On this technical language lesson we are going to impprove your vocabulary in the field of animal husbandry. This lesson is related to Cattle. Cattle occupy a unique role in human history, domesticated since at least the early Neolithic. Cattle today are the basis of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. The international trade in beef for 2000 was over $30 billion and represented only 23 percent of world beef production.
Cattle (colloquially cows ). They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae , are the most widespread species of the genus Bos , and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius .
The terminology can be different in the United Kingdom and other British influenced parts of world such as Canada , Australia , New Zealand, Ireland, and the United States.
An intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a
bull. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a
maverick in the USA and Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending
on regional usage) is a cow.
A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three
years of age is called a heifer (pronounced /h fər/, "heffer").ɛ
Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned, then
weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are
referred to as yearlings if between one and two years of age.
A castrated male kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen).
Bullocks: Male cattle which have been castrated. (in US: steer)
Cattle raised for human consumption
are called „beef cattle”. Cows of
certain breeds that are kept for the
milk they give are called "dairy cows"
or „milking cows„
Most young male offspring of dairy
cows are sold for veal, and may be
referred to as veal calvesveal calves.
A group of cattle is called a herd, drove, mob or drift.
They are also called, in some locations, a kine, and a herd of a dozen
(twelve) cows is called a flink.
The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms
„bull”, „cow” and „calf” are also used by extension to denote the gender
or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses,whales, hippopotamuses,
camels, elk and elephants.camels, elk and elephants.
Cattle are raised
as livestock for meat (beef and veal),
as dairy animals for milk and other
dairy products, and
as draft animals (oxen / bullocks)
(pulling carts, plows and the like).
Other products include leather and
dung for manure or fuel.
Over 800 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide.
Some of them adapted to the local climate, others
were bred by humans for specialized uses.
Breeds fall into two main types, regarded as either two
closely related species.
Bos indicus cattle, also called zebu, are adapted to hot
Bos taurus are the typical cattle of Europe, north-eastern
Asia, and parts of Africa – they are referred to in this list as
"taurine" cattle, and many are adapted to cooler climates.
In that dairy cattle tend to be
more angular- and thinner-
looking with a more defined
and larger udder (in cows
Beef cattle tend to be more
blockier and muscular than
dairy cattle, with a seeming
more rounded appearance,
but at the same time not fat-
Used for multiple purposes
These types are used for two,
three or more purposes.
Used for dairy
Dairy cattle are cows
produced for milk and
Figures for average milk output range
up to 12,700kg per cycle,
with 2.5-3.6% butterfat, 3.2% total
Lifetime production stands at around
The current Holstein milk production
leader is Ever-Green-View My, which
produced 32,740 kg of milk in 365
days, completing her record in
High butterfat conditions,
4.84% butterfat and 3.95%
protein, and the ability to
thrive on locally produced
Produces the second largest
quantity of milk per annum,
over 9,000 kg.
The milk contains on
average 4% butterfat and
3.5% protein, making their
milk excellent for production
Used for beef
Beef Cattle are cattle that are
produced with the purpose of
Highland Cattle (Beef)
Blonde d'Aquitaine (Beef/draught)