Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Maria Miller 847 ppt


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Maria Miller 847 ppt

  1. 1. Cognitive Apprenticeship in a Long-Term Care Pharmacy Maria Miller Clemson University
  2. 2. <ul><li>Green Pharmacy dispenses prescriptions to residents of long-term care facilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Problem: packaging mistakes leading to potentially harmful or fatal patient outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong medication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong strength </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong quantity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Adverse outcomes to medication errors can produce serious results </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-theraputic or overdosing </li></ul><ul><li>Patient harm or death </li></ul><ul><li>Legal action </li></ul><ul><li>Fines </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of licensure </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Green Pharmacy went on a Performance Improvement/Root Cause Analysis journey to determine the cause of packaging errors </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The analysis determined that the performance gap was due to training issues </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pharmacy technicians spend 9 months in a classroom-based vocational training program </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>New technicians begin work without much hands-on experience </li></ul><ul><li>They learn the trade by being paired with an experienced technician </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Modeling : the instructor demonstrates and narrates how to perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching : the student performs the task while the instructor watches and coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding : as the student becomes increasingly more competent, the instructor pulls away support </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Instructors would explain how to perform tasks, but not necessarily why a task needed to be performed a particular way </li></ul><ul><li>The work was not organized in a way conducive to training a new technician </li></ul><ul><li>Having multiple instructors made it difficult for trainees to see the ‘big picture’ view </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes trainees picked up bad habits </li></ul>The downside to the apprenticeship model
  11. 11. The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Adds these features </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation : the trainer questions the student and also stimulates the student to ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection : encouraging the student to be aware of his/her own strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration : encouraging students to formulate and pursue learning goals </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The cognitive apprenticeship model bridges the gap between schooling and work by helping students use the information learned in school within the context of the work setting </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge + Appropriate Training = Success </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Green Pharmacy has adopted the cognitive apprenticeship model to training new pharmacy technicians with the expectation that better trained technicians will make fewer errors </li></ul>