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Energy crops grown in Poland

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Energy crops grown in Poland

  1. 1. Energy crops grown in Poland  Shrubs and trees which can grow easily after cutting down:  shrubby willow  poplar  Perennial plants:  Virginia Fan Petals  Jerusalem artichoke  Perennial grass:  miscanthus  prairie cordgrass  big bluestem  switchgrass
  2. 2. Shrubby willow  For energy purposes shrubby willow is the most useful species (Salix viminalis L)  It is a perennial grass  A cross-section of shrubs with number of stems from a few to several
  3. 3. Shrubby willow Advantages:  high yields - the annual increase may be 7-15 t / ha of dry wood  long lifetime plantations (15-20 years)  cheap cuttings Disadvantages:  the moisture content of biomass harvested in late autumn and winter is around 45- 50% and it increases transportation costs and reduces the calorific value  difficult mechanization of harvesting (in a 3-year cycle it is necessary to use special machines)  large water needs - requires soils with high (about 200cm) ground water level, but not boggy  high risk of disease and pests
  4. 4. White poplar  White poplar doesn’t have large soil and water requirements, especially compared to the willow.  Energy poplar reaches very good growth on the Class V soil, with peat and sand substrate, in the field without drainage.  Annual increase in height is 2.5-3 m, while the annual increase in mass of a single tree is approx. 3-3.5 kg.  Biomass harvest is carried out every 2-3 years, with a trunk diameter at ground level to 10 cm.
  5. 5. White poplar  For machine harvesting a poplar is planted in the same way as energy willow.  Weeds threaten the energy crop as any other and it is the only weak point of this plant.  Poplar planting is done in double rows with spacing of 80 cm, the width between two rows of the inter-twin is 300 cm, and the spacing between plants in a row - 75-80 cm.
  6. 6. White poplar
  7. 7. Virginia Fan Petals  Virginia Fan Petals also called sidą from Sida hermaphrodita.  It is a perennial plant.  It belongs to the plants resistant to frost, ground frost and drought.  It has low soil and fertilizer requirements.  Of all the energy crops it is the most suitable for pellet production due to the relatively low content of nitrogen, chlorine, ash and heavy metals.
  8. 8. Virginia Fan Petals
  9. 9. Virginia Fan Petals Advantages:  harvest from the late autumn to spring with biomass moisture content 20-30%  low ash content and minerals (N, K, Cl), hence the small loss of fertilizer components with the yield  possibility to use typical agricultural machinery for harvest (a forage harvester)  possibility of growing it on weaker soils Disadvantages:  poor seed germination, due to the hardness of the covers, influences very weak field germination capacity of not more than 30-40%  high susceptibility to disease (roots and base of the stems - fusarium, Stem Rot and leaves rot) caused by fungi: Colletotrichum, Phoma, Borytis
  10. 10. Jerusalem artichoke  Jerusalem artichoke, sunroot, sunchoke, earth apple or topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus L.) - a species of plant in the family Asteraceae originating from North America.  Jerusalem artichoke is not requiring and it is easy to grow.  Crops are perennial, but usually fields are occupied for 2-3 years.  Longer growing in the same place is associated with decreased yields.  The yield of tubers from 1 hectare is sometimes higher than potatoes and it is usually 20-30 tons. The record harvest are at 150-160 t / ha.  After drying and crushing aboveground shoots can either be directly burned in furnaces or used as a raw material for the manufacture of briquettes and granules (pellets).
  11. 11. Jerusalem artichoke  Its requirements are similar to potatoes – it grows preferably on fertile soil, moderately moist, deep and airy.  The tubers are harvested from autumn to frost, optionally in the spring.  Although the species is cultivated mainly in the temperate climate zone, is also introduced to cultivation in the tropical zone, where the weaker yields are offset by the rapid growth in conditions of high temperatures.  Cutting the stems during optimum for the extraction of biomass period, just before flowering, causes growth restriction of tubers up to 40-60%.  Jerusalem artichoke grows in almost any soil, it is also resistant to freezing and quite resistant to drought.
  12. 12. Jerusalem artichoke
  13. 13. Miscanthus  Miscanthus is an expansive hummock grass, originally from Southeast Asia. It effectively uses solar radiation, water and fertilizer components.  Miscanthus is grown in Europe for about 50 years, initially as an ornamental plant, and for several years on energy plantations.  It produces a thick and stiff stem with a spongy core, 200-350 cm high.  It doesn’t have high requirements and it grows well wherever corn is grown (medium compacted and easily heating up soil).  In Polish eastern regions, especially in the north-east, Amur silver-grass cultivation may be more warranted, because it is more resistant to low temperatures.
  14. 14. Miscanthus Advantages  high yield potential (up to 20-25 t / ha): a plant with C4 photosynthesis pathway;  the useful life of the plantation is 15-20 years;  the possibility to use for a typical set of mechanization of agricultural equipment;  the appearance of diseases or pests has not been found on this plant yet;  low fertilizer requirements. Disadvantages  in Polish climatic conditions it doesn’t produce capable of germination seeds - it requires production of seedlings;  in the first year after planting it is necessary to protect the plantation from freezing by mulching the field with straw, leaves or plastic mulch;  expensive seedlings, even 12-16 thousand. zł / ha.
  15. 15. Miscanthus
  16. 16. Prairie cordgrass  Prairie cordgrass is an extensive plant, springing up to 2 m, forming huge and loose tussocks, covered densely with long up to 80 - 90 cm and wide up to 1.5 cm leaves.  In mid-summer, there are 30 cm long inflorescences.  Generative shoots are empty in the middle.  The useful life of the plantation is 15-20 years;  Yield: 15 - 20 t dry basis/ ha / year  Moisture content during harvest: 15 - 30% (depending on the time and weather conditions).
  17. 17. Advantages: - It doesn’t have high soil requirements - It is used as anti-erosion plant - It is highly resistant to most pathogens - It does not require a high fertilization - Low moisture content after harvest Disadvantages: - Very high cost of seedlings - Sensitivity to weed infestation in the first year of cultivation - The possibility of damaging the rhizomes during the harvest - In winter the reduction of dry basis yield is due to loss of leaves Prairie cordgrass
  18. 18. Prairie cordgrass
  19. 19. Big bluestem  Big bluestem is an expansive grass with rigid, filled with core blades, 1-2.5 m long  It grows in dense grey and green clumps.  Its characteristic raceme inflorescences are composed of 2-3 finger-like spikes.  Climate and soil requirements of perennial grasses are not too high  These plants are grown well even on soil of class V and VI and on wasteland  Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi). The homeland of this species are the prairies of North America. As a thermophilic species, it begins vegetation only in May, giving the greatest growth of biomass.
  20. 20. Big bluestem
  21. 21. Switchgrass  A perennial ornamental grass from North America.  It grows up to 110 cm high and it takes the form of a cascade.  With inflorescence it grows up to 150 cm.  Its leaves are rather broad, arched, initially green, they turn dark red late summer.  From July to September its inflorescences are red.  As a thermophilic species, it begins vegetation only in May, giving the greatest growth of biomass.  It requires a fairly fertile, drained soil and sunny, sheltered position.  It is a completely hardy plant grass.
  22. 22. Switchgrass

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