Mexican journalism and war on drugs


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Mexican journalism and war on drugs

  1. 1. Media and war on drugsDoing journalism in times of trouble: War on drugsand freedom of expression in MexicoBy María Elena MenesesResearch assistant Talía MurilloTecnológico de Monterrey- University of NorthCarolina Chapel Hill, march-2010
  2. 2. Doing journalism in times of trouble.War on drugs and freedom of speech in Mexico By Maria Elena Meneses Research assistant: Talía Murillo El Diario de Juárez, 2009
  3. 3. Mexico’s images around the world
  4. 4. Mexico: a dangerous place for journalists Mexico is the second most dangerous country for exercising journalism after Iraq. International News Safety Institute, 2009 Christoph Bangert
  5. 5. Mexico: a dangerous place for journalists Tele Atlas, Transnavicom, Europa Technologies, 2010
  6. 6. Mexico: a dangerous place for journalists Tele Atlas, Transnavicom, Europa Technologies, 2010
  7. 7. Drug Trafficking: A Global issue• Producers• Consumers• International distribution networks
  8. 8. Heroin International Distribution Networks CocaineMarijuana Hashish European Parliament WWW.EUROPARL.EUROPA.EU
  9. 9. Drug Trafficking: A Global issueMexico hasfundamentally beena producer anddistributor countrythrough the knowncartels and criminalorganizations. Poppy flower in Guerrero La Jornada, March 2010
  10. 10. North America DavidThe UN estimates that Høgsholtaround 200 000 people ayear consume drugs atleast once a year.North America consumesthe 75% of drugs. UN and Organization of American States (OAS), 2009
  11. 11. A great businessSeized money from Zhen Li Ye Gon “El Chino” in 2007 La Jornada, 2007
  12. 12. A great businessWorldwide: 320 billion dollars.Mexico: drug trafficking isworth 19 billion dollars,occupying half a millionpeople. United Nations, 2009
  13. 13. A great businessDrug traffickingemployed 25%more people thanwhat Mc Donald’sdid worldwide.Expansión magazine, 2009.
  14. 14. A way to obtain a job In 60% of the Mexican municipalities there are people employed in organized crime.Ramón Galindo, Mexican Senator
  15. 15. Mexican war on drugs• Poverty• Lack of opportunities• Corruption Benjamín Flores, 2001• Impunity• Neighborhood with the US
  16. 16. President Calderon’s war on drugsMore than 30 000soldiers and policemenUS moral andIntelligencesupport Proceso Foto 2008
  17. 17. Mexican cartels New York Times, 2009
  18. 18. Consequences 15 thousand deaths More than 7 thousand traffickers captured One big lord Arturo Beltrán LeyvaEl Universal, 2009
  19. 19. ConsequencesOne execution every 65 minutesViolence climate in the whole country Mexican Senate and Center for Journalism and Public Ethics Reforma, 2009
  20. 20. Morelia’s dramaLa Nación, 2008
  21. 21. How do criminals use journalists?Proceso foto, 2010
  22. 22. DrugmessagesProceso foto,2008
  23. 23. Assassinations of journalistsFrom 2000 to 2009 57 journalists were killed in MexicoMost of them under impunityTrials are opened RSF, 2010
  24. 24. Ethical dilemmasPrimera Hora de Sinaloa 2009 To cover or not to cover? If I get a picture… am I an accomplice?Mario Campos, Proceso foto 2004
  25. 25. 2009 12 Mexican journalists were killedJean Paul Ibarra, El Correo, murdered on February 13thLuis Daniel Méndez, murdered on February 23thCarlos Ortega, El Tiempo, murdered on May 3thEliseo Barron, La Opinión Milenio, kidnapped and murdered on May 26 thMartín Miranda, Panorama Radio, murdered on July 12thErnesto Montañez, Enfoque Magazine, murdered on July 14thDaniel Martínez, Radiorama, murdered on July 27th
  26. 26. 2009Norbert Miranda, Radio Visión murdered on September 23thFabián Ramirez, Magia Radio station, murdered on November 11 thVladimir Antuna, El Tiempo de Durango, murdered on November 2 ndJosé Galindo, Radio Universidad de Guadalajara found death on December 24 thJosé Velázquez, Expresiones de Tulum. Source: Center for Journalism and Public Ethics.
  27. 27. Violations against the freedom of speech183 journalists suffered from some type of threat or extortion in Mexico.Journalists are victims of Levantones ( express kidnappings)Most of them occurred in Chihuahua, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Puebla and Mexico City Source: Center for Journalism and Public Ethics.
  28. 28. Violations against the freedom of speechIn one out of everythree attacks thepolice forces havebeen involved…the same forces thatguarantee the order intimes of organizedcrime. Proceso foto, 2009
  29. 29. Implications for journalism• Self-censorship• Journalists do not count with reliable sources• The official information is the one that flows but it is partial• The coverage limits itself to give the list of deaths or traffickers captured
  30. 30. Implications for journalism“The confusion is permanent: incessant crimes do not allow to distinguish sides or reasons, the dead bodies pile up each day in the pages and do not allow to see the forest” MARIA IDALIA GOMEZ Y DARIO FRITZ(Mexican journalists talking about covering drug trafficking)
  31. 31. Most violent citiesCiudad Juarez (Mexico)Caracas (Venezuela)New Orleans (USA)Tijuana (Mexico)Bagdad takes the 10th place Source: Citizen Council for Public Security
  32. 32. InterviewJournalist Jorge Luis AguirreFrom La Polaka websiteEl Paso, Texas
  33. 33. Ethical dilemmasHow to inform without being a speakerof the parts involved: the governmentor the crime?
  34. 34. Ethical dilemmasServando Gomez Martinez “La Tuta”(from La Familia cartel)interviewed by Milenio
  35. 35. What has Mexican media done ?Televisa andExcelsior havedecided notto record anynarcomensajeOther media-like Milenio-have eveninterviewedcriminals
  36. 36. What has Mexican media done ? Some -like Proceso- have stopped signing the news stories Others have chosen self- censorshipProtests in front of the PGR office. Proceso foto, 2009
  37. 37. What should journalists do?• Spread the news, “as an independent monitor of any type of power”.• Take care of themselves and media should provide them with training.• Journalists should be responsible in their coverage.• Take a field camp notebook, have a close relationship with their editor –to whom they must inform of all their steps.•• Also gather with sources in public places.
  38. 38. What should journalists do?A journalist is not the prosecutor, he is just a translator that explains and helps understand the complex reality of society.Reports, statistics and sources’ testimonies should be confronted. Using leaks it’s OK, but through an accurate verification.
  39. 39. What Society needs to know…• Authorities corruption• Army, policemen and politicians• Money laundry• Impunity• Conflict of interest
  40. 40. The case of ColombiaTo move journalists from zones of risk to safer ones.Provide training in the coverage of organized crime.Give life insurances and protection to family members of the journalists at risk.Lower the number of assassinations through intelligence reports. Plan Antonio Nariño
  41. 41. Thank youMaría Elena Meneses Former TV journalist Professor and researcher at Tecnológico de Monterrey twitter@marmenes My blog:ía Murillo Monroy Journalism student at Tecnológico de Monterrey Assistant producer at MVS Noticias
  42. 42. Special Thanks to:-Reuters TV Mexico bureau-Center for Journalism and Public Ethics for bringing us The Anual Report one day before it went public. The complete report 2009 : Jorge Luis Aguirre Itzel Barrón Chirino