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Part 2 of a tutorial given in the Brazilian Physical Society meeting, ENFMC. Abstract: Density-functional theory (DFT) was developed 50 years ago, connecting fundamental quantum methods from early days of quantum mechanics to our days of computer-powered science. Today DFT is the most widely used method in electronic structure calculations. It helps moving forward materials sciences from a single atom to nanoclusters and biomolecules, connecting solid-state, quantum chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, biophysics and beyond. In this tutorial, I will try to clarify this pathway under a historical view, presenting the DFT pillars and its building blocks, namely, the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem, the Kohn-Sham scheme, the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA). I would like to open the black box misconception of the method, and present a more pedagogical and solid perspective on DFT.