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Vocabulary related to cattle and animal husbandry

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  1. 1. Cattle
  2. 2. Taxonomic classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Subclass: Cleria Infraclass: Theria Order: Artiodactyla Suborder: Cetruminantia Infraorder: Pecora Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Bovinae Tribe: Bovini Genus: Bos Species:Species: Bos primigeniusBos primigenius Subspecies: Bos primigenius taurus and Bos primigenius indicus
  3. 3. Terminology  An intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male is called a bull. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the USA and Canada.  An adult female that has had a calf (or two, depending on regional usage) is a cow.  A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer (pronounced /h fər/, "heffer").ɛ  Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned, then weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as yearlings if between one and two years of age.  A castrated male kept for draft purposes is called an ox (plural oxen).  Bullocks: Male cattle which have been castrated. (in US: steer)
  4. 4. Other terminology  Cattle raised for human consumption are called „beef cattle”. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called "dairy cows" or „milking cows„  Most young male offspring of dairy cows are sold for veal, and may be referred to as veal calvesveal calves.  A group of cattle is called a herd, drove, mob or drift. They are also called, in some locations, a kine, and a herd of a dozen (twelve) cows is called a flink.  The adjective applying to cattle in general is usually bovine. The terms „bull”, „cow” and „calf” are also used by extension to denote the gender or age of other large animals, including whales, hippopotamuses,whales, hippopotamuses, camels, elk and elephants.camels, elk and elephants.
  5. 5. Utilization  Cattle are raised  as livestock for meat (beef and veal),  as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and  as draft animals (oxen / bullocks) (pulling carts, plows and the like).  Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel.
  6. 6. ________________________________________________________________
  7. 7. Cattle breeds  Over 800 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide.  Some of them adapted to the local climate, others were bred by humans for specialized uses.  Breeds fall into two main types, regarded as either two closely related species.  Bos indicus cattle, also called zebu, are adapted to hot climates.  Bos taurus are the typical cattle of Europe, north-eastern Asia, and parts of Africa – they are referred to in this list as "taurine" cattle, and many are adapted to cooler climates.
  8. 8. Shape  In that dairy cattle tend to be more angular- and thinner- looking with a more defined and larger udder (in cows only).  Beef cattle tend to be more blockier and muscular than dairy cattle, with a seeming more rounded appearance, but at the same time not fat- looking.
  9. 9. Used for multiple purposes These types are used for two, three or more purposes.  Dexter,  Blonde d'Aquitaine (Beef/draught)  Chianina (Beef/draught)  Shetland cattle (Beef/draught)  Shorthorn (Dairy/beef)  Simmental (Dairy/beef/draught)
  10. 10. Used for dairy Dairy cattle are cows produced for milk and dairy production.  Holstein  Red Holstein  Jersey  Ayrshire  Brown Swiss Figures for average milk output range up to 12,700kg per cycle, with 2.5-3.6% butterfat, 3.2% total protein. Lifetime production stands at around 26,000 litres. The current Holstein milk production leader is Ever-Green-View My, which produced 32,740 kg of milk in 365 days, completing her record in February 2010.
  11. 11. High butterfat conditions, 4.84% butterfat and 3.95% protein, and the ability to thrive on locally produced food. Produces the second largest quantity of milk per annum, over 9,000 kg. The milk contains on average 4% butterfat and 3.5% protein, making their milk excellent for production of cheese.
  12. 12. Used for beef Beef Cattle are cattle that are produced with the purpose of producing beef.  Aberdeen angus  Hereford  Belgian Blue  Highland Cattle (Beef)  Limousin (Beef/draught)  Marchigiana (Beef/draught)  Blonde d'Aquitaine (Beef/draught)  Chianina (Beef/draught)  Charolais (Beef/draught)  English Longhorn  Florida Cracker  Galloway  Lincoln Red  Texas Longhorn  Hungarian Grey
  13. 13. Romagnola Limousin Charolais
  14. 14. Thank you!