WHAT IS SPED? - is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students individual differences and needs.
SPECIAL EDUCATION….“It actuallyputs theperson firstbefore thedisability.”“It alsodescribeswhat thepersonhas, not theperson is.”
SPECIAL EDUCATION is a specialized branch of education.
Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775 - 1838), the physician who "tamed" the "wild boy of Aveyron,“ Anne Sullivan Macy (1866 - 1936) the teacher who "worked miracles" with Helen Keller,
From then on, special educators provide instruction specifically tailored to meet individualized needs, making education available to students who otherwise would have limited access to education.
•The ultimate goal ofspecial education shallbe the integration ormainstreaming oflearners with specialneeds into the regularschool system andeventually in thecommunity.
•Special education shall aimto develop the maximumpotential of the child withspecial needs to enable himto become self-reliant andshall be geared towardsproviding him with theopportunities for a full andhappy life.
•The specificobjectives of specialeducation shall be thedevelopment andmaximization oflearningcompetencies, aswell as theinculcation of valuesto make the learnerswith special needs auseful and effectivemember of society.
SPED are for learners with: Challenges in learning ▪ Intellectual Giftedness ▪ Mental Retardation Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Physical Disabilities ▪ Handicap ▪ Individual Impairment ▪ Visual and Communication challenges Developmental Disorders
This is a classification including several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.• Dyslexia- reading disability• Aphasia- impairment of language ability• Dyscalculia - math disability• Nonverbal learning disability
Signs which show emotional and behavioral disorders:a.) Difficulty to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.b.) Difficulty to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.c.) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.d.) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.e.) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
A physical disability is any impairment which limits the physical function of one or more limbs 3 TYPES:a.) Mobility impairment – This type of disability includes upper limb disability, manual dexterity and disability in co-ordination with different organs of the body. Disability in mobility can either be a congenital or acquired with age problem. This problem could also be the consequence of some disease.b.) Visual impairment – many people suffer vision injuries and impairments. These types of injuries can also result into some severe problems or diseases like blindness and ocular trauma. A common type of visual impairment is a scratched cornea.c.) Hearing impairment - includes people that are completely or partially deaf.
Students who have beendiagnosed with a physicaldisability may require a rangeof school based servicesdepending on level of need andfunctioning. A comprehensiveassessment is required toinform program planning.Programming decisions aremade by the student’s programplanning team.
lifelong disabilities attributable to mental or physicalimpairments, manifested prior to age 18.
Common factors causing developmental disabilities include: • Brain injury or infection before, during or after birth; • Growth or nutrition problems (prenatally, perinatally, or postnatally); • Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes; • Birth long before the expected birth date - also called extreme prematurity; • Poor maternal diet and absent or minimal health care; • Drug abuse during pregnancy, including alcohol intake and smoking; • Drug-related prenatal developmental insult, such as thalidomide; • Severe physical maltreatment (child abuse), which may have caused brain injury and which can adversely affect a childs learning abilities and socio-emotional development; • An autism spectrum disorder.
a.) Mastery modelb.) Direct Instructionc.) Classroom adjustmentsd.) Classroom assistants
In this approach, students with special educational needs spend all, or at least more than half, of the school day with students who do not have special educational needs.
refers to the practice of educating students with special needs in classes with non- disabled students during specific time periods based on their skills.
Students are placed in a separate classroom or special school exclusively for students with special needs: In this model, students with special needs spend no time in classes with non-disabled students. Segregated
students having one-on-one instruction or group instruction.
SPECIAL CLASSROOMS/ SELF- SPECIAL SCHOOLS CONTAINED CLASSROOMS -schools catering for students -separate room dedicated who have special educational solely to the education of needs -specifically-designed, staffed students with special needs and resourced within a mainstream -provide individualized school. education -staffed by specially- -student-teacher ratios are trained teachers kept low -have other facilities for the development of children with special needs
• Have the knowledge of the specific impairment of the child• Aid there special needs• Understand them• Guide them• Be patient on them• Motivate them
TO ATTAIN THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS IN SPED….1. be able to deal with students of all ages.2. Early identification of a child with special needs is an important part of a special education teachers job.3. teachers use various techniques to promote learning.4. teachers ensure that appropriate accommodations are provided5. The teacher should have the right patience, tolerance, and enthusiasm6. Teachers should prepare SPED students for daily life.
TO ATTAIN THE NEEDS OF THEIR CHILDREN UNDER SPED….1. parents should also be certain that the child understands exactly what special education is so they can better prepare for the success in education that awaits them.2. By becoming the assertive and actively involved parent, the relationship your child has with the special education teacher can be better assessed.3. They should be responsible for teaching the positive advantages of special education.4. Parents must be willing to tolerate the needs of their children.