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UX in the City Manchester - Mariana Morris, Fruto - Mapping users’ mental models

  1. Mapping users’ mental models UX in the City Manchester 2019 • Mariana Morris •
  2. @marianamota | What Intro to Mental Models Practice Empathise (Understand users) Synthesise (map out) Designing Case studies Fixing Your journey in this session How When Why Be able to apply the techniques on Monday. Goal
  3. @marianamota | What are mental models
  4. @marianamota | “A mental model represents a person’s thought process for how something works (i.e., a person’s understanding of the surrounding world). (...) They help shape actions and behavior, influence what people pay attention to in complicated situations, and define how people approach and solve problems.” Susan Carey Mental models
  5. @marianamota | “Mental models are simply affinity diagrams of behaviours made from ethnographic data gathered from audience representatives” Indi Young -is-your-mental/Excerpt.MentalModels.IndiYo ung.pdf Mental models
  6. @marianamota | |
  7. @marianamota | User’s mental models (expected journeys) @marianamota | Get to the train station. Get on the right train. Get off on the other end. I need to get a train to London. Arrive in London on time.
  8. @marianamota | |
  9. @marianamota | Friction happens when there is a mismatch between users’ mental models and the systems’ design.
  10. @marianamota | |
  11. @marianamota | |
  12. @marianamota | “There's great inertia in users' mental models: stuff that people know well tends to stick, even when it's not helpful.” Jacob Nielsen Inertia in users’ mental models Goal: Get cash Photo by top by megawatts86 on Flickr.
  13. @marianamota | Example: Monzo’s current account set up Disruption: Challenging the mental models Innovation
  14. @marianamota | How?
  15. @marianamota | How 1. Step back and get into users’ mind ○ Ethnographic research ○ User interviews 2. Map out how users expect the system to work ○ Mental model mapping
  16. @marianamota | Empathise Synthesise Design Ideal: User empathy before Design Design Frustrate users Empathise Synthesise Design (fix) What usually happens: Design without understanding users then redesign and fix.
  17. @marianamota | When?
  18. @marianamota | Empathise Synthesise Design 2. Fix UX issues (existing project) Problem Empathise Synthesise Design 1. Identify business opportunities and innovative solutions (new or existing project) Business goal We map out mental models to...
  19. @marianamota | Why?
  20. @marianamota | Business reasons why we out users’ mental models 1. Increase customer retention and adoption 2. Reduce costs of redesign 3. Increase in product competitive advantage (Spot innovation and business opportunities)
  21. @marianamota | 1. Empathise with users
  22. @marianamota | ● Users are grouped by differences in behaviours and needs (not demographics) ● Structured, but relaxed (conversation style, not a questionnaire) ● Open non-leading questions ● Active listen ● It’s about their behaviours (not product preferences) ● Get to the root of the problem and their intentions (Ask why, why, why,...) User interviews to understand their mental models
  23. ©Fruto Limited, 2018. All rights reserved. Open vs. closed questions Open-ended questions: questions that allow someone to give a free-form answer. Closed-ended questions: can be answered with “Yes” or “No,” or they have a limited set of possible answers (such as: A, B, C, or All of the Above). “The most important benefit of open-ended questions is that they allow you to find more than you anticipate: people may share motivations that you didn’t expect and mention behaviors and concerns that you knew nothing about. When you ask people to explain things to you, they often reveal surprising mental models, problem-solving strategies, hopes, fears, and much more.” Open questions (Do) ● Who ● What ● When ● Where ● Why ● How Closed questions (Don’t) ● Did ● Have ● Are ● Were ● Will
  24. @marianamota | Exercise 1: Interview
  25. @marianamota | “User interview” (activity 1) - 2min (This would be done in user interviews, but to fit into the time of this session…) Individually: ● Write down on post-it notes, the steps you take to plan a holiday: ● Trigger ● Behaviour (steps / actions) Example: Decide on the type of holiday. ● Goal Trigger Behaviour Behaviour ... Goal (Book holiday) Decide on the type of holiday Look on a map to decide areas I haven’t been to Find accomodation Example:
  26. @marianamota | ● In groups of 4. ● Talk through within your group your steps you take to plan a holiday to understand them. ● Take turns (1-min each person). “User interview” (activity 2)- 4min
  27. @marianamota | 2. Synthesise: Mapping out mental models
  28. ©Fruto Limited, 2018. All rights reserved. The data gathered in the interviews provides the foundation for: ● Personas (for that particular behavior which was explored) ● Mental model maps ● Experience/User Journey maps Data gathered from user interviews
  29. ©Fruto Limited, 2018. All rights reserved. Mental model diagram by Indi Young Mental model with features aligned beneath it. (Features from the product category list from Procter & Gamble’s site Young, Indi. 2008. Mental Models: Aligning Design Strategy with Human Behavior. New York: Rosenfeld Media. Group names of behaviours within (high level groups - “mental space”) Task Feature from the product category or content of website User Business
  30. ©Fruto Limited, 2018. All rights reserved. Example
  31. ©Fruto Limited, 2018. All rights reserved. Mental models help find experience groupings. “The mental model represents a set of states of mind (mental spaces) that a person might pop into and out of during this journey toward accomplishing a goal.” How mental models relate to user journeys?
  32. @marianamota | Mental models containing other useful layers
  33. @marianamota | Exercise 2: Map out the mental model
  34. @marianamota | 1. Map out the users’ mental models - 10min In groups of 4. 1. Group similar behaviours keeping the order of the journey (affinity map). 2. Label the groups by themes (“mental spaces”).
  35. @marianamota | 3. Fill in the other relevant gaps - 10min
  36. @marianamota | Case study: Fixing UX issues
  37. @marianamota | Trigger Users’ mental spaces Goal Page flow @marianamota |
  38. @marianamota | Pages List of problems
  39. @marianamota | Identifying friction & opportunities for improvement
  40. To fix it, we compared the existing design (what the user needs to do) with what users expect to do (mental models).
  41. @marianamota | Case study: Designing from scratch
  42. @marianamota | Matching mental models and page flows
  43. @marianamota | Mental model mapping & User story mapping Mental models can also act as a road map, ensuring continuity of vision and opportunity. It can be nicely aligned with User Story Mapping. Image source:
  44. @marianamota | |
  45. Thank you. UX Consultancy & In-house training Mariana Morris Director of User Experience Design @marianamota Any questions? This presentation © Mariana Morris, 2018