Maria Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D.ProfessorGraduate Studies, Master in Education,Major in English Language TeachingPanpacific University North PhilippinesUrdaneta City, Pangasinanmartzmonette@yahoo.com
A. Understanding Pronunciation ofEnglish1. Distinguish the sounds of EnglishEx. Between add and odd, lack and lock, deedand did2. Pay attention to the stressed syllables orwordsEx. Lisa gave her present to the birthdaycelebrant.Lisa presents her paper to the committee.
B. Recalling Relevant Knowledge1. Response to different question types toreproduce a great recall.Example ExerciseDirection: Listen to your teacher who reads ashort paragraph and answer the followingquestions?You may come up with the following questions:1. What does the article tell us about the family?2. What is the first information mentioned in the paragraph?3. How did you feel when you heard about this information?
The FamilyThe family is a basic unit of society. It isthe most important unit of societybecause it assures thecooperation, discipline and a core of valuesamong the children necessary for thecontinued existence of society. On theother hand, the family is also important forthe children because it ensures the propercare, love, attention and training for thechildren.
C. Making Predictions1. Anticipate what the speaker will say beforehe gives an utterance.2. Accuracy of prediction will depend on yourgrammatical knowledge.3. Identify the type of word or semantic caseframe the speaker used.Example ExerciseA. Listen to your teacher read the parts of Mrs.Santos and Reyes. Then, supply the missingdialogues.
Mrs. Santos: Have a seat, Mr. Reyes. I will tell Mr.Ramos that you’re looking for him.Reyes: _________________________________________Mrs. Santos: Mr. Ramos is still taking his breakfast.He does not usually get up from bed early.Reyes: _________________________________________Mrs. Santos: ____________________________________Reyes: Ah, so he has finished the great work. Iknow he has spent many years on it; I should saysix years.Mrs. Santos: ____________________________________Reyes: Mr. Ramos has nice words about yourservices, Mrs. Santos.
A. Voice1. Use variety of volume to sustain listener’sattention.2. Vary your pitch to ensure that your audiencewill continue listening to you.3. Express the more important idea slowly andemphatically; say the less important idea inyour natural speed.
B. Vowel and Consonant Sounds1. The way you produce vowel and consonantsounds is as important as projecting yourvoice.2. Distinguish Vowel and Consonant Sounds.3. Speaking out load each vowel and consonantsounds in a sequence will help you improvethe quality of your vowels.Ex. shook, shoot, took, too, fool, full, pool, pullheed, hid, deed, did, sleep, slip, peak, pickThe petite, pretty lady posed.He bothered to gather the bits of paper.
C. Stress1. Improper stress may result incommunication breakdown between you andyour listener.2. Identify the stress patternD. Intonation1. Use the correct intonation patterns in thelanguage, changing the pitch of your voicedepending on the purpose.Ex. Good morning, Mr. Ferrer.Please slow down.
Things to do before a delivery:1. Decide on the topic of your talk.2. Research on the subject.3. Ask how long you are going to speak.4. Use notes. Write statistics, quotations, keywords5. Decide on the visual aids to use.6. Structure your speech.◦ Open your speech with any of the following devices:1. Amusing your audience by cracking a joke orrelate anecdote.2. Ask questions and make requests.3. Make jolting statements.4. Remind your audience the purpose of the event.5. Express your appreciation for the invitation tospeak.6. Try your audience what you are going to talkabout.
◦ Develop your speech with any of the followingtechniques:1. Highlight the key points.2. Add details to subordinate ideas.3. Include illustrations or examples.4. Lighten the load of information; tellappropriate anecdotes and jokes.◦ End your speech with any of the following methods:1. Restate memorable lines/passages insummarizing the idea of the whole speech.2. Give a forecast.3. Make a suggestion.7. Try your speech on a few friends. Find out whatthey thought of your speech.
Things to remember when giving an oralpresentation:1. Wear an attire fit for the occasion and see to itthat you are well-groomed.2. Look alert and self-assured.3. Pay special attention not only to what you willsay. Give as much attention to how you will sayit.4. Keep your audience interested by making surethat you are heard clearly.5. Aim to make eye contact with your audience.6. Choose and use a few gestures to masksignificant ideas.7. Adopt a balanced posture or relaxed position.
Criteria for Evaluating an Oral Presentation:1. Voice (10 points)a. Was the speaker’s voice loud and clear?b. Did the speaker change his/her pitch?c. Did the speaker vary his/her pace?d. Was the speaker’s voice expressive of thefeeling that his/her ideas conveyed?2. Language (10 points)a. Did the speaker use language that youunderstood?b. Did the speaker use standard language?
3. Audience (15 points)a. Did the speaker keep the audience attentive orinterested?b. Did the speaker maintain eye contact withhis/her audience?4. Posture and Gesture (5 points)a. Did the speaker maintain a balanced position?b. Did he/she tailor his/her actions to his/herspeech?5. Knowledge of the subject/topic(20 points)a. Did the speaker demonstrate great knowledgeabout the subject?b. Did the speaker discuss the subject/topicclearly?
6. Opening Statements(10 points)a. Did the speaker immediately seize the attention of thelistener?b. Did the speaker immediately inform the listeners aboutthe topic of his speech and the areas he would cover ?7. Posture and Gesture (10 points)a. Did the speaker succeed in highlighting the importantideas?b. Did the speaker present the ideas coherently?8. Closing Statements(10 points)a. Did the speaker give an effective closing?b. Did the speaker give a logical conclusion to his/herpresentation?8. Visual Displays(10 points)a. Did the visual displays add to the clarity of thepresentation?b. Were the visual displays used to reinforce thepresentation?
A. Vocabulary Skills1. Using synonyms/antonyms.2. Using semantic/context clues.Ex. 1. The timorous tenants walked away whenthey saw their landlord.a. indignant b. frightened c. demanding2. The teacher received an inane answerfrom his student .a. incorrect b. sill c. sensible d. intelligent
A. Comprehension Skills1. Skimming for the topic sentence.- When you skim, you look at the title andheading, read the first sentence of the firstparagraph or the whole paragraph. You mayalso read the first sentence of each of thesucceeding paragraphs.2. Scanning for important information.- When you scan for importantinformation, direct your reading to specificparagraph where you can locate the answersto your questions or those which yourteacher asks. Read slowly.
3. Noting details.- When you note details, read the textslowly, remember items in it, relate them to thetopic sentence of each paragraph ordifferentiate them from the main idea thepassage conveys.4. Getting the main idea.- When you get the main idea of a passage, look forthe most important thing the author says or findthe central though of the passage.5. Inferring.- When you infer, read between the lines or rely forinformation on clues given by the author.
6. Understanding Cause and Effect.- When you want to see cause and effectrelationships, look for signal words, such asfor, thus, as , since, therefore, as aresult, consequently, in order that, and because.A cause indicates the reason for something; aneffect shows the result of some action or cause.7. Identifying fact and opinion .- When you want to identify fact and opinion, findout if the statement can be proved true or falseand if it expressesattitudes, evaluations, judgments.8. Predicting outcomes.- When you predict outcomes, analyze the eventsand study their relationships.
C. Study Skills1. Taking Notes- In taking notes, separate the main ideas fromthe supporting details.2. Summarizing- In summarizing , you present the substanceor general idea of the passage in a brief anddifferent form.3. Outlining- In outlining , you list down ideassystematically to show the relationship ofone idea to the other.
D. Literary Appreciation Skills- Literary appreciation means experiencingsome pleasurable aesthetic moments whilereading it.1. The Plot2. The Character3. The Setting
Preparations in WritingA. Topic1. Thinking out the topic.2. Taking a specific aspect of the topic.B. Purpose1. Purpose and Disciplined Writing.2. Purposeless Writing and Its Kinds.◦ Hodgepodge writing or failure to concentrate onone idea.
◦ Deadwood writing or failure to distinguish the relevantdetails from the irrelevant.◦ Vague Writing or failure to concretize an idea throughillustrations.C. Unity, Coherence and Emphasis1. Unity or oneness, the composition deals withonly one thing.2. Coherence requires the parts of the compositionbe related to one another.◦ Pattern of Arrangement1. chronologic 6. specific examples2. climactic 7. appropriate details3. spacial 8. comparison and contrast4. definition 9. deductive5. cause and effect 10. inductive3. Emphasis requires that the important ideasstand out and the unimportant ones sink intothe background.
Writing the CompositionA. The Introduction1. Jolting Statement2. Dramatic Scene3. Build-up Statement4. Impressionistic Description5. Stimulating Question
B. The Transitional Paragraphs1. Use of connectives2. Use of Linking Pronouns3. Use of an Echo Word4. Use of “bridge over the gap” paragraphC. The Conclusion1. Summary2. Forecast3. Question4. Suggestion5. Quotation
Giving the Title1. Must be arresting.2. Stimulate people to read further.3. Depends upon the subject of thecomposition.4. Imaginative subjects call for fancifultitles; informative subjects call fordescriptive titles.