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U.S. Share of
Blockchain Developers
is Shrinking
March 2023
The U.S. is losing its lead in blockchain developers
● Over 23,343 open source software engineers are responsible for a market
worth over $1 trillion currently.
● The U.S. has lost market share to emerging markets such as India and Ukraine.
● The U.S. is losing 2 percent market share per year for the last five years and is
now down to 29% market share from 40% market share. This threatens U.S.
preeminence in finance and technology.
● If current growth rates continue, we anticipate 1 million new open source
software engineering jobs will be created by 2030. There are likely 3 million
new non-technical roles that will also be created by 2030.
2
Developers are sticky: network value is roughly back to
January 2018 levels, but monthly active developers
increased +297%
3
Blockchain developer ecosystem keeps growing
23,343 monthly active developers in December 2022
4
The U.S. can capture the next 1M blockchain devs
5
An accumulated growth model from 2017 to 2022 suggests a ~1M developer base
by 2030
Blockchain Developers
Location
Methodology
Method #1: Self-Reported Locations
Software developers have accounts with public information such as location or links to their social networks.
When available, we extract the country from the location data specified by the software developers in their
social network accounts and their code versioning platform accounts.
With this technique we were able to extract the location country from 11,024 developers that contributed to
blockchain open-source development up until end of 2022.
Sources
Twitter, GitHub
Caveats
1. Users can input free text in the location information. A percentage of values may be false locations or
unrelated values.
2. Users who move from one country to another might forget or not want to update their location
information.
3. We mapped 193 countries in 33 languages, including flag emojis, 1,008 U.S. locations and the top 30
cities in the world. However, we didn’t map cities in certain languages. As a result, countries like China,
India, Brazil, or Indonesia may be underrepresented.
7
Method #2: Developer Time Zones
To measure blockchain software development activity, we use the time zone of the developers when they submit code
to the git open-source database. Our analysis uses over 200 million such instances. The UTC offset when a developer
submits code broadly indicates the longitude segments they are located in. We defined 3 broad segments: Americas
(between UTC -12 and UTC -3), Europe / Africa (between UTC -2 and UTC +3) and Asia / Oceania (between UTC +4 and
UTC +14).
Source
Publicly accessible source code on GitHub and Bitbucket since 2015. Details are available at
https://github.com/electric-capital/crypto-ecosystems
Caveats
1. Time zones are shared by multiple countries and even continents. For example, U.S. time zones are shared with
Canada, Central America, and Latin America. Accordingly, we can distinguish between developer activity in the
Americas vs. other locations, but not within the Americas. Similarly, time zones overlap between Europe and
Africa, and with Asia and Oceania.
2. To evaluate this model’s performance, we used Method #1 (Self-Reported Locations) as the ground truth to
conclude that Method #2 has an accuracy of 85%. In other words, this time-based model is good at identifying
development in the U.S.
8
Method #1
Self-Reported Locations
Location data is a scarce piece of information from
blockchain developers
55,315 blockchain
developers in 2022
The number of contributors that
contributed to open source blockchain
projects in 2022.
19,956 logged in
developers
36% of accounts that have contributed to
open-source blockchain did so while
being logged-in with an account in
GitHub.
6,945 devs with
non-empty location
35% of logged-in developers have text
related to their location.
4,898 devs with inferable
country location
70% of users with location information
have inferrable country location.
Sample size funnel (2022 only)
10
The number of blockchain developers with inferrable
country location grows proportionally with the number of
active developers
Sample size
11
North America and Europe are currently home to 29%
of all blockchain developers each
Share of blockchain developers by region in 2022
12
India's blockchain developer share steadily grew
from from 2% in 2017 to 6% in 2022
Share of blockchain developers by region over time
13
U.S. is losing its lead. Around 2% share is lost every
year since 2017
U.S.’s Share of blockchain developers
14
Comparatively, Europe (excl. U.K.) has been able to
maintain a share of blockchain developers of 29%
Share of blockchain developers in the E.U.
15
2022 was the first year that the U.K.’s share of
blockchain developers went below 7%
Share of blockchain developers in the U.K.
16
India, Africa, and LATAM are capturing blockchain
dev share from the U.S.
Normalized Share of blockchain developers by region over time
17
U.K. and Germany lead devs in Europe, but their share
declined slightly; Ukraine’s share grew 2% in 3 years
Share of blockchain developers within Europe (4%+ share cut-off)
18
Method #2
Developer Time Zones
Inferring Developer Location through Commit Timestamp Offsets
Our second method for inferring the location of developers analyzes the
timestamps of their code commits. We use the offset between the timestamp of a
developer's commit and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) to infer their location.
For example, if a developer commits code to a public repository between UTC -13
and UTC -3, we can infer that they are located somewhere in the Americas.
This method can provide a more complete picture of the global distribution of
developers, even if they have not provided detailed location information on their
social media profiles. Albeit being less precise than Method #1, the volume of data
available with Method #2 is orders of magnitude larger than with Method #1.
An alternative way of measuring location of
development work
20
Method #2 has an accuracy of 85% if we assume
Method #1 as the ground truth
1. We divide the world into 3 wedges
with common time zones / longitude
ranges: Americas, Europe & Africa
and Asia & Oceania
2. We use Method #2 (developer’s time
zone) to infer the wedge to which
developers might belong
3. From Method #1, we map all
countries to one of the three wedges
4. For each developer, we compare the
inferred wedge using Method #2 with
the developer’s actual country (from
Method #1)
5. We calculate the inference accuracy
of Method #2 → 85%
21
Dev share in the Americas is below 30% for the first
time, even including LATAM
Share of blockchain developers in the Americas time zones
22
Countries in the Asia / Oceania regions took 3
years longer to onboard blockchain developers
Share of blockchain developers by time zone wedge
23
Appendix
U.S. Specific Thoughts
Blockchain is the next wave of the Internet
Blockchain and crypto technologies has exploded in popularity as a once-in-a-generation technology
platform and economic opportunity. These technologies have the potential to fundamentally change money,
the financial system, and the Internet more broadly.
A decentralized Internet ecosystem built on blockchain technologies, where economic value is delivered to
the users of the products via tokens, is a monumental shift. What’s valuable and celebrated within the
industry is also the open-sourced nature of the underlying technology, which enables unparalleled security,
access, and transparency.
One of the early and leading indicators of this emerging technology is in software developer engagement –
the more activity (“code commits”) in the underlying software, the more vibrant the ecosystem. Due to the
open-sourced nature of blockchain technology, it is possible to analyze developer activity by looking at the
volume of code commits and derive important trends about the industry.
That the U.S. is increasingly losing market share in blockchain software development mean both that the
developer community is getting bigger and more global, but there is a real risk of losing the U.S.’s
leadership position in finance, cryptography, and distributed systems technologies. This presents a set
of real strategic and national security concerns for the United States.
25
The U.S. must move quickly to preserve preeminence in
financial markets and related technologies
1. Jobs & Financial Impact: U.S. preeminence in blockchain software
development enables the U.S. to create jobs and fuel financial inclusion, as the
broader blockchain ecosystem continues to grow.
2. Standards Influence: By designing new protocols, U.S. engineers define the
standards for financial systems and data systems. These are the SWIFT and
HTTP equivalents of the modern era. Losing market share means that other
countries can have larger influence over global financial and data standards.
3. National Security: The U.S. must shape development of new technology and
financial products to reflect American values and national security objectives.
26

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Crypto Developer Locations 2023 by Electric Capital

  • 1. U.S. Share of Blockchain Developers is Shrinking March 2023
  • 2. The U.S. is losing its lead in blockchain developers ● Over 23,343 open source software engineers are responsible for a market worth over $1 trillion currently. ● The U.S. has lost market share to emerging markets such as India and Ukraine. ● The U.S. is losing 2 percent market share per year for the last five years and is now down to 29% market share from 40% market share. This threatens U.S. preeminence in finance and technology. ● If current growth rates continue, we anticipate 1 million new open source software engineering jobs will be created by 2030. There are likely 3 million new non-technical roles that will also be created by 2030. 2
  • 3. Developers are sticky: network value is roughly back to January 2018 levels, but monthly active developers increased +297% 3
  • 4. Blockchain developer ecosystem keeps growing 23,343 monthly active developers in December 2022 4
  • 5. The U.S. can capture the next 1M blockchain devs 5 An accumulated growth model from 2017 to 2022 suggests a ~1M developer base by 2030
  • 7. Method #1: Self-Reported Locations Software developers have accounts with public information such as location or links to their social networks. When available, we extract the country from the location data specified by the software developers in their social network accounts and their code versioning platform accounts. With this technique we were able to extract the location country from 11,024 developers that contributed to blockchain open-source development up until end of 2022. Sources Twitter, GitHub Caveats 1. Users can input free text in the location information. A percentage of values may be false locations or unrelated values. 2. Users who move from one country to another might forget or not want to update their location information. 3. We mapped 193 countries in 33 languages, including flag emojis, 1,008 U.S. locations and the top 30 cities in the world. However, we didn’t map cities in certain languages. As a result, countries like China, India, Brazil, or Indonesia may be underrepresented. 7
  • 8. Method #2: Developer Time Zones To measure blockchain software development activity, we use the time zone of the developers when they submit code to the git open-source database. Our analysis uses over 200 million such instances. The UTC offset when a developer submits code broadly indicates the longitude segments they are located in. We defined 3 broad segments: Americas (between UTC -12 and UTC -3), Europe / Africa (between UTC -2 and UTC +3) and Asia / Oceania (between UTC +4 and UTC +14). Source Publicly accessible source code on GitHub and Bitbucket since 2015. Details are available at https://github.com/electric-capital/crypto-ecosystems Caveats 1. Time zones are shared by multiple countries and even continents. For example, U.S. time zones are shared with Canada, Central America, and Latin America. Accordingly, we can distinguish between developer activity in the Americas vs. other locations, but not within the Americas. Similarly, time zones overlap between Europe and Africa, and with Asia and Oceania. 2. To evaluate this model’s performance, we used Method #1 (Self-Reported Locations) as the ground truth to conclude that Method #2 has an accuracy of 85%. In other words, this time-based model is good at identifying development in the U.S. 8
  • 10. Location data is a scarce piece of information from blockchain developers 55,315 blockchain developers in 2022 The number of contributors that contributed to open source blockchain projects in 2022. 19,956 logged in developers 36% of accounts that have contributed to open-source blockchain did so while being logged-in with an account in GitHub. 6,945 devs with non-empty location 35% of logged-in developers have text related to their location. 4,898 devs with inferable country location 70% of users with location information have inferrable country location. Sample size funnel (2022 only) 10
  • 11. The number of blockchain developers with inferrable country location grows proportionally with the number of active developers Sample size 11
  • 12. North America and Europe are currently home to 29% of all blockchain developers each Share of blockchain developers by region in 2022 12
  • 13. India's blockchain developer share steadily grew from from 2% in 2017 to 6% in 2022 Share of blockchain developers by region over time 13
  • 14. U.S. is losing its lead. Around 2% share is lost every year since 2017 U.S.’s Share of blockchain developers 14
  • 15. Comparatively, Europe (excl. U.K.) has been able to maintain a share of blockchain developers of 29% Share of blockchain developers in the E.U. 15
  • 16. 2022 was the first year that the U.K.’s share of blockchain developers went below 7% Share of blockchain developers in the U.K. 16
  • 17. India, Africa, and LATAM are capturing blockchain dev share from the U.S. Normalized Share of blockchain developers by region over time 17
  • 18. U.K. and Germany lead devs in Europe, but their share declined slightly; Ukraine’s share grew 2% in 3 years Share of blockchain developers within Europe (4%+ share cut-off) 18
  • 20. Inferring Developer Location through Commit Timestamp Offsets Our second method for inferring the location of developers analyzes the timestamps of their code commits. We use the offset between the timestamp of a developer's commit and UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) to infer their location. For example, if a developer commits code to a public repository between UTC -13 and UTC -3, we can infer that they are located somewhere in the Americas. This method can provide a more complete picture of the global distribution of developers, even if they have not provided detailed location information on their social media profiles. Albeit being less precise than Method #1, the volume of data available with Method #2 is orders of magnitude larger than with Method #1. An alternative way of measuring location of development work 20
  • 21. Method #2 has an accuracy of 85% if we assume Method #1 as the ground truth 1. We divide the world into 3 wedges with common time zones / longitude ranges: Americas, Europe & Africa and Asia & Oceania 2. We use Method #2 (developer’s time zone) to infer the wedge to which developers might belong 3. From Method #1, we map all countries to one of the three wedges 4. For each developer, we compare the inferred wedge using Method #2 with the developer’s actual country (from Method #1) 5. We calculate the inference accuracy of Method #2 → 85% 21
  • 22. Dev share in the Americas is below 30% for the first time, even including LATAM Share of blockchain developers in the Americas time zones 22
  • 23. Countries in the Asia / Oceania regions took 3 years longer to onboard blockchain developers Share of blockchain developers by time zone wedge 23
  • 25. Blockchain is the next wave of the Internet Blockchain and crypto technologies has exploded in popularity as a once-in-a-generation technology platform and economic opportunity. These technologies have the potential to fundamentally change money, the financial system, and the Internet more broadly. A decentralized Internet ecosystem built on blockchain technologies, where economic value is delivered to the users of the products via tokens, is a monumental shift. What’s valuable and celebrated within the industry is also the open-sourced nature of the underlying technology, which enables unparalleled security, access, and transparency. One of the early and leading indicators of this emerging technology is in software developer engagement – the more activity (“code commits”) in the underlying software, the more vibrant the ecosystem. Due to the open-sourced nature of blockchain technology, it is possible to analyze developer activity by looking at the volume of code commits and derive important trends about the industry. That the U.S. is increasingly losing market share in blockchain software development mean both that the developer community is getting bigger and more global, but there is a real risk of losing the U.S.’s leadership position in finance, cryptography, and distributed systems technologies. This presents a set of real strategic and national security concerns for the United States. 25
  • 26. The U.S. must move quickly to preserve preeminence in financial markets and related technologies 1. Jobs & Financial Impact: U.S. preeminence in blockchain software development enables the U.S. to create jobs and fuel financial inclusion, as the broader blockchain ecosystem continues to grow. 2. Standards Influence: By designing new protocols, U.S. engineers define the standards for financial systems and data systems. These are the SWIFT and HTTP equivalents of the modern era. Losing market share means that other countries can have larger influence over global financial and data standards. 3. National Security: The U.S. must shape development of new technology and financial products to reflect American values and national security objectives. 26