></ul><ul><li>Grades must reflect effort and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Apply continuous assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely only on pencil-and-paper tests </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students’ self-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T FORGET!: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t demoralise if a strategy doesn’t work </li></ul><ul><li>Treat each student as a person, not as part of a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Respect students </li></ul><ul><li>You’re an ally, not an enemy! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that : </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition can “sabotage” motivation!!! </li></ul>
  18. 18. THANK YOU! María Ágreda Labrador [email_address] University of La Rioja