CLASSIFICATION OF
EXCEPTIONALITIES
Seminar in Special Education
“Every Child is Special”
Panpacific University North Phili...
CLASSIFICATION OF
EXCEPTIONALITIES
LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR
TEACHERS(LET) REVIEW 2014
MARIA MARTHA MANETTE APOSTOL MADRID...
WHO NEEDS SPECIAL
EDUCATION?
Exceptional
People
Refer to individuals who differ
from:
Societal, and
Community standards...
Gifted and/or Talented
Learning Disabilities
Communication
Disorders
Attention Deficient
Disorder (ADD) /Attention
Deficie...
GIFTED AND TALENTED
intellectual,
creative,
artistic, or
leadership
capacity,
or in specific
academic fields
The term “gif...
GIFTED AND TALENTED
Children and
students who:
perform or show
potential for
performing at
remarkably high
levels of
accom...
Identifying Gifted Children
Intelligence Tests
Creativity Measures
Achievement Measures
Teacher Nomination
Gardner’s T...
Learning/Behavioral Characteristics:
Reasons well (good
thinker)
Learns rapidly
Has an excellent
memory
Is a keen observer...
Learning/Behavioral Characteristics:
Has facility with
numbers
Good at jigsaw
puzzles
Has extensive
vocabulary
Early or av...
Emotional & Social Characteristics:
Prefers older
companions or adults
Has a great sense of
humor
Concerned with
justice, ...
GAGNE’S MODEL OF
GIFTEDNESS & TALENT
STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS
Talks too much, talks
above the heads of his or
her age peers
Verbal skills
Long attention
span...
STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS
Escape into fantasy,
rejection of norms, may
be seen as disruptive
Creativity,
inventiveness
In...
STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS
Resistance to simple
solutions; constructs
complicated rules, bossy
Preference
for Complexity
V...
Factors that contribute to
Giftedness and Talent
 Heredity
 Statistical Probability: When parents have higher
than avera...
TREATMENT AND EDUCATION:
Educational Programs
Administration of Special
Education
Differentiated Curriculum
•Develop productive,
complex, abstract and/or
higher level of thinking
skills.
•Develop independ...
LEARNING DISABILITIES
These disorders
are intrinsic to
the individual
and presumed
to be due to
central nervous
system
dys...
Classification
COMMUNICATION DISORDER
Speech Disorder
Fluency disorder
Articulation disorder
Expressive language
receptive language
Langu...
Speech Disorder: Characteristics
Difficulties producing speech sound or
problem with voice quality
Interruption in the f...
Speech Disorders:
Categories
Apraxia
Dysarthria
Stuttering
Voice
Orofacial Myofunctional
Disorder
Speech Sound Disorder
Children with CAS have
problems saying
sounds, syllables, and
words. This is not
because of muscle
weakness or paralysis.
...
A motor speech
disorder. The muscles
of the mouth, face, and
respiratory system may
become weak, move
slowly, or not move ...
With OMD, the tongue moves forward
in an exaggerated way during speech
and/or swallowing. The tongue
may lie too far forwa...
Articulation Disorder
Making a “w” sound for
an “r” sound
e.g., “wabbit” for
“rabbit”
Leaving sound out of
words
e.g., “...
A motor speech
disorder. The muscles
of the mouth, face, and
respiratory system may
become weak, move
slowly, or not move ...
Language Disorder: Characteristics
Improper use of words and their meanings
Inability to express ideas
Inappropriate gr...
Language Disorders:
Categories
Aphasia
Language Based
Learning Disabilities
Preschool Language
Disorder
A disorder that results
from damage to the
parts of the brain that
contain language.
Aphasia causes
problems with any or
a...
Language-based
learning disabilities
are problems with
age-appropriate
reading, spelling,
and/or writing.
Language Based
L...
Pre-school
Language Disorders
 Preschool children (3 to 5 years old) with
language disorders may have trouble;
understand...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD)/
You may know it by
the name attention
deficit disorder, or
ADD.
ADD/ADHD ...
The Three Primary Characteristics
of ADD / ADHD
 The three primary
characteristics of ADD/ADHD
are inattention, hyperacti...
Inattentive signs and symptoms of
ADD/ADHD
 It isn’t that children with
ADD/ADHD can’t pay attention:
when they’re doing ...
Symptoms of inattention in children:
Doesn’t pay attention to details
Makes careless mistakes
Has trouble staying focused;...
 Has trouble staying organized,
planning ahead, and finishing
projects
 Gets bored with a task before
it’s completed
 F...
Hyperactive signs and symptoms of
ADD/ADHD
 The most obvious sign of ADD/ADHD is
hyperactivity. While many children are
n...
Symptoms of hyperactivity in children
 Constantly fidgets and squirms
 Often leaves his or her seat in situations
where ...
Impulsive signs and symptoms of
ADD/ADHD
 The impulsivity of children with ADD/ADHD can
cause problems with self-control....
Symptoms of impulsivity in children:
 Acts without thinking
 Blurts out answers in class without waiting
to be called on...
EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR DISORDER (EBD)
(A). An inability to learn
which cannot be
explained by
intellectual, sensory, or
health...
CLASSIFICATION OF EBD
 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders IV- (DSM IV)
 Quay’s Statistical Classifica...
1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders IV- (DSM IV)
- an elaborate clinical
classification system consis...
Three Criteria in Determining
the Presence of EBD(APA)
 The person experiences significant pain
or distress, an inability...
2. Quay’s Statistical
Classification
Four Cluster of Traits and Behaviors
a. Conduct disorder- is characterized by
disobed...
c. Immaturity- shows in short attention
span, extreme passivity, daydreaming,
presence of younger playmates and
clumsiness...
3. Direct Observation and
Measurement
a. Frequency- indicates the rate at
which the behaviors occur and how
often a partic...
d. Magnitude- refers to the intensity of
the displayed behavior.
e. Stimulus control- refers to the
inability to select an...
4. Degree of Severity
Studies conducted by Olson,
Algozzine and Schmid (1980, cited in
Heward, 2003) indicate that emotion...
What are Possible Characteristics of
Persons with EBD?
 They vary
 Aggressive and
Violent Behavior
 Differ in males and...
Schizophrenia
What is Schizophrenia?
A brain disorder that affects the way a person
acts, thinks, and sees the world.
 Pe...
 Social withdrawal
 Hostility or suspiciousness
 Deterioration of personal hygiene
 Inability to cry or express joy
 ...
Types of Schizophrenia
 There are three major subtypes
of schizophrenia, each classified
by their most prominent
symptom:...
HEARING IMPAIRMENT
A generic term including both deaf
and hard of hearing which refers to
persons with any type or degree ...
DEAF
The term deaf is
used to describe
people with
profound hearing
loss such that they
cannot benefit
from amplification....
Types of Hearing
Impairment
Conductive hearing
loss
Sensorineural hearing
loss
A mixed hearing loss
A central hearing loss
Conductive
Hearing Loss
affecting the
conduction
pathways for
sound to reach the
inner ear
Sensorineural
Hearing loss
from...
Mixed Hearing
Loss
refers to a
combination of
conductive and
sensorineural loss
Central Hearing
Loss
results from
damage o...
Degree of Hearing Loss
Normal
Mild Loss
Moderate Loss
Moderately Severe
Severe Loss
Profound Loss
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
is vision loss (of a person) to such a
degree as to qualify as an additional
support need through a sign...
CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED
•They use a combination of vision and other senses to
learn, although they may require a...
CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED
•Totally blind students learn via Braille or
other non-visual media.
•Legally blind indi...
Indicators of Visual Impaired
Physical Appearance
• Obvious abnormalities in the shape or
structure of the eye
• Drooping ...
• Holds items close to eyes
• Inattentive, loses interest and
has low frustration level
• Depth perception issues
(may inc...
• Skews face while reading
• Skipping and/or missing punctuation marks
• Holds book close to eyes
• Has problems with prin...
AUTISM
A lifelong disorder of neural
development characterized by
impaired social interaction and
communication by restric...
INDICATORS OF AUTISM
Physical Health
Is generally
healthy
Is generally
good-looking
Is a picky-
eater, tends to
smell
food...
INDICATORS OF AUTISM
Gross Motor
Walks on tiptoe
especially during
early years
Is hyperactive,
disinhibited
Is fats and st...
INDICATORS OF AUTISM
Psychosocial
Exhibits
limited/fleeting
eye contact
Is aloof,
passive, prefers
solitary
activities to
...
INDICATORS OF AUTISM
Self-Help
Is delayed in
performing
eating, dressing
and grooming
tasks
Is unable to
assume age-
appro...
INDICATORS OF AUTISM
Language
Exhibits
pronouns
reversals
Is echolalic
Exhibits
inappropriate
recall of
experiences
Is del...
Is there a cure for autism?
There is no definite cure, but behavior
can be managed through:
Non-standard
Learning
Pharmaco...
MENTAL RETARDATION(MR)
Significantly subaverage general
intellectual functioning resulting in
or associated with concurren...
Is defined as an IQ of 70 or
below but permits clinical
judgment to extend this as far
as 75
Significantly
subaverage
Gene...
Educational and
Classification
Educable
mentally
retarded
(EMR)
IQ range usually from 50 to 70-
75
With appropriate educ...
Educational and
Classification
Trainable
mentally
retarded
(TMR)
IQ range usually from 35-40 to
50-55
Will be limited in...
Educational and
Classification
Severe to
Profound
Severe: IQ range fro 20-25 to
35-40
Profound: IQ below 20-25
Will req...
Educational Considerations
Mild MR
Inclusion program
Functional academics
Community based instruction,
Functional activiti...
Inclusion
an approach to educating
students with special
educational needs.
Under the inclusion model,
students with speci...
Mainstreaming
student attends some general
education classes, typically
for less than half the day, and
often for less aca...
Physical
Disabilities
and Health
Impairments
Physical Disability – a condition
that interferes with the child’s
ability t...
Reference/s
Cook, Ruth, Annette Tessier, and Virginia
Armruster. Adapting Early Childhood
Curricula for Children with Spec...
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)
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Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)

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Classification of Exceptionalities(Children with Special Needs)

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEPTIONALITIES Seminar in Special Education “Every Child is Special” Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines HRM Function Hall August 18, 2012 MARIA MARTHA MANETTE APOSTOL MADRID, Ed.D. Lecturer
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF EXCEPTIONALITIES LICENSURE EXAMINATION FOR TEACHERS(LET) REVIEW 2014 MARIA MARTHA MANETTE APOSTOL MADRID, Ed.D. Lecturer
  3. 3. WHO NEEDS SPECIAL EDUCATION? Exceptional People Refer to individuals who differ from: Societal, and Community standards of normalcy. Inclusive term that refers to individuals with learning or behavior problems, individuals with physical and sensory disabilities and those who are intellectually gifted. Differ from the norm either below or above to such extent that an individualized program of special education is required to meet their needs.
  4. 4. Gifted and/or Talented Learning Disabilities Communication Disorders Attention Deficient Disorder (ADD) /Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD) Emotional Behavior Disorder (EBD) Schizophrenia Hearing Impairment Visual Impairment , Autism Mental Retardation Physical Disabilities Health Impairments Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI) Multiple Disabilities/ Severe
  5. 5. GIFTED AND TALENTED intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields The term “gifted and talented”, means students, children, or youth who: give evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as:
  6. 6. GIFTED AND TALENTED Children and students who: perform or show potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared to others of their age, experience, or environment. and who need services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabilities.
  7. 7. Identifying Gifted Children Intelligence Tests Creativity Measures Achievement Measures Teacher Nomination Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences and Renzulli’s Three-Ring Concept of Giftedness are used regularly to help classify students as gifted
  8. 8. Learning/Behavioral Characteristics: Reasons well (good thinker) Learns rapidly Has an excellent memory Is a keen observer Has a long attention span (if interested) Perseverant in their interests Has a wide range of interests Has facility with numbers
  9. 9. Learning/Behavioral Characteristics: Has facility with numbers Good at jigsaw puzzles Has extensive vocabulary Early or avid reader (if too young to read, loves being read to) Has a vivid imagination Is highly creative Tends to question authority Has high degree of energy
  10. 10. Emotional & Social Characteristics: Prefers older companions or adults Has a great sense of humor Concerned with justice, fairness Judgment mature for age at times Morally sensitive Sensitive (feelings hurt easily) Has strong curiosity Intense Perfectionistic
  11. 11. GAGNE’S MODEL OF GIFTEDNESS & TALENT
  12. 12. STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS Talks too much, talks above the heads of his or her age peers Verbal skills Long attention span Tunnel Vision; resists interruption, stubbornness, resists duties Acquires/retains information easily Inaccuracy, sloppiness, impatient with others, dislikes basic routine
  13. 13. STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS Escape into fantasy, rejection of norms, may be seen as disruptive Creativity, inventiveness Independent, prefers individualized work Inability to accept help from peers, nonconformity, reliant on self Critical thinking Critical of others, perfectionism, unreasonable standards for self
  14. 14. STRENGTH POSSIBLE PROBLEMS Resistance to simple solutions; constructs complicated rules, bossy Preference for Complexity Versatility Appears disorganized, scattered, frustrated over lack of time Sensitive Extreme sensitivity to criticism or peer rejection
  15. 15. Factors that contribute to Giftedness and Talent  Heredity  Statistical Probability: When parents have higher than average intelligence.  Behavioral development is affected significantly by genes. Environment – parents, families or peer group, schools and communities influence the development of giftedness. Stimulation, opportunities, expectations, demands and rewards for performance affect children’s learning.
  16. 16. TREATMENT AND EDUCATION: Educational Programs
  17. 17. Administration of Special Education
  18. 18. Differentiated Curriculum •Develop productive, complex, abstract and/or higher level of thinking skills. •Develop independent of self-directed study skills •Develop research skills and methods. •Encourage the development of products that challenge existing ideals and produce “new” ideas. •Evaluate students outcomes by suing appropriate and specific criteria through self- appraisal, criterion references and/or standardized instruments.
  19. 19. LEARNING DISABILITIES These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction. A generic term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities.
  20. 20. Classification
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION DISORDER Speech Disorder Fluency disorder Articulation disorder Expressive language receptive language Language Disorder Voice disorder
  22. 22. Speech Disorder: Characteristics Difficulties producing speech sound or problem with voice quality Interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech such as stuttering Problems with the way sound are formed called articulation and phonology Have trouble using some speech sounds, like “l” or “r”
  23. 23. Speech Disorders: Categories Apraxia Dysarthria Stuttering Voice Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder Speech Sound Disorder
  24. 24. Children with CAS have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words. This is not because of muscle weakness or paralysis. The brain has problems planning to move the body parts such as lip, jaw and tongue Aphraxia People with apraxia of speech have trouble sequencing the sounds in syllables and words. The severity depends on the nature of the brain damage.
  25. 25. A motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected. Dysarthria Some causes of dysarthria include stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy. Both children and adults can have dysarthria.
  26. 26. With OMD, the tongue moves forward in an exaggerated way during speech and/or swallowing. The tongue may lie too far forward during rest or may protrude between the upper and lower teeth during speech and swallowing, and at rest. Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder
  27. 27. Articulation Disorder Making a “w” sound for an “r” sound e.g., “wabbit” for “rabbit” Leaving sound out of words e.g., “nana” for “banana” Speech Voice Disorder Phonology Process Approach Substituting all sound made in the back of the mouth like “k” and “g” Substituting all sound made in the front of the mouth like “t” and “d” e.g., “tup” for “cup” “das” for “gas”
  28. 28. A motor speech disorder. The muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all after a stroke or other brain injury. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected. Stuttering Some causes of dysarthria include stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy, and muscular dystrophy. Both children and adults can have dysarthria.
  29. 29. Language Disorder: Characteristics Improper use of words and their meanings Inability to express ideas Inappropriate grammatical pattern Reduced vocabulary and inability to follow direction Can hear or see a word but not be able to understand its meaning
  30. 30. Language Disorders: Categories Aphasia Language Based Learning Disabilities Preschool Language Disorder
  31. 31. A disorder that results from damage to the parts of the brain that contain language. Aphasia causes problems with any or all of the following: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia Damage to the left side of the brain causes aphasia. Individuals who experience damage to the right side of the brain may have additional difficulties beyond speech and language. Individuals with aphasia may also have other problems, such as dysarthria, apraxia, or swallowing problems
  32. 32. Language-based learning disabilities are problems with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. Language Based Learning Difficulties This disorder is not about how smart a person is. Most people diagnosed with learning disabilities have average to superior intelligence.
  33. 33. Pre-school Language Disorders  Preschool children (3 to 5 years old) with language disorders may have trouble; understanding and talking. receptive language expressive language
  34. 34. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/ You may know it by the name attention deficit disorder, or ADD. ADD/ADHD makes it difficult for people to inhibit their spontaneous responses—responses that can involve everything from movement to speech to attentiveness. A developmental disorder. It is characterized primarily by "the co- existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age
  35. 35. The Three Primary Characteristics of ADD / ADHD  The three primary characteristics of ADD/ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The signs and symptoms a child with attention deficit disorder has depends on which characteristics predominate.
  36. 36. Inattentive signs and symptoms of ADD/ADHD  It isn’t that children with ADD/ADHD can’t pay attention: when they’re doing things they enjoy or hearing about topics in which they’re interested, they have no trouble focusing and staying on task. But when the task is repetitive or boring, they quickly tune out.
  37. 37. Symptoms of inattention in children: Doesn’t pay attention to details Makes careless mistakes Has trouble staying focused; is easily distracted Appears not to listen when spoken to Has difficulty remembering things and following instructions
  38. 38.  Has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects  Gets bored with a task before it’s completed  Frequently loses or misplaces homework, books, toys, or other items
  39. 39. Hyperactive signs and symptoms of ADD/ADHD  The most obvious sign of ADD/ADHD is hyperactivity. While many children are naturally quite active, kids with hyperactive symptoms of attention deficit disorder are always moving.  They may try to do several things at once, bouncing around from one activity to the next. Even when forced to sit still which can be very difficult for them their foot is tapping, their leg is shaking, or their fingers are drumming.
  40. 40. Symptoms of hyperactivity in children  Constantly fidgets and squirms  Often leaves his or her seat in situations where sitting quietly is expected  Moves around constantly, often runs or climbs inappropriately  Talks excessively  Has difficulty playing quietly or relaxing  Is always “on the go,” as if driven by a motor  May have a quick temper or a “short fuse”
  41. 41. Impulsive signs and symptoms of ADD/ADHD  The impulsivity of children with ADD/ADHD can cause problems with self-control. Because they censor themselves less than other kids do, they’ll interrupt conversations, invade other people’s space, ask irrelevant questions in class, make tactless observations, and ask overly personal questions.  Instructions like “Be patient” and “Just wait a little while” are twice as hard for children with ADD/ADHD to follow as they are for other youngsters.  Children with impulsive signs and symptoms of ADD/ADHD also tend to be moody and to overreact emotionally. As a result, others may start to view the child as disrespectful, weird, or needy.
  42. 42. Symptoms of impulsivity in children:  Acts without thinking  Blurts out answers in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question  Can’t wait for his or her turn in line or in games  Says the wrong thing at the wrong time  Often interrupts others  Intrudes on other people’s conversations or games  Guesses, rather than taking time to solve a problem
  43. 43. EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR DISORDER (EBD) (A). An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors (B). An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers (C). Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances A TERM ASSOCIATED TO EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE (D). A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression (E). A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems Note: Emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia.
  44. 44. CLASSIFICATION OF EBD  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV- (DSM IV)  Quay’s Statistical Classification  Direct Observation and Measurement  Degree of Severity Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
  45. 45. 1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV- (DSM IV) - an elaborate clinical classification system consisting of 230 separate diagnostic categories or labels to identify the various types of disordered behavior as observed by psychiatrists, psychologists, mental health personnel and other clinicians. Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
  46. 46. Three Criteria in Determining the Presence of EBD(APA)  The person experiences significant pain or distress, an inability to work or play, an increase risk of death or loss of freedom in important areas of life.  The source of the problem lies within the person.  The problem is not a deliberately reaction to conditions such a poverty, prejudice, government policy or other conflicts with society.
  47. 47. 2. Quay’s Statistical Classification Four Cluster of Traits and Behaviors a. Conduct disorder- is characterized by disobedience, being disruptive, getting into fights, being bossy and temper tantrums. b. Anxiety withdrawal- (anxiety disorder) is manifested by social withdrawal, anxiety, depression, feelings of inferiority, guilt, shyness and unhappiness.
  48. 48. c. Immaturity- shows in short attention span, extreme passivity, daydreaming, presence of younger playmates and clumsiness. d. Socialized aggression- is marked by truancy, gang membership, theft, and a feeling of pride and belonging to a delinquent subculture.
  49. 49. 3. Direct Observation and Measurement a. Frequency- indicates the rate at which the behaviors occur and how often a particular behavior is performed. b. Duration- is a measure of the length and amount of time a child exhibits the disordered behaviors c. Topography- refers to the physical shape or form of behavior.
  50. 50. d. Magnitude- refers to the intensity of the displayed behavior. e. Stimulus control- refers to the inability to select an appropriate response to stimulus.
  51. 51. 4. Degree of Severity Studies conducted by Olson, Algozzine and Schmid (1980, cited in Heward, 2003) indicate that emotional and behavioral disorders can be classified as mild and severe.
  52. 52. What are Possible Characteristics of Persons with EBD?  They vary  Aggressive and Violent Behavior  Differ in males and females  Differ across age  Related to ethnicity  Externalizing behaviors  Hitting, fighting  Internalizing behaviors  Anxiety, withdrawal  Schizophrenia  Typically score in the low average range of intelligence  Language deficits  ODD  Delinquency Taylor/Smiley/Richards, Exceptional Students
  53. 53. Schizophrenia What is Schizophrenia? A brain disorder that affects the way a person acts, thinks, and sees the world.  People with schizophrenia have an altered perception of reality, often a significant loss of contact with reality.  They may see or hear things that don’t exist, speak in strange or confusing ways, believe that others are trying to harm them, or feel like they’re being constantly watched.  With such a blurred line between the real and the imaginary, schizophrenia makes it difficult—even frightening—to negotiate the activities of daily life.  In response, people with schizophrenia may withdraw from the outside world or act out in confusion and fear.
  54. 54.  Social withdrawal  Hostility or suspiciousness  Deterioration of personal hygiene  Inability to cry or express joy  Inappropriate laughter or crying  Depression  Oversleeping or insomnia  Forgetful; unable to concentrate  Strange use of words or way of speaking Signs and symptoms of Schizophrenia
  55. 55. Types of Schizophrenia  There are three major subtypes of schizophrenia, each classified by their most prominent symptom: 1. paranoid schizophrenia 2. disorganized schizophrenia 3. catatonic schizophrenia
  56. 56. HEARING IMPAIRMENT A generic term including both deaf and hard of hearing which refers to persons with any type or degree of hearing loss that causes difficulty working in a traditional way.
  57. 57. DEAF The term deaf is used to describe people with profound hearing loss such that they cannot benefit from amplification. HARD OF HEARING Is used for those with mild to severe hearing loss but who can benefit from amplification.
  58. 58. Types of Hearing Impairment Conductive hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss A mixed hearing loss A central hearing loss
  59. 59. Conductive Hearing Loss affecting the conduction pathways for sound to reach the inner ear Sensorineural Hearing loss from damage to the delicate sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the nerves which supply it.
  60. 60. Mixed Hearing Loss refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural loss Central Hearing Loss results from damage or impairment to the nerves or nuclei of the central nervous system, either in the pathways to the brain or in the brain itself.
  61. 61. Degree of Hearing Loss Normal Mild Loss Moderate Loss Moderately Severe Severe Loss Profound Loss
  62. 62. VISUAL IMPAIRMENT is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery.
  63. 63. CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED •They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of print, and, sometimes, Braille. •Low vision generally refers to a severe visual impairment, not necessarily limited to distance vision. Low vision applies to all individuals with sight who are unable to read the newspaper at a normal viewing distance, even with the aid of eyeglasses or contact lenses.
  64. 64. CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED •Totally blind students learn via Braille or other non-visual media. •Legally blind indicates that a person has less than 20/200 vision in the better eye after best correction (contact lenses or glasses), or a field of vision of less than 20 degrees in the better eye; and
  65. 65. Indicators of Visual Impaired Physical Appearance • Obvious abnormalities in the shape or structure of the eye • Drooping eyelids • Red eyes or eyelids • Persistent tearing • Unusual eye movements (jerky eye movements, eye turn, crossed eyes, eyes not working together, etc.)
  66. 66. • Holds items close to eyes • Inattentive, loses interest and has low frustration level • Depth perception issues (may include difficulty with stairs, curbs, etc.) • Difficulty Reading • Loses place, skips words, letters or lines • Uses finger to keep place in text • Covers one eye while reading • Often guesses words
  67. 67. • Skews face while reading • Skipping and/or missing punctuation marks • Holds book close to eyes • Has problems with print size and/or complexity of the page • Has difficulty learning colors • Has difficulty seeing at night • Has difficulty seeing the blackboard, movies or television
  68. 68. AUTISM A lifelong disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication by restricted and repetitive behavior. (TRIAD OF AUTISM)
  69. 69. INDICATORS OF AUTISM Physical Health Is generally healthy Is generally good-looking Is a picky- eater, tends to smell food/object and put things in the mouth Exhibits disturbed sleeping patterns Does not seek attention when hurt; has high pain threshold; unable to localize pain
  70. 70. INDICATORS OF AUTISM Gross Motor Walks on tiptoe especially during early years Is hyperactive, disinhibited Is fats and string and does not tire easily Is well-balanced, generally coordinated but lacks impulse control Body rocking, hand wiggling, whirling, ritual of walking to and fro Tendency to get attracted to spin round/whirling objects, touching surfaces/edges, arranging/ aligning objects precisely/ repetitively
  71. 71. INDICATORS OF AUTISM Psychosocial Exhibits limited/fleeting eye contact Is aloof, passive, prefers solitary activities to group activities Manifests inappropriate emotional responses Demonstrates unusual fears Is socially immature and handicapped Is maladaptive to changes in food, clothes, routine, routes or arrangements of things Tends to be self-injurious
  72. 72. INDICATORS OF AUTISM Self-Help Is delayed in performing eating, dressing and grooming tasks Is unable to assume age- appropriate responsibilities Language Shows deficit in the use of language Under-reacts to language and visuals Under-reacts or overreacts to sounds Demonstrates rote learning
  73. 73. INDICATORS OF AUTISM Language Exhibits pronouns reversals Is echolalic Exhibits inappropriate recall of experiences Is delayed in overall intellectual responses’ Is delayed in language- conceptual abilities- reasoning, inferential thinking, problem-solving, deductive and inductive thinking, etc.
  74. 74. Is there a cure for autism? There is no definite cure, but behavior can be managed through: Non-standard Learning Pharmacology Community Programs Behavior Modification Special education Government awareness program
  75. 75. MENTAL RETARDATION(MR) Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period
  76. 76. Is defined as an IQ of 70 or below but permits clinical judgment to extend this as far as 75 Significantly subaverage General intellectual functioning Means one’s ability to reason, to understand the consequence of ones actions, to make generalizations, to deal with abstractions, and other related abilities thought to reflect “intelligence” I Impairments in adaptive behavior Means the degree to which an individual meets “the standards of maturation, learning, personal independence and/or social responsibility expected for his or her age level and cultural group. Development period Means the time between conception and 18th birthday
  77. 77. Educational and Classification Educable mentally retarded (EMR) IQ range usually from 50 to 70- 75 With appropriate educational opportunities, a child can learn academic skills, can maintain themselves independently in the community; however may require minimal assistance Mild mentally retarded
  78. 78. Educational and Classification Trainable mentally retarded (TMR) IQ range usually from 35-40 to 50-55 Will be limited in achievement of academic skills Can earn to function successfully in some work settings with supervision May require continued assistance and supervision throughout life Moderate level of mental retardation
  79. 79. Educational and Classification Severe to Profound Severe: IQ range fro 20-25 to 35-40 Profound: IQ below 20-25 Will require supervision and assistance in almost all aspects of daily living Dependent status
  80. 80. Educational Considerations Mild MR Inclusion program Functional academics Community based instruction, Functional activities Age appropriate curriculum and materials, IEP, Behavioral therapy Moderate to Severe Reading readiness Integrated therapy, Interaction with non-disabled students Family involvement, Task analysis, Alternative program
  81. 81. Inclusion an approach to educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with non-disabled students.
  82. 82. Mainstreaming student attends some general education classes, typically for less than half the day, and often for less academically rigorous classes. For example, a young student with significant intellectual disabilities might be mainstreamed for physical education classes, art classes and storybook time, but spend reading and mathematics classes with other students that have similar disabilities. They may have access to a resource room for remediation of course content.
  83. 83. Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments Physical Disability – a condition that interferes with the child’s ability to use his/her body Health Impairment -condition that requires ongoing medical attention Orthopedic Impairment- conditions of the muscular or skeletal system and sometimes to physically disabling conditions of the nervous system
  84. 84. Reference/s Cook, Ruth, Annette Tessier, and Virginia Armruster. Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1987. Driscoll, Amy and Nagel Nancy G. Early Childhood Education. USA: Pearson, 2005. Inciong, Teresita G., Quijano, Yolanda S. and Capulong, Yolanda T. Introduction to Special Education. Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, 2007. Shea, Thomas A. and Bauer, Anne Marie. Special Education. A Social Systems Perspective. USA: Brown and Benchmark Publishers, 1997. Introduction to Special Education. Lecture Compilation of Prof. Maria Salus A. Mercado(T.Ricci). University of the Philippines, College of Education (Special Education Area).

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