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  1. CARDAMOM SEEDS Origin It is the dried ripe or nearly ripe seeds of Elettaria cardamomum, Family Zingiberaceae, recently separated from the fruit. G. sources Southern India forests (Malabar), Ceylon Description Shape: oblong, ovoid, angled, flattened, hard Colour: orange to dark red Odour: strong aromatic Taste: pungent and pleasant Size: 2-4 mm long and 3 mm broad Outer surface is transversely wrinkled, raphé running from base to apex on one of the flat surfaces, the hilum and micropyle are situated in a shallow depression at the apex
  2. Outgrowth Arillus: The seed is enveloped by a colorless membranous outgrowth. Active constituents: 2-5% volatile oil containing high percentage of terpinyl acetate and cineol. Uses: As a flavoring agent and condiment. • Cardamom is used for digestion problems including heartburn, intestinal spasms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), intestinal gas, constipation, liver and gallbladder complaints, and loss of appetite. • It is also used for common cold, cough, bronchitis, sore mouth and throat, and tendency toward infection. • Some people use cardamom as a stimulant and for urinary problems. Cont. Cardamom seeds
  3. Calabar bean Origin It is the dried ripe seeds of Physostigma venenosum, Family Leguminosae. G. source West coast of Africa Description Shape: reniform, flattened, the surface is smooth except near the groove which extends the entire length of the curved edge of the seed. Color: dark reddish-brown Odor: odorless Taste: bean-like, it is poisonous Size: 25 - 30 mm long, 10 - 15 mm wide
  4. Hilum Deep black groove about 2mm wide extending through the entire length of the curved edge Micropyle At the more acute end adjacent to the hilum Active constituents 1- Alkaloids mainly physostigmine (eserine), eseramine, isostigmine. 2- Sterols as stigmasterol and sitosterol. Effects and uses : Cholinergic agent 1. Myosis effect. 2. GIT tonic – increase intestinal motility used in case of chronic constipation, tetanus, paralysis and after surgical operation. 3. Secretory glands stimulator. 4. Antidote in case of poisoning from strychnine & atropine. 5. Treatment of Myasthenia gravis. Cont. Calabar bean
  5. Drugs pyridostigmine and neostigmine are physostigmine salts Mestinon ® (tab): pyridostigmine (physostigmine derivatives )- used in case of Myasthenia gravis . Prostigmine ® (amp) : neostigmine (physostigmine derivative ) – used in case of Myasthenia gravis. Cont. Calabar bean
  6. Castor seed Origin It is the dried ripe seed of Ricinus communis Linn., Family: Euphorbiaceae. G. sources Native to India, cultivated in several countries Description Shape: oval, slightly flattened, the surface is smooth, glossy with reddish, brown or black spots and strips Color: greyish-brown Odor: slight Taste: weakly acrid Size: 8 to 15 mm long, 6-9 mm wide, 4-8 mm thick. Outgrowth: caruncle Micropyle: covered by the outgrowth
  7. Active constituents 1- Fixed oil (45-53%) 2- Protein. 3- The cake left after expression of the oil contains poisonous toxins known as ricins and a crystalline alkaloid ricinine. Ricin: very poisonous, 7 mg is fatal to an adult. Uses - The seeds themselves are not used due to its violent action. - It is used as source of castor oil. The oil is used as purgative. Preparation of Castor Oil: •The seeds are cold expressed, filtered. •Then steamed at 80‐100°C (to coagulate proteins especially ricin and lipase). • Filter to give the oil. •Castor seed oil is triglyceride of ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and dihydroxystearic acids. Cont. Castor seed
  8. Nutmeg seeds Origin It is the dried kernel of the seeds of Myristica fragrans ,Family Myristicaceae, deprived of its arillus and testa G. sources Indonesian islands, Ceylon and West Indies Description Shape: oblong ovoid, the outer surface is pitted showing reticulations and small furrows Color: greyish-brown Odor: strong and aromatic Taste: aromatic Size: 20-35 mm long and 15-28 mm wide
  9. - A groove marking the position of the raphé extends along from a depression at the broader end, where the hilum and micropyle are situated - A longitudinal section through the kernel shows a thin outer dark brown perisperm which penetrates into the light brown endosperm in a ruminated form. Outgrowth Arillus which are dried to form the mace Cont. Nutmeg seeds
  10. Cont. Nutmeg seeds Active constituents 1- Volatile oil (5-15%) consisting mainly of pinene, camphene, myristicin, sabinene and other terpenes and alcohols. 2- Fat (30-40%) 3- Starch and amylodextrin. 4- Photosterin, coloring matter and saponin. N.B. Myristicin (4% in the oil), a crystalline bitter substance which is toxic causing respiratory depression in large dose. Uses 1- Stimulant. 2- Carminative, flavoring agent. 3- Used externally in rheumatism. 4- V.O has antibacterial activity. 5- Aphrodisiac.
  11. Mace Origin It is the dried arillus or arillode of M. fragrans - Mace is removed from the freshly collected seeds where it has a bright red color. - After sun drying it acquires an orange brown color. - Mace consists of lobed or flattened pieces up to 25 mm in length and 1 mm in thickness. - Odor and taste as nutmeg. Active constituents Volatile oil (4-15%), mostly identical with nutmeg oil. Uses As nutmeg.
  12. Nigella seeds Origin It is the dried ripe seeds of Nigella sativa L., Family Ranunculaceae G. sources Mediterranean countries Active constituents Volatile oil (thymoquinone), triterpenes, fixed oil, saponins Alkaloids as nigellamine and nigellidine Uses Immuno-stimulant, cough and chest disorders, in larger doses as a diuretic Thymoquinone, an extract of nigella sativa seed oil, blocked pancreatic cancer cell growth and killed the cells by enhancing the process of programmed cell death.
  13. COLCHICUM SEEDS Origin; The dried ripe seed of Colchicum automnale Family Liliaceae. G. S: England and many parts of Europe. Active constituents: alkaloid colchicine. Test: Colchicine gives a yellow color with mineral acids. Uses 1- Colchicine relief pain of gout. 2- Biological experiments to produce polyploidy. Side Effects: – Teratogenic damage. – Kidney & liver damage. – Hair loss. – Bone marrow damage.
  14. ALMONDS Sweet Almonds: The seeds of Prunus communis var. dulcis. Bitter Almonds: Seeds of Prunus amygdalus var. amara. Family; Rosaceae. G. S:Italy and other Mediterranean countries. Active constituents: 1- 40-50% Fixed oil, 20% protein amongst which the enzyme emulsin, sugars, mucilage. 2-Bitter almonds contain in addition to the fixed oil, a colorless crystalline glucoside amygdalin, but by the action of emulsin it is decomposed producing benzaldehyde, hydrocyanic acid and glucose. Uses 1- Fixed oil is used in many toilet articles. 2- As a vehicle for oily injections. 3- Internally, as a mild laxative. 4- Volatile oil (oil of amygdala) is used as a flavoring agent and sedative. 5- Sweet almonds are demulcent and nutritive (non-starchy food for diabetic patients)
  15. DATURA STRAMONIUM Origin: The dried ripe seed of Datura stramonium, Family Solanaceae. G. S: Egypt, Europe specially England. Active constituents Alkaloids mainly hyoscyamine (atropine) and hyoscine. Uses 1- Antispasmodic. 2- It has some stimulant effect followed by sedation. 3- Alkaloids are used in ophthalmology to dilate the pupil of the eye.
  16. The dried fermented seed of Coffea arabica L., Family Rubiaceae. G. S: Mainly Yemen and Brazil. Active constituents: 1- Xanthine alkaloid (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) 2- Tannins. 3- Fats and volatile substances. Chemical test: +ve with murexide and –ve with Mayer's test Uses: Stimulant, diuretic and smooth muscle relaxant. COFFE BEANS
  17. COCOA SEEDS The dried ripe fermented seeds of Theobroma cacao Linn, Family Sterculiaceae. G. S: S. America, West Indies, West Africa, Ceylon Active constituents 1- Purine bases (alkaloids) mainly theobromine and caffeine. 2- Cacao butter (theobroma oil) 3- Polyphenols complex. 4- Volatile components responsible for the aroma. Uses 1- Nutritive. 2- Stimulant and diuretic. 3- The oil is used as a suppository base.
  18. Origin: The dried ripe seed of Lupinus termis, Family Leguminosae. G. S: Egypt, Europe specially England. Active constituents 1- Alkaloids as termisine, termine, multiflorine and lupanine. 2- Isoflavonoids. Uses 1- Hypoglycemic activity 2- Nutrients Termis
  19. Origin: The dried ripe seed of Areca catechu L., Family Palmae (Arecaceae). G. S: India and Eastern Archipillago. Active constituents: Alkaloids mainly arecoline and tannin. Uses: 1- Arecoline hydrochloride for treatment of colic in horses. 2- As an animal vermifuge. 3- The charcoal of the seeds is used in dentifrices. ARECA NUTS ‫الفوفل‬ ‫بذور‬