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Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things

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Presentation for the paper: "Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things" at http://sisinflab.poliba.it/EnWoT/2017/

Abstract:
While the number of things present in the Web grows, the ability of discovering such things in order to successfully interact with them becomes a challenge, mainly due to heterogeneity.

The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, an ontology-based approach to leverage web things discovery that is transparent to the syntax, protocols and formats used in things interfaces is described. Second, a semantic model for describing web things and how to extract and understand the relevant information for discovery is proposed.

Published in: Technology
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Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things

  1. 1. Fernando Serena María Poveda-Villalón Raúl García-Castro Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things mpoveda@fi.upm.es @MariaPovedaV Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid 5th June, 2017 EnWoT (Rome, Italy) This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No H2020-688467
  2. 2. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Introduction 2 § IoT consumers cannot be asked to be aware of every possible aspect, platforms and individual things out there o It is necessary to rely on mechanisms and services that enable them to search for and discover what they want to consume. § Discovery is meant to cope and take advantage of the heterogeneity and large population of things in the IoT o A common data model for describing things, their features and capabilities is required; o The W3C Web of Things WG is working on the Thing Description (TD) data model. § The Web of Things aims to make everything that belongs to an IoT ecosystem part of the Web o All individual things accessible through a web interface may belong to the WoT; o Along with the description of the features and capabilities, web interfaces have to be described as well.
  3. 3. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Semantic Discovery in VICINITY 3 Consumers issue search criteria resulting in the discovery of a set of (unknown) relevant web things Clients are not only interested in what web things but also: • Where: dereferenceable links for accessing the thing; • How: metadata to be taken into account when invoking each link.
  4. 4. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Semantic Discovery in VICINITY 4
  5. 5. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things 5 Ontology development
  6. 6. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology development process overview 6 Legend Activity§ Actor Output activity flow Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Shared in online spreadsheets snapshot in documentation Ontology code and documentation available online Openly managed in GitHub Openly reported in GitHub issue tracker: new needs, bugs, etc. http://ontoology.linkeddata.es/
  7. 7. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology requirement specification process 7 Requirement specification Ontological requirements completion Ontology implementation Competency questions (verified) § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Use case specification Use cases § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Change requests Ontology Data exchange identification Domain documentation Purpose and scope identification Ontological requirements proposal ORSD formalization Ontology purpose and scope Competency questions (early stage) ORSD document § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts § Ont. Devel. § [Users] § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts
  8. 8. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology implementation § Ont. Devel. Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontological requirements specification Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Requirements from WoT WG 8 http://w3c.github.io/wot/current-practices/wot-practices https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-wot-ig/2016Dec/0016.html
  9. 9. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology requirements status overview 9 Ontology implementation § Ont. Devel. Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontological requirements specification Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Requirements Ontology Extracted from Defined Implemented Closed Pending WoT • W3C Web of Things IG 34 15 11 8 Mappings • Gateway API • Developers 16 15 1 0 50 30 12 8
  10. 10. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology implementation 10 Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology
  11. 11. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology WoT ontology conceptualization 11
  12. 12. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology Mapping ontology conceptualization 12
  13. 13. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology WoT Ontology evaluation 13 Ontology requirements coverage Experts validation OOPS! http://oops.linkeddata.es
  14. 14. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology publication 14 Ontologypublication Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Propose release candidate Ontology § Ont. Devel. Documentation HTML documentation § Ont. Devel. Online publication Online access (content negotiation) § Ont. Devel.
  15. 15. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things WoT ontology publication - WoT 15 Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontological requirements specification Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology implementation § Ont. Devel. Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/wot/ Ontology code Output: Human oriented documentation Output: Machine oriented code
  16. 16. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Ontology Network portal 16 http://vicinity.iot.linkeddata.es/vicinity/Ontology online documentation GitHub repository for code Issue tracker Releases tracking RequirementsOntology network overview
  17. 17. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things 17 Example
  18. 18. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Example (I) 18 ssn:MeasurementCapability ssn:Frequency ex:TemperatureSensor01 MeasurementCapability ex:TemperatureSensor 01Frequency ssn:hasMeasurementProperty ssn:hasMeasurementCapability ex:TemperatureSensor 01FrequencyValue ssn:hasValue core:Value rdf:value “100“^^xsd:integer wot:isMeasuredIn om:Unit_of_measure om:second-time ex:TemperatureSensor01 MeasurementeRange ssn:hasMeasurementProperty ex:TemperatureSensor01 MeasurementRangeValue ssn:hasValue core:Value core:hasMaxValue “0“^^xsd:integer wot:isMeasuredIn ssn:MeasurementRange core:hasMinValue “40“^^xsd:integer ssn:Resolution ex:TemperatureSensor 01Resolution ssn:hasMeasurementProperty ex:TemperatureSensor 01ResolutionValue ssn:hasValue core:Value rdf:value “0.3“^^xsd:float wot:isMeasuredIn om:Unit_of_measure om:degree_Celsius ssn:Accuracy ex:TemperatureSensor 01Accurary ssn:hasMeasurementProperty ex:TemperatureSensor 01AccuracyValue ssn:hasValue core:Value rdf:value “1“^^xsd:integer wot:isMeasuredIn wot:providesInteraction Pattern ex:TemperatureSensor01 wot:Thing wot:InteractionPattern ex:TemperatureSensor01TempProp wot:Property wot:Event wot:isWritable “false”^^xsd:boolean xsd:double wot:hasValueType om:degree_Celsiuswot:providesInteraction Pattern wot:interactionName “Temperature“^^xsd:string wot:thingName “Temperature Sensor 01“^^xsd:string wot:DataSchema wot:DataType ex:TemperatureSensor 01TempOutputDatawot:hasOutput Data core:serialNumber “5072dd0b-c2f0-4744-9dd4- dff344d8e2bb“^^xsd:string core:Thermometer wot:isMeasuredIn ex:TemperatureSensor01TempEvent wot:interactionName “Temperature New Value“^^xsd:string wot:isMeasuredIn core:monitors core:AverageTemperature core:Temperature AmbientProperty core:monitors core:monitors om:Unit_of_measure Name: Temperature_Sensor_01 Type: Thermometer GUID: 5072dd0b-c2f0-4744-9dd4- dff344d8e2bb Properties: o Temperature: • Name: Temperature • Observed Property: Average temperature • Datatype: Double • Writable: no • Units of measure: ºC Events: o Temperature: • Name: Temperature New Value • Observed Property: Average temperature -------------------------------------- Capabilities: • Frequency: 100 seconds • Resolution: 0.3 ºC • Accuracy: 1 ºC • Range: 0 - 40 ºC
  19. 19. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Example (II) 19 wot:providesInteraction Patternex:TemperatureSensor01 wot:Thing wot:InteractionPattern ex:TemperatureSensor01TempProp wot:Property wot:isWritable “false”^^xsd:boolean xsd:double wot:hasValueType om:degree_Celsius wot:interactionName “Temperature“^^xsd:string wot:thingName “Temperature Sensor 01“^^xsd:string wot:DataSchema wot:DataType ex:TemperatureSensor 01TempOutputDatawot:hasOutput Data core:serialNumber “5072dd0b-c2f0-4744-9dd4- dff344d8e2bb“^^xsd:string core:Thermometer wot:isMeasuredIn wot:isMeasuredIn core:AverageTemperature core:Temperature AmbientProperty core:monitors om:Unit_of_measure geo:SpatialThing wot:isAccessibleThrough wot:Link ex:TemperatureSens or01TempPropLink wot:hasMediaType “http://localhost:5005/things/TemperatureSensor01/temp“^^xsd:string wot:href “application/json“^^xsd:string Extended with access information for an interaction pattern
  20. 20. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Example (III) 20 core:describes wot:Link ex:TemperatureSen sor01TD-AM1 map:AccessMapping map:hasAccess Mapping ex:TemperatureSe nsor01AM-Link1 wot:hasMediaType “http://localhost:5005/things/TemperatureSensor01/pos“^^xsd:string wot:href map:Mapping ex:mapping1 ex:mapping2 “latitude“^^xsd:stringmap:key “longitude“^^xsd:stringmap:key geo:lat geo:long map:predicate map:predicate map:hasMapping map:Mapping map:mapsResourcesFrom ex:TemperatureSens or01TD core:ThingDescription “application/json“^^xsd:string map:hasMapping wot:providesInteraction Patternex:TemperatureSensor01 wot:Thing wot:InteractionPattern ex:TemperatureSensor01TempProp wot:Property wot:isWritable “false”^^xsd:boolean xsd:double wot:hasValueType om:degree_Celsius wot:interactionName “Temperature“^^xsd:string wot:thingName “Temperature Sensor 01“^^xsd:string wot:DataSchema wot:DataType ex:TemperatureSensor 01TempOutputDatawot:hasOutput Data core:serialNumber “5072dd0b-c2f0-4744-9dd4- dff344d8e2bb“^^xsd:string core:Thermometer wot:isMeasuredIn wot:isMeasuredIn core:AverageTemperature core:Temperature AmbientProperty core:monitors om:Unit_of_measure geo:SpatialThing wot:isAccessibleThrough wot:Link ex:TemperatureSens or01TempPropLink wot:hasMediaType “http://localhost:5005/things/TemperatureSensor01/temp“^^xsd:string wot:href “application/json“^^xsd:string “40.451”geo:lat “-3.7261”geo:long ex:TemperatureSensor01 { “latitude”: 40.451, “longitude”:-3.7261 } 1 2 3 4
  21. 21. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Wrap up: Conclusions and future work 21 Conclusions § Semantic approach as for interoperability as a service § Two ontology modules provided Future work ☞ Experiments within the project ☞ Online examples ☞ Ontology reuse ☞ Semantic annotation examples ☞ Validation
  22. 22. Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things Questions? 22 Thanks for you attention! About ontologies mpoveda@fi.upm.es, rgarcia@fi.upm.es About approach fserena@fi.upm.es, rgarcia@fi.upm.es
  23. 23. Fernando Serena María Poveda-Villalón Raúl García-Castro Semantic Discovery in the Web of Things mpoveda@fi.upm.es @MariaPovedaV Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid 5th June, 2017 EnWoT (Rome, Italy) This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No H2020-688467

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