Individualizing Instructional Materials Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Graduate Studies, Master in Education, Major in Language Teaching Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan firstname.lastname@example.org
Program-a planned learning pattern, which is presented to the students/pupils in a sequential manner.Programming-technique of planning the material for use in this type of teaching.
Programmed Instruction -a subhead under instruction and represents a more rigorous attempt to develop a mastery over specified goals to secure insured learning. -involves controlled, carefully specified and skillfully arranged learning experiences. -a technique of self-instruction and self-corrective
-lessons are given in small segments which require the learners to answer each bit in the learning module before going to the next learning task.-a method of presenting new subject matters to students/pupils in a graded sequence of controlled steps.-consists of a network of statements and tests, which direct the student/pupil to new statements depending on his depending on his pattern of errors.
Major Characteristics of Programmed Instruction• The subject matter is broken down into small steps called frames and arranged sequentially.• Frequent response is required of the student/pupil.• There is immediate confirmation of right answers or correction of wrong answers given out by the student/pupil.• The content and sequence of the frames are subjected to actual try out with students/pupils and are revised on the basis of data gathered by the programmer.• Each student/pupil progresses at his own pace without any threat of being exposed to any humiliation in a heterogeneous class.
Sample Specific Goals and Objectives for children between three-five years of age• Social-Emotional Development- To experience a sense of self-esteem- To exhibit a positive attitude toward life- To demonstrate cooperative, pro-social behavior
• Cognitive Development-To acquire learning and problem-solving skills-To expand logical thinking skills-To acquire concepts and information leading to a fuller understanding of the immediate world-To demonstrate skills in make-believe play-To expand verbal communication skills-To develop beginning reading skills-To acquire beginning writing skills
• Physical Development-To enhance gross motor skills-To enhance and refine motor skills-To use all senses in learning
Programmed Instructional Material/Devices-the end-product of the planned material or instructional devices-the end-product of the planned material or instructional devices
Basis Types of Programmed Instructional Devices• Teaching machines- a mechanical device which presents the learning material to the student/pupil, tests him on his mastery of this material, and provides for the immediate correction of his wrong responses.• Programmed Textbook- presents the programmed exercises not through a machine but not requiring the student/pupil to read a specially prepared book.
Sample work for children between three-five years of age• Socio-emotional development- A chart of the activity over a one-week period-Notes from parent conferences-Observations of the child’s interactions with other children-Observations of the child’s dramatic play
• Cognitive development-Artwork of relative sizes-Tape recordings-Samples of invented spelling-Drawing with captions-Charts the child’s progress-Teacher observations of how the child responds
• Physical development-Photographs of block structures or pattern block designs/ of a child in action/activity-A collage that involved cutting and pasting-Drawings-Notes on games the child has successfully mastered
Individualizing-means recognizing and allowing for differences in backgrounds, development, and interests when planning activities and changes to the environment in order to meet the needs and interests of each child.8.
What to understand:• Careful assessment of each child reveals that in any group of children, there are individual differences in development.• Children have unique patterns of development. They have their own interest, experiences, and learning styles.
Including Children with Disabilities in your Program-including children with disabilities in the program means helping these children live, learn , play, and make friends in the least restrictive environment.-planning for children with disabilities requires careful thought and often assistance of specialists. It is very important to know the child’s learning style, likes and dislikes, and how the specific disability may or may not affect the child’s learning and activities.-Children with behavior problems may need extra help controlling their behavior.-It is also helpful to secure assistance from appropriate outside professionals, such as speech and language pathologist, clinical psychologist, or occupational therapist.
Guidelines for Teaching Children with Disabilities• Consult with the parents• Consult with a specialist• Focus on integrating the child into daily activities• Set goals• Modify the physical environment• Break down tasks• Teach to each child’s strengths• Promote cooperative learning• Plan for transition times• Encourage independence• Allow time for practice and repetition• Involve parents
The Daily Schedule• Active and quiet times• Large group activities, small group activities, and time to play alone or with others• Indoor and outdoor play times• Time for children to select their own activities and time for teacher- directed activities6.
Daily Schedule1. Circle Time2. Transition Time3. Meal Time4. Rest Time
Interest Areas1.Block- standard equipment for early childhood classrooms-ideal for children who wish to set the stage for dramatic play-playing with blocks gives them an opportunity to recreate these pictures in concrete form.-children learn about sizes, shapes, numbers, order, area, length, and weight as they select, build, and clean up blocks.-blocks are valuable play materials for physical development, children use their large muscles to carry blocks from place to place.
2. House Corner-the area of the classroom dedicated to “play housing”. The work children do in the house corner is called dramatic play, pretend play, or make-believe; it involves taking on a role and engaging in imitative behavior.3. Table Toys-are games, manipulative, puzzles, and collectibles that children can play with at a table or on the floor.- offer many opportunities for children to experiment with construction and invention.- physical development is enhanced as children practice eye-hand coordination while competing puzzles or placing pegs in a pegboard.
4. Art- offers opportunities to experiment with color, shape, design, and texture.- children develop an awareness and appreciation of sensory experiences.- through art, children express how they feel, think, and view the world.- also offers opportunities for physical development.5. Sand and Water- by sifting sand and scoping water, children improve their physical dexterity, by joining others in blowing bubbles or making a sand castle, they develop social skills, they enhance their cognitive skills as they explore why certain objects sink in water and others float.
6. Library- a place to get away from more active interest areas, relax in a soft environment, enjoy the wonderful world of literature. When children are encouraged to look through books on their own, listen to story tapes and make up their own stories, they develop the motivation and skills to read and write.- includes a writing center and a listening center with tapes, flannel boards, and puppets.
7. Music and Movement- naturally delights and moves children.- as children grow in their appreciation of the beauty of music and dance, they acquire a gift that will bring them great pleasure.- a program that includes time for music and movement provides an outlet for children’s energy and high spirits and benefits their development in a number of ways.8. Cooking- enables children to experience the world of food firsthand. They learn not only how food is prepared but how it contributes to their health and well-being.
9. Computers- newest innovations in the classroom.- offers a different kind of learning experience for children.- provide highly effective learning opportunities for children - enables children to experience the world of food firsthand. They learn not only how food is prepared but how it contributes to their health and well-being.
10. Outdoors- fun for children and important for their growth and development.- outdoor area may be an open grassy space or a blacktop area where children can engage in games, wheeled toys or run freely or enough space for picnic.-opportunities to climb, run, jump, skip, hop, throw, catch and use their outside voices provide children with a healthy release and break from the activities of the classroom.- art, music, reading, dramatic play, constructive play, social play, caring for pets can all take place outdoors.