Methods Used in English Teaching to Deaf and Dumb Students Presented by Maryam Khalid Roll No. 06 Department of English The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Introduction Man is a social being so it is natural for him to communicate and interact. What is Communication? “It is a process of communicating or exchanging Ideas, Thoughts, Feelings, Information in form of verbal or non-verbal message”. Language is an arbitrary system of symbols or code that can be employed for expressing and receiving communicating messages. Speech is the verbal presentation of language.
Exceptional Children Exceptional Children are those children who are unable to communicate due to any disability or impairment. Communication Disorder Receptive Disorder Expressive Disorder
Receptive Disorder It is difficulty in processing and understanding language due to listening impairment. It has two types. Deaf A person who is deficient in hearing power.
Types of Deaf Pre-lingual Post-lingual Hard-of-hearing It means the loss of hearing ability but the person may have residual hearing to some degree. Types of Hearing Loss• Conductive hearing loss• Sensorineural loss• Mixed disorder
Conductive Hearing Loss Disorder that occurs in the outer or middle ear. Sensorineural Loss Disorder of inner ear. Mixed Disorder It is the mixture of both conductive and Sensorineural loss.
Degree of Hearing Loss Profound (90 dbl) Severe (65-90 dbl) Moderate (40-65 dbl) Slight/Mild (27-40 dbl)
Expressive Disorder It is the inability to express or to produce a sound. Person suffering from this disorder is called Dumb. Dumb Is the individual who lacks the ability to speak.
Causes of dumbness• Hearing impairment• Unwillingness to speak• Malformation of vocal organs
Teaching of English In recent years, emphasis is laud on teaching English as Second Language to deaf students, because of many reasons. English has great importance for educational career of students of both English speaking and non-English speaking countries. Students are taught English language in order to enhance their knowledge. English is linking language. It is beneficial for deaf students. English still important as English.
Learning English language is a very slow process for deaf and dumb students. Students try to compensate this inability with the help of different aids and technologies yet they accomplish only partial acquisition of spoken language.
Educational considerationEducation is important for deaf and dumbstudents for their academic growth as well asfor the development of their all-roundpersonality. These impaired children lack theability to use language and communicationskills for educational purposes like theirnormal peers. That’s why, differentapproaches and methods are employed forteaching English language and its use.
Communication Approaches Oral/Aural communication approach Manual Communication Approach Total Communication Approach Use of Developed Technologies Approach
Oral/Aural Communication Approach This approach advocates that children must be helped in developing their listening and speaking abilities. It uses following methods.• Amplification of sound• Auditory training• Lip reading• Speech readiness• Speech therapy
Lip ReadingIt means to imitate the message by observingand imitating movement of lips of speaker, hisexpressions and gestures in same context. Speech readinessExercises of tongue movement, glidingmovement and breathing exercises.
Speech therapyIt is training to produce sounds. Vowel sounds These sounds are taught with reference to their the place of vibration. Consonant sounds Most visible and easy sounds are taught first like p, b, s, t Gliding sounds are taught in the end. Then sounds are taught in combination like ‘pa’
Amplification of sound It means to amplify sound with help of hearing aids.Auditory training To develop listening ability and ability to discriminate among sounds.• Awareness of sound• Localization of sound• Discrimination of sound• Identification of sound
Manual communication approachIt is use of manual methods.• Sign language• Finger spelling• Cued speech
Sign languageLanguage which uses for manual communication and body language for conveying meanings. It include hand shapes, orientation and movement of hands or body and facial expressions.BSL can be used for teaching.
Characteristics of BSL• It is natural and flexible language.• It has its own vocabulary and grammar.• It has dialects. It is different from other sign languages.• It has functional properties and principles like1. Arbitrariness: conventional, Iconic2. Productivity3. Flexibility4. Discreetness and duality5. Displacement
BSL vocabulary• Sign alphabets• Common words• Pronouns BSL Grammar• No SVO order English: Do you want a cup of tea? BSL: tea you?• Null subject language