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New trends in ontological engineering, practices and tools

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Due to the increasing uptake of semantic technologies, ontologies are becoming part of a growing number of software development projects. As a result, ontology development teams have to combine their activities with software development practices. In this presentation some practices, tools and examples of new trends in ontological engineering are provided.

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New trends in ontological engineering, practices and tools

  1. 1. María Poveda Villalón Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain New trends in ontological engineering, practices and tools mpoveda@fi.upm.es @MariaPovedaV 5th April 2018 MINES Saint-Étienne
  2. 2. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools About OEG 2 Directors: Asunción Gómez-Pérez, Oscar Corcho Position: 8º ranking UPM (200 groups) Research group (30 people) o 3 Full Professors o 5 Associate Professors o 3 Assistant Professors o 7 Senior Postdocs o 6 PhD Students o 2 MSc and BSc Students o 2 software engineers o 1 system administrator o 2 project managers 170+ Collaborations 50+ Visitors http://www.oeg-upm.net/ https://github.com/oeg-upm @oeg-upm
  3. 3. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology Engineering Group at a glance 3 Ø Created in1995 Ø World-wide known in the research areas § Ontologies § Semantic Web and Linked Data § Multilingual linked Data § Open Data § eScience Ø Projects (> 12M€) § 27 EU projects (7 as coordinator) § 54 National Projects § 27 contracts with companies Ø Publications § > 100 journal papers § > 400 International conferences and book chapters § 7 Books Ø Impact of publications § Asunción Gómez-Pérez (h:58, 20,000 citations) § Oscar Corcho García (h: 44, 11,000 citations) Ø Services to the community § Host esDbpedia § Host linkeddata.es § Ontology development services Ø Awards and Prizes § Ada Byron § Juan López de Peñalver § Fujitsu, Open data, ISWC, ESWC § SUR Awards Watson for Tech. Watch Ø Supervision of students § 28 Ph.D thesis (9 awarded bestthesis prize) § >150 MS.C thesis and BS.C Ø Events organization § 11 editions of the International Summer School on Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web § > 50 WS and tutorials Ø Standardization activities § >25 @ W3C, ISO, OASIS, etc. Ø Mobility § PhD students: 3-6 months abroad § Postdocs: 1 month every 2 years Ø Visibility § Program chairs of ESWC, ISWC, KCAP, EKAW, TKE, TIA § Editorial board of Journals § Invited talks at conferences and events § Programme Committee presence
  4. 4. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools We lead and manage the Open Data Institute @ Madrid 4 1. R&D on open data 2. ODI training courses 3. ODI open data certificates 4. Organization of events: datathons, hackathons, seminars, etc. 5. Ecosystem of stakeholders on the publication and consumption of Open Data § http://madrid.theodi.org/
  5. 5. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Collaboration with companies 5 ,,,
  6. 6. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Collaboration with international research groups 6 Univ. of Amsterdam Free Univ. of Amsterdam DFKI Univ. of Augsburg Univ. of Karlsruhe Univ. of Koblenz Univ. of Hannover Univ. of Mannheim Univ. of Bielefeld Forschungszentrum Informatik Inst. Angewandte Informatik EV KIT UMC-Mainz Open University Oxford University Univ. of Manchester Univ. of Liverpool Univ. of Sheffield Univ. of Aberdeen Univ. of Edinburgh Univ. of Southampton Univ. of Hull Univ. of Bedfordshire Bournemouth Univ. Univ. of Huddersfield CNR Univ. of Trento Univ. of Bolzano Univ. Studi Roma La Sapienza Politecnico di Torino KSL. Stanford Univ. Wright State Univ. Univ. of Galway (DERI) Trinity College Dublin Nat. Univ. of Ireland Maynooth irstea INRIA W3C-ERCIM Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment Univ. of Athens TUC Univ. of Creete Centre for Research and Technology Hellas Free Univ. of Brussels Univ. of Wien Univ. of NR & ALS Univ. of Innsbruck RMIT Univ. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Org. Ústav Informatiky Academy of Sciences Univ. of Tel AvivUniv. of Brasilia Univ. of Chile Univ. of Zurich Southeast Univ. (China) Zaporizhzhya Nat. Univ. (Ukraine) USC UCoruña UPV UniZar UPF UJaen UnEx UCM
  7. 7. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Participation in standardization activities 7 W3C- World Wide Web Consortium § Web of Things Working Group § Web of Things Interest Group § LBD Community Group § BPMLOD: Best Practices for Multilingual Linked Open Data Community Group § CSV on the Web Working Group § eGovernmentInterest Group § Library Linked Data Incubator Group § LD4LT: Linked Data for Language Technologies Community Group § LDP: Linked Data Platform Working Group § Media Annotations Working Group § ODRL Community Group § Ontolex: Ontology Lexica Community Group § prov: Provenance Working Group § prov-xg: Provenance Incubator Group § Research Object for Scholarly Communication Community Group § RDB2RDFWorking Group § Semantic Sensor Networks Community Group § SPARQL Working Group § SDW: Spatial Data on the Web Working Group § RDF Stream Processing Community Group § Open Linked Education Community Group § Web of Things Working Group § Bioschemas for Lifesciences Community Group OASIS § OSLC: Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration ETSI § SmartM2M § ISG CIM AENOR § Comité Técnico de Normalización CTN178 Ciudades Inteligentes.Norma UNE 178301 Open Knowledge Foundation § Working Group on Open Data in Linguistics ISO -International Organization for Standardization § ISO/TC 19150 - Geographic Information – Ontology § Ad-hoc Group Linked Data – ISO/TC211ISO/TC 37/SC 1 Principles and methods § ISO/TC 37/SC 3 Systems to manage terminology, knowledge and content § ISO/TC 37/SC 4 Language resource management Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (CMI) § DCMI Metadata Provenance Task Group § DCMI Vocabulary ManagementCommunity § DCMI Bibliographic Metadata Task Group Europeana Network § Technology Developer and Knowledge Partner /Expert International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) § Semantic Web Special Interest Group
  8. 8. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools On-going and recent EU research projects 8 § STARS4ALL (H2020- Coordinator): citizen science (light pollution) § VICINITY (H2020): Open virtual neighbourhood network to connect IoT infrastructures and smart objects § SlideWiki (H2020): educational material and open data § Mobile-AGE (H2020): open data for elderly people § TransformingTransport (H2020): open data about transport § BigStorage (H2020 – Coordinator): Storage-based Convergence between HPC and Cloud to handle Big Data (ETN) § easyTV (H2020): Easing the access of Europeans with disabilities to converging media and content § Lynx (H2020 – Coordinator): Building the Legal Knowledge Graph for Smart Compliance Services in Multilingual Europe § GoF4R (H2020): Governance of the Interoperability Framework for Rail and Intermodal Mobility § TheyBuyForYou (H2020): generating and exploiting open data about public contracting § DELTA (H202): energy efficiency § Recent o 3cixty (H2020 EIT Digital): city data markets and tourism o SemDATA (FP7 - Coordinator): semantic data management (Marie Curie IRSES) o KOPAR (FP7): semantic e-Science (Marie Curie) o SIMON (FP7): transport data and accessibility o CLARITY (H2020 CSA): open data impact analysis and roadmapping o DrInventor (FP7): opening new opportunities to general research communities
  9. 9. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Our Research Areas 9 Linked Data-based Data Integration Open Science (Social) Semantic Web Data-driven language technologies Ontological Engineering 1995 19972000 2004 2008
  10. 10. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontological Engineering 10 § METHONTOLOGY and NeOn methodologies for building Networks of Ontologies oWorld-wide used METHONTOLOGY (1997) NeOn (2010) Ontologies • Metadata Vocabularies (@W3C) • Provenance (@W3C) • Internet of Things (@W3C @ETSI) • Geography (@IGN, CENIG) • (Multi)-Media (@W3C) • Knowledge Management • Software Engineering (OSLC@OASIS) • Tourism • User experience • AENOR vocab. for smart cities • Libraries (@BNE) • Health (@WHO) • e-Science • … Knowledge Resources O. Specification O. Conceptualization O. ImplementationO. Formalization 1 Non Ontological Resource Reuse Non Ontological Resource Reengineering 3 Ontological Resource Reuse Ontology Restructuring (Pruning, Extension, Specialization, Modularization) 8 O. Localization 9 Ontology Support Activities: Knowledge Acquisition (Elicitation); Documentation; Configuration Management; Evaluation (V&V); Assessment 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9 O. Aligning O. Merging Alignments Ontological Resource Reengineering 4 6 5 5 RDF(S) OWL Flogic 4 6 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 Ontology Design Pattern Reuse Ontological Resources 7 O. Repositories and Registries Flogic RDF(S) OWL O. Design Patterns 2 Non Ontological Resources Thesauri DictionariesGlossaries Lexicons Taxonomies Classification Schemas Scheduling
  11. 11. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology engineering tools 11 § Ontology evaluation o OOPS! OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner http://oops.linkeddata.es/ § Vocabulary documentation o HTML: Widoco https://github.com/dgarijo/Widoco/ o Diagrams: AR2DTool http://ar2dtool.linkeddata.es/ o Vocabulary registry • OEG vocabularies http://vocab.linkeddata.es/ • Smart Cities http://smartcity.linkeddata.es/ o Vocabulary distributed development o OnToology http://ontoology.linkeddata.es/
  12. 12. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Linked data Technologies and Projects 12 Geometry2RDF shp2RDF geo REST service annotation Sem4TagsMarimbaNOR2OMorph SPARQL -Stream Linked Library Data VisualisationMap4RDF Sensor Data Visualisation Visualization RDF Generation and Linking Conditional Access Diagnoseand repair LDP4j Access Agora
  13. 13. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Linked data applications 13 Culture (@BNE) Geographical (@IGN) Metereological (@AEMET) News and Media (@Prisa, RTVE) Internet of Things( @CRTM, Bike sharingsystem) Smart Cities and Open Data (@ Zaragoza, GobAragón, Jacathon, Catalogues) Host of esDBpedia ApplicationLifecycle M. (BancoSantander)
  14. 14. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Me at the OEG 14
  15. 15. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools About María 15 § PhD in Artificial Intelligence: o Dissertation: Ontology Evaluation: a pitfall-based approach to ontology diagnosis § Research interest o Ontological Engineering • Development, evaluation, conceptualization, documentation, publication, etc. o Linked (Open) Data § Training/Teaching activities o Training in web semantic and ontology development • Open Data Institute Registered Trainer o MOOCs o SPOCs o …
  16. 16. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools About María 16 § Other activities o 7 invited talks o Research stays • Liverpool University (Valentina Tamma) • Free university of Berlin (Chris Bizer) • Mondeca (Florence Amardeilh and Bernard Vatant) • Irstea (François Pinet and Catherine Roussey) o PC member of conferences, workshops, etc. o Organization of workshops, VoCamps, etc. o Member of standardization committees (current: W3C, ETSI) o Participation in hackathons, non-scientific communication and events
  17. 17. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Developments 17 § Ontologies o Internet of Things • SAREF extensions, VICINITY o Web of Things o Scientific reviews o Dataset profiling • Agricultural datasets, dataset stats (loupe) o Products and services for cybersecurity o Software development (issue tracking) o Video games o Meteorological data o Multimedia context o …
  18. 18. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Developments 18 § Tools • Ontology evaluation - OOPS! OntOlogy Pitfall Scanner http://oops.linkeddata.es/ • Vocabulary registry - OEG vocabularies http://vocab.linkeddata.es/ - Smart Cities http://smartcity.linkeddata.es/ • Vocabulary distributed development - OnToology http://ontoology.linkeddata.es/ § Methodologies § Linked Open Terms (work in progress) http://lot.linkeddata.es/
  19. 19. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools 19 New trends in ontological engineering, practices and tools
  20. 20. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology Development Methodologies 20 1996 1997 ... 2001 2002 2003 20041995 2005 2006 ... 2009 2010 Guide 101 XD EXtreme Ontology RapidOWL Grüninger & Fox On-To- Knowledge METHON TOLOGY DILIGENT NeOn O. Development Methodologies Ontology Development Lightweight Approaches • Towards lightweight and agile processes • Inspiration from software development practices • Coupling Software and ontology development
  21. 21. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology development process overview 21 Legend Activity§ Actor Output activity flow Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel.
  22. 22. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Requirement specification 22 Requirement specification Ontological requirements completion Competency questions (verified) § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Use case specification Use cases § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Data exchange identification Domain documentation Purpose and scope identification Ontological requirements proposal ORSD formalization Ontology purpose and scope Competency questions (early stage) ORSD document § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts § Ont. Devel. § [Users] § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology implementation § Ont. Devel. Ontology maintenance Change requests § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-wot-ig/2016Dec/0016.html http://w3c.github.io/wot/current-practices/wot-practices
  23. 23. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Requirement specification 23 Requirement specification Ontological requirements completion Competency questions (verified) § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Use case specification Use cases § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Data exchange identification Domain documentation Purpose and scope identification Ontological requirements proposal ORSD formalization Ontology purpose and scope Competency questions (early stage) ORSD document § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts § Ont. Devel. § [Users] § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology implementation § Ont. Devel. Ontology maintenance Change requests § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Shared in online spreadsheets snapshot in documentation
  24. 24. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Implementation - Conceptualization 24 Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology wot:providesInterac tionPattern (0..N) wot:Thing wot:InteractionPattern wot:Event wot:Action wot:isAccessibleThrough (0..N) wot:hasValueType (0..1) wot:hasOutputData (1..N) (1..1) wot:thingName:: String (0..1) wot:baseURI:: String (0..1) wot:isWritable:: Boolean (F) (0..1) wot:isRequired:: Boolean (F) (1..1) wot:interactionName:: String wot:DataType wot:UnitOfMeasure wot:isMeasuredIn (0..1) (1..1) wot:href:: String (F) (1..1) wot:hasMediaType:: String [F) wot:Communication Protocol wot:isProvidedOver Protocol (F) (1..1) wot:hasInput Data (0..1) wot:hasOutputData (1..N) wot:hasOutputData (1..N) wot:isMeasuredIn (0..1) wot:defaultValue:: Literal wot:Property wot:DataSchema wot:Security wot:isAccessibleThrough (0..N) wot:implements Security (0..N) wot:Link
  25. 25. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Implementation - Encoding 25 Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology GitHub repository https://github.com/mariapoveda/vicinity-ontology-wot Openly managed in GitHub
  26. 26. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Implementation - Evaluation 26 Implementation Ontological requirements specification Encoding Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology code Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Ontology conceptualization Ontology model § Ont. Devel. Evaluation § Ont. Devel. Validated ontology Online and notifications in GitHub repository https://github.com/mariapoveda/vicinity-ontology-wot Ongoing work: tests from requirements
  27. 27. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Publication 27 Ontologypublication Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Propose release candidate Ontology § Ont. Devel. Documentation HTML documentation § Ont. Devel. Online publication Online access (content negotiation) § Ont. Devel. • HTML generation from OWL code • Multilingual • Separated sections + Diagrams (Some ideas: https://bit.ly/2GWhlaI) + Descriptions + Examples • Own URI • purl, w3id, etc. • Content negotiation • Registry
  28. 28. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology development process overview 28 Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Openly reported in GitHub issue tracker: new needs, bugs, etc.
  29. 29. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Ontology development process overview 29 Ontological requirements specification Ontology implementation Competency questions § Ont. Devel. § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology maintenance Issue tracker § Ont. Devel. § Users § Experts Ontology Ontology Publication Online ontology § Ont. Devel. Openly reported in GitHub issue tracker: new needs, bugs, etc. Aiming at bringing all this together…
  30. 30. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Handle versions and distributed environments 30 Evaluation reports HTML documentation Diagrams Permanent Ids Content negotiation Bundle Pre-view http://ontoology.linkeddata.es
  31. 31. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Using OnToology 31 Add repository to track
  32. 32. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Using OnToology 32 List of user repositories registered in OnToology
  33. 33. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Using OnToology 33 RDF files management by repository
  34. 34. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Using OnToology 34 When the ontology (RDF file) is updated, regenerate: Or when forcing the generation of resources
  35. 35. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Using OnToology 35 Publish the ontology under a w3id URI Or download the resources needed to publish it in your server
  36. 36. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools OnToology users 36 • Since 2015 • 531 ontologies from 113 repositories • Some examples: • opencitydata/medio-ambiente-contaminacion-acustica • opencitydata/medio-ambiente-calidad-aire • mariapoveda/wot-ontology • vcharpenay/wot-ontology • jpcik/medred • marianofl1971/dul-es • GeorgFerdinandSchneider/bot • …
  37. 37. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Methodology in practice 37 http://vicinity.iot.linkeddata.es/ This slide has been taken from Raúl García Castro presentation at EMSE
  38. 38. New trends in ontological engineering, practices andtools Questions? 38 @MariaPovedaV mpovedavillalon mariapoveda MariaPovedaVillalon thepetiteontologistmpoveda@fi.upm.es Merci beaucoup!
  39. 39. María Poveda Villalón Ontology Engineering Group Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain New trends in ontological engineering, practices and tools mpoveda@fi.upm.es @MariaPovedaV 5th April 2018 MINES Saint-Étienne

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