<ul><li>What  is  Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>What use is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Joe Shapter </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>What  is  Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Born  in  1959  --  “There’s  plenty  of  room  at  the  bottom”  Rich...
What  is  Nanotechnology? Born  in  1959  --  “There’s  plenty  of  room  at  the  bottom”  Richard  Feynman nano technolo...
What  is  Nanotechnology? Expanding  field  encompassing  all  sciences (Chemistry,  Physics,  Biology,  Engineering,  Mat...
Scanning  tunneling  microscope  (STM)  image  of Xenon  on  Nickel  at  4  K
<ul><li>Fe  atoms  on  Cu  surfaces </li></ul>C 60   on  Cu  (at  a  step) CO  on  Pt(111)
The art of atomic or molecular control for the development of useful devices. Why control things at this level?? atoms, mo...
Size Does Matter This is gold
<ul><li>New Sunscreens </li></ul>
<ul><li>New Sunscreens </li></ul>
Current Commercial Applications for Nanomaterials <ul><li>Electronics : Integrated circuits, FETs, static discharge remova...
Richard Smalley’s View Problems to be solved 1. Energy 2. Water 3. Food 4. Environment 5. Poverty 6. Terrorism and war 7. ...
Energy
Possible Energy Sources <ul><li>Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Solar (PV, Collectors, etc.)  </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal or W...
Carbon Footprint E.G . Hertwich  and G . P . Peters,  Environ. Sci. Technol.  2009,  43 , 6414–6420
Photovoltaic Approaches
Dye Solar Cells
Dye Solar Cells with Nanotubes
CNT-Polymer Solar Cell with Ralph Krupke,  Karlsruhe Institute   of Technology (KIT), Germany
CNT-Polymer Solar Cell with Ralph Krupke, Karlsruhe Institute  of Technology (KIT), Germany
Medicine
<ul><li>Size Does Matter </li></ul>
Sirtex Medical Inc. Radioactive Y in particles on the micron scale
Sirtex Medical Inc. Radioactive Y in particles on the micron scale Beta emitters--pentration depth of 2.5 mm Before 4 mont...
Making Onions Dendrimers are a novel class of 3D nanoscale, core-shell structures that can be precisely synthesised for a ...
Making the Lame Walk From Prof. Sam Stupp, Northwestern University, USA Nano Treatment
Fluorescent Quantum Dots Used in Cancer Surgery  <ul><li>Surgeon is able to  </li></ul><ul><li>find the lymph nodes  </li>...
Water Filtration
RO Membranes
Water Filtration Credit: M. Denomme, University of Kentucky Jason Holt, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Ultimate Goal?
Transport Experiments t = 0 min t = 30 min Hydrophilic dye Eosin Yellow Perfluorodecane- thiol (PFDT) Highly Hydrophobic
Potential Hazards
A few myths: Nanoparticles are new things Our bodies have never seen them before What is the effect of nanoparticles on th...
What about nanoparticles in our blood stream?  Digestive system? Will they cross the blood-brain barrier? Currently it app...
Life cycle analysis of nanoparticles for identifying Nanosafety research projects in CSIRO Courtesy of Dr. Maxine McCall, ...
Future  of  Nanotechnology The  future  lies  in  self-assembly  of  __________(3D) There  are  now  lots  of  examples  o...
The  ultimate  nanotech?
<ul><li>What  is  Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>What use is it? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YbS-...
RO Membranes
Osomosis
Reverse Osomosis
Systems Under Investigation Could be Made from Polycarbonate, Alumina or Silicon Pores have sizes from a few nanometres up...
Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
Electroless Deposition <ul><li>Deposition dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
SEM images of surface after  24h of gold plating
Verify gold deposition inside the pores by removing the PA template
 
Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
Switchable Surfaces
Switchable Surfaces
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology <ul><li>From Greek: “nano”  meaning  dwarf </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nano” indicates scaling fact...
Size  does  matter -- even  in  the  most  basic  things
Nanoparticles in use for 1000s of years Faraday did the first study What’s new?? Self-cleaning paints Lifetimes?? Very Rea...
<ul><li>What  is  Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Device Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotech. </li></ul><ul><li>Molec...
Attachment of Solar Active Elements
Solar Cell Output Voltage (V) Current Density (A cm -2 )
ANT (Advanced Nanopowder Technology)  (Micronisers PL does very similar things as well) Makes ZnO particles which are very...
AMBRI
Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) functions and dimensions  that scale very closely to a  wide variety of imp...
Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) Dendrimers are a novel class of 3D nanoscale, core-shell structures that ca...
Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) Dendrimers possess inherently valuable physical, chemical and biological pr...
Outcomes  of  Nanotechnology The way we live will be changed Medicine (Health Care) Computing Going to the Beach!! TV--Hou...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jJywQvnVnc Current Approach to Water  Filtration
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nan wshop

  1. 1. <ul><li>What is Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>What use is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Joe Shapter </li></ul><ul><li>School of Chemical and Physical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Flinders University </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1959 -- “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” Richard Feynman </li></ul><ul><li>It is now possible to view, manipulate and modify “things” on the molecular and atomic scale. </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Nanoscience’ </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is </li></ul><ul><li>Application of nanoscience to make useful devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding field encompassing all sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Engineering, Maths) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology that will change our lives in the same way that silicon technology has </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Nanotechnology? Born in 1959 -- “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” Richard Feynman nano technology 10 -9 one billionth useful things here it is referring to nanometers
  4. 4. What is Nanotechnology? Expanding field encompassing all sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Engineering, Maths)
  5. 5. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) image of Xenon on Nickel at 4 K
  6. 6. <ul><li>Fe atoms on Cu surfaces </li></ul>C 60 on Cu (at a step) CO on Pt(111)
  7. 7. The art of atomic or molecular control for the development of useful devices. Why control things at this level?? atoms, molecules, proteins, lipids, etc. Planned control
  8. 8. Size Does Matter This is gold
  9. 9. <ul><li>New Sunscreens </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>New Sunscreens </li></ul>
  11. 11. Current Commercial Applications for Nanomaterials <ul><li>Electronics : Integrated circuits, FETs, static discharge removal </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive : stronger tires, lighter yet stronger materials, catalysts, fuel line safety, airbag and other sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Sports : nanotubes in tennis racquets and bikes, nanotechnology enabled golf balls (even a sliced ball goes straight) </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics : transparent sunscreens, sustained delivery of bioactive molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles : Self cleaning clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Building: Thermal isolation, self cleaning surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Energy : hydrogen storage, fuel cell components, smart lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical: Antifouling coatings, imaging tools, sensors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Richard Smalley’s View Problems to be solved 1. Energy 2. Water 3. Food 4. Environment 5. Poverty 6. Terrorism and war 7. Disease 8. Education 9. Democracy 10. Population Richard E. Smalley, “Future Global Energy Prosperity: The Terawatt Challenge” MRS Bulletin 30 412 – 417 (2005). Frontiers of Materials Research presentation given on December 2, 2004.
  13. 13. Energy
  14. 14. Possible Energy Sources <ul><li>Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><li>Solar (PV, Collectors, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal or Wave </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul>
  15. 15. Carbon Footprint E.G . Hertwich and G . P . Peters, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43 , 6414–6420
  16. 16. Photovoltaic Approaches
  17. 17. Dye Solar Cells
  18. 18. Dye Solar Cells with Nanotubes
  19. 19. CNT-Polymer Solar Cell with Ralph Krupke, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany
  20. 20. CNT-Polymer Solar Cell with Ralph Krupke, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany
  21. 21. Medicine
  22. 22. <ul><li>Size Does Matter </li></ul>
  23. 23. Sirtex Medical Inc. Radioactive Y in particles on the micron scale
  24. 24. Sirtex Medical Inc. Radioactive Y in particles on the micron scale Beta emitters--pentration depth of 2.5 mm Before 4 months 14 months 8 months
  25. 25. Making Onions Dendrimers are a novel class of 3D nanoscale, core-shell structures that can be precisely synthesised for a wide range of applications. Control the size very precisely Put things in each layer Coat the Outside in Different ways
  26. 26. Making the Lame Walk From Prof. Sam Stupp, Northwestern University, USA Nano Treatment
  27. 27. Fluorescent Quantum Dots Used in Cancer Surgery <ul><li>Surgeon is able to </li></ul><ul><li>find the lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>which harbour spreading </li></ul><ul><li>cancer cells </li></ul><ul><li>(metastatic lesions) </li></ul>John Frangioni, Harvard Med School Shuming Nie, Georgia Tech Semiconductor nanoparticles that glow: Colour depends on size (Quantum Dots)
  28. 28. Water Filtration
  29. 29. RO Membranes
  30. 30. Water Filtration Credit: M. Denomme, University of Kentucky Jason Holt, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  31. 31. Ultimate Goal?
  32. 32. Transport Experiments t = 0 min t = 30 min Hydrophilic dye Eosin Yellow Perfluorodecane- thiol (PFDT) Highly Hydrophobic
  33. 33. Potential Hazards
  34. 34. A few myths: Nanoparticles are new things Our bodies have never seen them before What is the effect of nanoparticles on the human system?
  35. 35. What about nanoparticles in our blood stream? Digestive system? Will they cross the blood-brain barrier? Currently it appears the immune system does not react to really small particles. What is the effect of nanoparticles on the human system?
  36. 36. Life cycle analysis of nanoparticles for identifying Nanosafety research projects in CSIRO Courtesy of Dr. Maxine McCall, CSIRO
  37. 37. Future of Nanotechnology The future lies in self-assembly of __________(3D) There are now lots of examples of controlled assembly. The next step is to convince the molecules to self-assemble into something that you want. Nature does this all the time
  38. 38. The ultimate nanotech?
  39. 39. <ul><li>What is Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>What use is it? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-YbS-YyvCl4&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTp8kEuZ1eY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IX-gTobCJHs www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFoC-uxRqCg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIKY2vcDhkQ </li></ul>
  40. 40. RO Membranes
  41. 41. Osomosis
  42. 42. Reverse Osomosis
  43. 43. Systems Under Investigation Could be Made from Polycarbonate, Alumina or Silicon Pores have sizes from a few nanometres up to a few microns What elements can we control to “program” our separations?
  44. 44. Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
  45. 45. Electroless Deposition <ul><li>Deposition dependent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul>Hydroxylated alumina surface
  46. 46. SEM images of surface after 24h of gold plating
  47. 47. Verify gold deposition inside the pores by removing the PA template
  48. 49. Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
  49. 50. Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
  50. 51. Systems Under Investigation Pore Size Chemical Nature of the Pores Switchable “Gate Keepers”
  51. 52. Switchable Surfaces
  52. 53. Switchable Surfaces
  53. 54. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology <ul><li>From Greek: “nano” meaning dwarf </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nano” indicates scaling factor of 10 -9 (billionth) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult just shy of 2 billion nanometers ( nm ) tall </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscience : study chemical/physical consequences </li></ul><ul><li>of manipulating materials on the nm length scale </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology : development of tools for manipulating nm scale materials and of new products and processes </li></ul>
  54. 55. Size does matter -- even in the most basic things
  55. 56. Nanoparticles in use for 1000s of years Faraday did the first study What’s new?? Self-cleaning paints Lifetimes?? Very Reactive
  56. 57. <ul><li>What is Nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Device Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotech. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Engineering </li></ul>
  57. 58. Attachment of Solar Active Elements
  58. 59. Solar Cell Output Voltage (V) Current Density (A cm -2 )
  59. 60. ANT (Advanced Nanopowder Technology) (Micronisers PL does very similar things as well) Makes ZnO particles which are very small and all the same size
  60. 61. AMBRI
  61. 62. Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) functions and dimensions that scale very closely to a wide variety of important biological polymers and assemblies (i.e. proteins, DNA, etc). plexiglass epoxies
  62. 63. Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) Dendrimers are a novel class of 3D nanoscale, core-shell structures that can be precisely synthesised for a wide range of applications. Building on a central core, dendrimers are formed by the step-wise, sequential addition of concentric shells consisting of branched molecules and connector groups. Each branched shell is referred to as a generation. Up to ten generations can be incorporated into a single dendrimer molecule.
  63. 64. Dendritic Nanotechnologies Limited (Melbourne) Dendrimers possess inherently valuable physical, chemical and biological properties. These include: * Precise architecture, size and shape control * High uniformity and purity * High loading capacity * High shear resistance * Low toxicity * Low immunogenicity The surface properties of dendrimers may be manipulated: * Polyvalency * Flexible charge and solubility properties * Flexible binding properties * Transfection
  64. 65. Outcomes of Nanotechnology The way we live will be changed Medicine (Health Care) Computing Going to the Beach!! TV--Houses Everything else? Jobs There will be many less factories NO dirty windows or clothes??
  65. 66. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-jJywQvnVnc Current Approach to Water Filtration

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